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# Fingerprint presentation

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Complete description about fingerprint concept. It will be useful to you.

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• Excellent piece ! I was fascinated by the analysis - Does someone know if my assistant could get ahold of a sample DoJ Form FD-258 example to edit ?

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### Fingerprint presentation

1. 1. FINGERPRINT:FINGER BIOMETRICSby Rajasekaran.T
2. 2. INTRODUCTION Fingerprinting was first created by Dr.Henry Fault, a British surgeon in 1882. It based on “KEY”.
3. 3. Fingerprint Patterns Arch- The ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise inthe centre forming an arc, and then exit the other side of thefinger. Loop-The ridges enter from one side of a finger, form acurve, and then exit on that same side. Whorl-Ridges form circularly around a central point onthe finger.Arch Loop Whorl
4. 4. SalesLoopwhorlArchThe human population has fingerprints in the followingpercentages:Loop – 65%Whorl -- 30%Arch -- 5%populationLoopWhorlArch
5. 5. Whorl1.Double LoopWhorl.2.Plan whorl.3.Central.pocket Loop whorl.4.Accidental whorl.Loop1.Uinar Loop.2.Radial Loop.Arch1.Plain Arch.2.Tented Arch.
6. 6. Different Identification on FingerprintCrossover: two ridges crosseach otherCore: centreBifurcation: ridge separatesRidge ending: end pointIsland: small ridge b/w twospacesDelta: space between ridgesPore: human pore
7. 7. Bifurcation Bridge Dot Double bifurcationOpposedbifurcationIsland (shortridge)Hook (spur) Lake (enclosure)Ridge crossing Ridge ending TrifurcationOpposedbifurcation/ridgeending)
8. 8. Fingerprint matching techniquesThere are two categories of fingerprint matching techniques:1. minutiae-based .2. correlation based. Minutiae-based techniques first find minutiae points and thenmap their relative placement on the finger. The correlation-based method is able to overcome some of thedifficulties of the minutiae-based approach.
9. 9. Two main technologies used to capture image of the fingerprintOptical sensor – use light refracted through a prism. An optical sensorbased reader uses light to read and acquire fingerprint images. Opticalsensors can be affected by a number of real life factors such as straylight, surface contamination or even prior fingerprint impressionspresent on the sensor surface. Hence it is essential to clean thefingerprint reader glass on a regular basis for optimal performance.Capacitive sensor – detect voltage changes in skin between ridges andvalleys. Capacitive sensors use electric current to sense a fingerprintand capture the image. As sensors apply a small voltage to the finger, areal fingerprint is required rather than a visual impression of it. Thistechnique makes the fingerprint reader more reliable as it becomesharder to fake enrolment.
10. 10. Image ProcessingCapture the fingerprint images and process them through a series ofimage processing algorithms to obtain a clear unambiguous skeletalimage of the original gray tone impression, clarifying smudgedareas, removing extraneous artifacts and healing most scars, cuts andbreaks.