1. List various components required for assembling a Desktop PC The first step to building a computer is acquiring the parts. This guide will start with a explanation of essential components and elaborate on them further on. A computer is made up of a case which houses several important internal components, and provides places to connect the external components, including non- peripherals. Inside the case go the following internal parts: Power Supply/PSU – power supply unit, converts outlet power, which is alternating current (AC), to direct current (DC) which is required by internal components, as well as providing appropriate voltages and currents for these internal components. Motherboard– As the name indicates this is the electronic centerpiece of the computer: everything else connects to the motherboard. Processor – central processing unit, the "brain" of the computer, most actual computation takes place here. RAM – random access memory, the "short-term memory" of a computer, used by the CPU to store program instructions and data upon which it is currently operating. Data in RAM is lost when the computer is powered off, thus necessitating a hard drive. Optional components follow: (Components that depend on the function that will be given to the machine) Hard Drive/Hard Disk – the "long-term memory" of the computer, used for persistent storage – i.e. the things stored on it remain even when the computer is powered down. The operating system, and all your programs and data are stored here.
Video Card/Graphics Card– does processing relating to video output. Some motherboards have an "onboard" GPU built in so you don’t need (but may add) a separate video card. Otherwise, you will need a video card. These plug into a slot on the motherboard and provide a place to connect a monitor to your computer.You will also need these external components: Keyboard – for typing on. Many motherboards wont even boot without a keyboard attached. Mouse – for pointing and clicking. Unless you chose a text-based operating system, you will likely want one of these. Monitor – This is where the pretty pictures go. They come in many forms, the most common being CRT, LCD and LED. Cabinet- the main components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, disk drives, and expansion slots. UPS- An uninterrupted power supply (UPS), also known as a battery back-up provides emergency power to computer for securing important data.These are the parts that will use for making a standard PC.
2. Assemble a desktop PC with above componentsComputer can be assembled steps by steps:Step 1: Procuring PartsFirst you will need to buy the parts necessary to build the computer. The parts we will bementioned in before page:1. Power Supply/PSU2. Motherboard3. Processor4. RAM5. Hard Drive/Hard Disk6. Keyboard7. Mouse8. Monitor9. Cabinet10. UPSStep 2: Gather Tools and SuppliesGather the tools you will need for the project:1. Screwdriver (for slotted and Phillips head screws)2. Wire cutters and strippers3. Needle-nosed pliers4. Utility knife5. Small flashlight6. Adjustable wrench7. Small container to hold screws8. Heat sink compound9. Grounding Strap
Warning: Using incorrect tools for a task (such as turning a screw with a knife blade) can causeequipment damage and bodily injury.Step 3: Open the CaseOpen the computer case by removing the side panels. Find the screws that hold the side panels inplace and remove them (shown in figure 3 circled in red). The panel is removed by first sliding itback (figure 4) then lifting it away from the case (figure 5).Warning: Case may have sharp edges. Handle with care to avoid injury.Step 4: Prepare the Case for AssemblyThree things need to be done before assembly begins:1. Remove any parts or packaging materials that may have been shipped inside the case.2. Remove the cover for the optical drive. On our case, we will be removing the cover on the highest drive bay to mount our DVD drive as shown in. Do this by pressing in the retaining tabs shown in.3. Make note of the cables pre-installed in the case. These should be front panel connections for features such as the power switch, audio jacks and usb ports. If they are not labeled, consult the manufacturer’s documentation and label them yourself now before other parts are installed in the case.Step 5: Install MotherboardTo install the motherboard we need parts that should have been included with your purchasedcomponents:1. I/O Bezel is a trim panel installed in the back of the case that surrounds the interface ports on the motherboard. It should be included with the motherboard.2. Standoffs are installed in the case screw holes to create a riser that separates the case and motherboard. The screws install into the standoffs. Screws and standoffs should be included with the case, but it is a good idea to order these items just in case they arent included.Follow these steps to install the motherboard in the case:1. Install the I/O bezel plate into the opening in the back of the case. It pushes in from the inside.2. Install standoffs in the case. The standoffs screw into the motherboard mounting. Check the screw hole locations on the motherboard for exact placement.3. Lower the motherboard into the case and align with the I/O bezel.4. Install the screws.
Step 6: Install Hard Drive The hard drive is the device that stores all of your data. It is 3.5" wide and needs to be mounted sothat you can gain access to the cable connections on the back (figure 16). If that is not possible youmay need to connect cables before you install the drive. To mount the drive: Find a 3.5" drive bay to install the drive in. If you have trouble finding a place to mount the drive consult your case documentation for suggestions. Slide the drive into place until the screw holes on the sides are lined up with the holes in the case. Install the screws.Step 7: Install Optical Drive The optical drive is 5.25" wide and is installed in the drive bay that we removed the cover from ina previous step. Cable access considerations apply to this drive also. To install the drive:1. Slide the drive into the drive bay until the screw holes are lined up and the front of the drive is flush with the front of the case (figure 18). Make sure that it is orientated correctly.2. Install the screws.Step 8: Install the CPUThe CPU is the brain of the computer. It is installed on the motherboard in the socket shown infigure 20.To install the CPU: Find the corner marking that designates pin 1 of the CPU as shown in figure 19. On this AMD brand processor, the corner is marked with an arrow. Consult the manufacturers documentation for specific information about your processor. Lift the small metal rod next to the socket as shown in figure 20. Find the corresponding marking on the CPU socket and insert the CPU so that the markings are lined up. Push the rod down to lock the processor in place (figure 21).
Step 9: Install RAM The RAM is the temporary memory location that the processor works from. Permanently stored datais pulled from disks and stored in RAM while the processor works with it. The memory is easy toinstall: Set the RAM board in the socket as shown in figure 22. Check to see that the notch in the board is in the correct location. If it is not, turn it around 180º. Press firmly on both ends of the board to set it into the socket. Make sure the tabs lock into place as shown in figure 23.Caution: Pressing the boards in when the tab is not aligned could cause damage to the RAM boardsas well as the motherboard.Step 10: Install Power SupplyFollow these directions to install the power supply: Align the mounting holes in the case and power supply as shown in figure 26. Insert screws and tighten.Step 11: Connect CablesWith all of the components installed in the case, the jungle of wires can be daunting. It is importantto consult the motherboard manual in order to make sure proper connections are made. There aretwo kinds of connections, power and data. Every device that has been installed needs power. In figure 27, the power supply connectors are shown. The motherboard has two power connections, and there are two connectors specifically for SATA devices (drives). The other connectors will run fans and other non- SATA devices. Data cables connect drives and front panel devices to the motherboard. Please consult the motherboard documentation for the exact placement of connectors.Warning: Incorrect connections can damage components and cause bodily injury.Step 12: Connect the keyboard, Mouse and Monitor Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor, and power cable to your computer and turn it on.
If the internal fans begin to whir, the system beeps, and you see the machine starting to boot, power down by holding the power button for 5 seconds and continue building. If nothing happens, back up a step and recheck all of your connections. Make sure that both the processor and the memory are properly seated, and recheck those minuscule leads connecting the motherboard to the power and reset switches. If it performs as expected, shut down your PC, unplug it, and open the case.Switch it ON and explain its booting sequenceCheck your PC Set Up:It is time to turn on your system and check your PC set up! Make sure the keyboard, mouse, and monitor are all plugged into the appropriate ports on the back of the PC. Plug the power cord back in, and turn the machine on. When prompted, enter your PCs BIOS setup screen by pressing the indicated key (often Delete) as the machine boots. Menu options (Figure 23) will vary from motherboard to motherboard, but they share the same general categories. Set the date and time. Look for a setting that deals with PC health status and monitoring (Figure 24). That choice should bring up a screen showing processor and case temperature. Watch the processor temperature for a few minutes. It should stabilize at a level between 30°C and 50°C. If it keeps increasing, your heat sink probably is not installed properly. Power down and check to see whether the heat sink is securely attached and making good contact with the processor. Next, find the section of the BIOS setup that determines the order in which your machine checks drives and devices for one it can boot from (Figure 25). Set CD-ROM to the highest priority so that your machine will boot from the Windows installation CD.
Explain the role of BIOS. BIOSBIOS (basic input output system) are the program a personal computers microprocessor usesto get the computer system started after you turn it on. It also manages data flow between thecomputers operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk , video adapter ,keyboard , mouse , and printer .Role of BIOS: configure hardware set the system clock enable or disable system components select which devices are eligible to be a potential boot device set various password prompts, such as a password for securing access to the BIOS user interface functions itself and preventing malicious users from booting the system from unauthorized peripheral devices.