BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
A brain–computer interface (BCI), often called a mind-machine interface (MMI), or
sometimes called a direct neural interface (DNI), synthetic telepathy interface (STI) or a brain–
machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external
device. BCIs are often directed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-
motor functions. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California Los
Angeles (UCLA)The field of BCI research and development has since focused primarily on
neuroprosthetics That is, using artificial devices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems
and brain related problems, or of sensory organs & applications that aim at restoring damaged
hearing, sight and movement. Following years of animal experimentation, the first neuroprosthetics
devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-1990s.latest inventions was on DEC 21st
called as open BCI & brain controlled quadcopter and even Bci controlled humanoid robot by Honda.
Types of Bci are invasive, partially invasive, Partially invasive, on-invasive, BCI devices are
implanted inside the skull but rest outside the brain, Invasive BCIs are implanted directly into the grey
matter of the brain during neurosurgery, Non-invasive BCI is the version of interface used when only
a temporary connection to the brain is required. Bci are used in brain controlled wheel chair, artificial
legs, car for disabled, ears, games, Helicopter or quadcopter, skateboard. So on..Future scopes are as
Direct control over the activities of all individual neurons by means of nanorobots.
Arbitrary read/write access to the whole brain.
More direct links into the brain with the ability to read certain thoughts and copy a wide range
of data and information into various parts of the brain.
Fig: Block diagram of BCI