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  2. 2. PRINCIPLES AND FUNDAMENTALS BUSINESS MEMOS    Business memo is a formal written message, written in a conventional form for someone within the organisation to meet a specific need. It is a form of dialogue, where the writer wants to say something and expects a response to the message. Business memos serve many purposes:   Describe problems. Request for information or additional resources. Contain proposals or requests for proposals
  3. 3.          Explain policy statements Contain office instructions or guidelines Persuade the reader to take action Invite the reader to business meetings/conferences Give feedback, suggestions, or recommendations. Seek explanations or clarifications Be just polite reminders Business memos also help members of the organisation communicate without the need for time-consuming oral discussions, meetings, and conferences. Downward memos are used to communicate to the subordinates in the hierarchy of the organisation:   Convey routine information Discuss matters relating to personnel practices
  4. 4.      Seek explanations or clarifications Send feedback Give instructions Upward memos are sent by subordinates to their superiors. Horizontal memos are sent to peer groups or to people who are hierarchically equivalent in the organisation. LETTERS VERSUS MEMOS  A business memo differs from a business letter in sveral important ways:  Unlike letters, which are used as a means to reach out to people outside an organisation, memos are used to send information inside an organisation
  5. 5.      A memo is written in s specific format, which means different from the letter format Memos are less formal than letters Memos are less structured than letters The tone of memo is more conversational than that of a letter Memos contain less background explanation and information than letters CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE MEMOS     Clarity Conciseness Unity of Theme Informal tone
  6. 6. FORM AND STRUCTURE Heading – include four elements:     Date Recipient’s name and designation Sender’s name and designation Subject Date: (complete and current) To: (name and designation of the recipient) From: (name and designation of the sender) Subject: (topic of the memo)
  7. 7. EXAMPLE OF MEMO OPENING   Opening segment mentions central idea Example:-I am happy to report that our new product “ACT Energiser 2”, launched in January this year, has been highly successful in the first six months of its launch. I am sending you the sales report for the last six months. BODY  Contains the message of the memo
  8. 8.   It describes, explains, and discusses the central idea of the memo, and include all details that support the sender’s ideas. Appropriate graphic techniques and non-verbal data may be used in order to highlight the main parts of the memo. CLOSING    Close with courteous ending, stating what action the reader is required to take. The sender can tell the readers how they will benefit from the desired actions. If a problem is being discussed in the memo, it may be closed by assuming up analysis of the problem and key recommendations.
  9. 9.  Example:-Please send your recommendations to me by March 5, 2005 so that we are able to complete the project by the end of April, 2005. OPTIONAL ELEMENTS    References Attachments Distribution lists
  10. 10. WRITING STRATEGIES Step 1 – analyse the problem and purpose Step 2 – determine the needs of the reader Step 3 – determine the scope of your message Step 4 – organise your message Step 5 – write the first draft
  11. 11. Step 6 – revise, review, edit Step 7 – write the final draft