4. INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONPRACTICES OF CASHEW IN INDIA -E.V.V. Bhaskara Rao[4]1. INTRODUCTIONCashew as a marketable commodit...
Kerala accounts for 18.6 % of the area and 33.5 % of production respectively. The highestproductivity is observed in Keral...
70 percent. The technique of soft-wood grafting described below is similar to epicotyl graftingexcept the difference in th...
Forty to sixty day old seedlings are used as rootstocks. Two pairs of leaves are retained and theseedlings are decapitated...
When selecting land for cashew, soils with salinity/alkalinity or waterlogging should be avoided.Soil depth, slope, course...
In the western and eastern coastal areas cashew is grown mostly on sloping land. A considerableamount of nutrient leaching...
Until tree canopies shade out the weeds, weeding is essential around the tree trunks up to a radiusof about 2 m. The rest ...
For efficient management of the tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis antonii), it is important to checkthe build up of the pest po...
Cashew cultivation is generally carried out under rainfed conditions. In homesteads however, itis preferable to give some ...
In addition to the local production of nearly 430,000 tons, India also imports a considerablequantity of raw nuts from sev...
were established in Maharashtra however, showed that these plantations responded to the              application of modern...
lkarni / Bangalore September 01, 2005has initiated massive efforts in conjunction with indsutry and farmers to emerge as t...
s in rural areas are churning out cashew kernels out of 100,000 metric tonne. lbavi, president, KCMA said the cashew indus...
ka plans to become cashew hubarni / Bangalore Sep 01, 2005, 21:04 ISTogle Your Business? : Fairfax County, Virginia is the...
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  1. 1. 4. INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONPRACTICES OF CASHEW IN INDIA -E.V.V. Bhaskara Rao[4]1. INTRODUCTIONCashew as a marketable commodity, has a very important role to play in the liberalized Indianeconomy. With export earnings of Rs. 12,320 million in 1995-96, cashew ranked as one of thetop agricultural export commodities. From the farmers’ as well as from the exporters’ point ofview, the current emphasis that cashew is receiving as a horticultural crop from the research anddevelopment front, is a welcome sign. At present, India has a processing capacity of nearly sevenhundred thousand metric tons and to meet the raw nut demand, the country depends partially onimports from several African, and in recent years, from south-east Asian countries. This hasconsiderable drain on the country’s foreign exchange reserves and there is an urgent need toincrease local production to substitute imported raw material in order to derive the maximumbenefits from a strong processing and marketing capability developed over the years by theIndian cashew industry.Research work on cashew was initiated on a relatively small scale in early 1950’s resulting in thedevelopment of several production techniques. These efforts were further strengthened when thenational research mandate was delegated to the Central plantation Crops Research Institute(CPCRI), Kasaragod, in 1970 which spearheaded the All India Coordinated Spices and Cashewimprovement Project from 1971. These research activities received further impetus with theimplementation of a World Bank aided multi-State Cashew Project in the States of AndhraPradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Orissa from 1982-86. A National Research Center for Cashewwas established at Puttur to increase the production and productivity of cashew with the mission-mode approach in 1986.The cashew development component of the combined All India Coordinated Spices and CashewImprovement Project was de-linked and an independent National Cashew Research project wasinitiated with the newly established National Research Center (NRC) for the crop at the sametime. There are 8 research centers and one sub-center at present, located in 8 cashew growingStates in the country. This can be considered as a milestone in cashew development with firmlyestablished linkages with the Directorate of Cashew nut Development Corporation and otherextension agencies which assisted in the transfer of newly developed production technologies.2. PRESENT STATUS OF CASHEW PRODUCTION2.1 Areas of ProductionCashew is grown in the western and eastern coastal areas and further inland in some parts ofKarnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Currently, the area under cashew is around 634,900 ha with atotal production of 417,000 tons (Table 1). With 118,000 ha and a production of 140,000 tons,
  2. 2. Kerala accounts for 18.6 % of the area and 33.5 % of production respectively. The highestproductivity is observed in Kerala and Maharashtra with over one ton per ha. The high yields inMaharashtra are primarily due to the fact that cashew production is of recent origin and the majorpart of the plantations have been established with high yielding clonal material. Even theorchards raised from seeds are from selected progenies. The current targets are set to produce700,000 tons from 700,000 ha by the year 2000 AD.Table 1. Area, Production and Productivity of Cashew in India (1965-96) States Area National % Production National % Productivity (ha) Area (tons) Prod. (kg/ha)Kerala 118,600 18.6 140,000 33.5 1,180Karnataka 83,900 13.2 37,600 8.9 448Goa 49,600 7.8 17,800 4.3 359Maharashtra 66,700 10.5 69,000 16.5 1,034Tamil Nadu 77,360 12.2 30,930 7.4 400Andhra 118,080 18.6 71,700 17.2 607PradeshOrissa 101,850 16.0 43,000 10.3 422West Bengal 8,680 1.4 6,960 1.7 802Others 10,200 1.6 840 0.2 82Total 634,970 100.0 417,830 100.0 6582.2 VarietiesThirty-three cultivars have been released so far by the National Research Center as well asseveral Agricultural Universities. Most of the varieties have a mean yield of 8-10 kg per treewhich gives over one ton per ha. In view of the export potential however, cultivation isrecommended only for such cultivars that have a kernel grade of W-210 to W-240 (210-240kernels per lb). Cashew cultivar recommendations for different States are given in Table 2.3. PROPAGATION AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIALA number of propagation methods have been tested for the multiplication of cashew. Air-layering was found to be one of the popular methods among growers. This technique however,produced trees with poor anchorage as the root density was found to be low. It also resulted inpoor field establishment and high susceptibility to cyclones and drought conditions. Air layeringwas therefore found to be unsuitable for commercial exploitation. In the case of mound layeringtoo, the absence of a tap root was found to be a disadvantage. Epicotyl grafting was anothermethod that had limitations due to high mortality at transplanting and incidence of collar-rot atthe nursery stage. Soft-wood grafting developed at the research centers was found to be the mostviable method of propagation that was commercially acceptable; it gave a success rate of about
  3. 3. 70 percent. The technique of soft-wood grafting described below is similar to epicotyl graftingexcept the difference in the age of the rootstock.Table 2. Cashew Cultivars Recommended for Different States of India State Cultivars Recommended ProgenyKarnataka Selection 1 VTH-107/3 Selection 2 VTH-40/1 Ullal 1 8/46 Taliparamba Ullal 2 3/67 Guntur Ullal 3 5/37 Manjeri Ullal 4 2/77 Tuni: Andhra UN 50 2/27 Nileshwar VRI 1 M-10/4 VRI 2 M-44/3 Vengurla 1 Ansur-1 Vengurla 4 Mid Red x Vetore 56 Chintamani 1 8/46 TaliparambaKerala Madakkathara 1 BLA-39-4 Madakkathara 2 NDR 2-1 K-22-1 22 Kottarakkara Dhana ALGD-1-1 x K 30-1 Priyanka BLA-139-1 x K 30-1Maharashtra and Goa Vengurla-1 Ansur-1 Vengurla-4 Mid Red x Vetore-56 Vengurla-6 Vetore 56 x Ansur-1Tamil Nadu VRI-1 M 10/4 VRI-2 M 44/3 VRI-3 M 26/2Andhra Pradesh BPP-4 EPM 9/8 BPP-6 T No.56 BPP-8 T No.1 x T No. 39 VRI-2 M 44/3Orissa VRI-2 M 44/3 Bhubaneshvar-1 Vengurla 36/3West Bengal Jhargram-1 T No. 16 of BapatlaMadhya Pradesh T No. 40 Vengurla 4 Mid Red x Vetore-56
  4. 4. Forty to sixty day old seedlings are used as rootstocks. Two pairs of leaves are retained and theseedlings are decapitated at the soft-wood apical region. Wedge-grafting is then carried out witha 4-5 cm cleft on the rootstock and with a small portion of the inner surface removed to facilitatea perfect union of the wedge-shaped scion, which has been prepared by shaving a portion of thebark and tissue on either side. The union is then secured by tying with a 15-30 cm polythenestrip. The top of the scion is covered with a polythene cap to protect the apical portion of thescion from desiccation. The grafted plants are maintained in a lath or screen house for 8-10 daysuntil sprouts emerge, and then the grafted plants are provided more sunlight and the capsremoved. This wedge grafting technique is carried out by using only the soft-wood tissues of thestock and scion. The following management techniques are important in nursing young graftedplants.- Grafts need to be watered frequently depending on the season.- Excess water needs to be drained by providing drainage holes in polybags.- Shoots on the rootstocks have to be nipped off frequently.- Polythene wrapping at the union has to be removed about three months after grafting to preventgirdling.- When the scion leaves turn from brown to green, rootstock leaves have to be removed(approximately 60 days after grafting).- Flower shoots that sprout during the normal flowering season should be removed at the nurserystage.- To prevent roots penetrating into the ground, grafted plants should be shifted frequently orplaced on thick gauge black polythene sheets.- Partial shade has to be provided to avoid sun-scorch by placing the grafted plants in alath/screen house. Direct sunlight should be avoided as polythene bags tend to perish. Wateringon alternate days should be done in summer.- Regular insecticide sprays need to be given to control leaf sucking insects.- When transporting grafted plants, terminal shoots and taproots should be protected.4. ESTABLISHMENT OF CASHEW ORCHARDSLarge extents of land are available in Karnataka, Maharashtra and west Bengal for establishingnew plantations under the cashew expansion program. There is also the possibility of expandingcashew cultivation into non-traditional areas in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar etc.4.1 Selection of Site and Land Development
  5. 5. When selecting land for cashew, soils with salinity/alkalinity or waterlogging should be avoided.Soil depth, slope, course texture, soil fertility and water availability seem to impose very littlelimitations as cashew is a hardy crop. For establishing new plantations, land preparation shouldbegin with the first pre-monsoon rains. Land should be cleared of shrub vegetation beforedigging pits for planting.4.2 Planting SeasonPlanting of grafted plants is usually carried out during the monsoon season from July-Augustboth in the west coast as well as in the east coast. Orchards should have pits dug to receivegrafted plants well in advance of the main monsoon weather.4.3 Spacing and Planting SystemsA spacing of 7.5m x 7.5m or 8m x 8m is recommended for cashew which gives a tree density of175 and 156 trees per ha, respectively. High density planting at 4m x 4m giving a tree density of625 trees per ha in the initial years and subsequently thinning in stages to reach a final spacing of8m x 8m is also practiced in some areas. This enables higher returns during the initial years andas the canopies grow in volume, alternate trees are removed to achieve the desired final spacing.In level sites however, it would be advantageous to plant cashew at a spacing of 10m x 5m whichwill give a tree density of 200 trees per ha and at the same time providing sufficient space forgrowers to plant inter-crops during the initial years of establishment.4.4 Planting of CashewPits are usually dug at the onset of the pre-monsoon rains to a size of 60cm x 60cm x 60cm inlight to medium soils. If a hard substrate like laterite is present pits may be 1m x 1m tocompensate for the lesser depth of soil. It is preferable to dig pits 15-20 days before planting toexpose planting holes to direct sunlight which can help remove termites and other harmfulinsects that can damage young plants, if present. When filling, top soil mixed with compost (5kg) or poultry manure (2 kg) and 200g of rock phosphate are placed in the pits. Contour plantingis usually followed in sloping areas. Standard conservation measures need to be followed onsteep lands when establishing cashew plantations.Young plants are planted in the months of July-August. Most nurseries supply 5-12 month oldgrafted plants in polybags. At planting, the polythene bag is removed without disturbing the ballof earth and the roots. Care is taken to place the grafted plant in the pits leaving the graft joint atleast 5 cm above ground level. Normally the scion is staked to avoid damage from wind and thesupport should remain up to the third year from planting. Most orchard growers use a mulcharound the planting hole to suppress weeds and conserve moisture.5. MANAGEMENT AND AFTERCARE OF CASHEW ORCHARDS5.1 Terracing and Bunding
  6. 6. In the western and eastern coastal areas cashew is grown mostly on sloping land. A considerableamount of nutrient leaching and soil erosion are common in such situations. Growers have beenadvised to construct terraces and contour pits to conserve runoff water. Studies on the extent ofroot distribution revealed that 90 percent of the root system was confined to a radius of 2m and adepth of 1 m. In order to achieve maximum utilization of applied nutrients, fertilizer practiceswere confined to this part of the root zone. Before the advent of the south west monsoon in May-June, basins of about 1.5m radius are prepared for 2 year-old trees and subsequently widened to2m in the third year. Terraces are made by removing the soil from the elevated portion above thetree trunks to create basins of 1.5-2m. Contour drains are also constructed to collect rain waterabove the tree-line and prevent soil wash from the slopes.5.2 Application of Manures and FertilizerApplication of 10-15 kg of farmyard manure or compost annually is generally recommended forcashew. In addition, the current fertilizer recommendation is 500g N (1.1 kg urea), 125g P 2O5(625g rock phosphate) and 125g K 2 O (208g muriate of potash) per tree per year. This hasincreased production in the All India cashew trials carried out at the research centers. These trialsalso showed that the cashew responds well to increased N applications up to 750g. Since localNPK fertilizer mixtures do not deliver the required nutrients, application of straight fertilizer isrecommended.Fertilizer is applied annually at the end of the rainy season into a shallow trench at the drip lineof trees. It is also recommended that fertilizer be applied in split doses during pre-monsoon(May-June) and post-monsoon (September-October) periods to assure better uptake of nutrients.If a single application is done, the post-monsoon period is more suitable when ground moisture isadequate. One third the recommended dose is applied in the first year, two third the dose in thesecond year and the full dose thereafter (Table 3).Table 3. Recommended Doses of NPK Fertilizer for Cashew (g/plant) Year Urea (gm) Rock Phosphate (gm) Muriate of Potash1 330 200 702 660 400 1403 onwards 1,100 625 208Based on the results of research conducted by the National Coordinated trials, the followingmethods of fertilizer application are recommended to cashew growers. In the red loamy soils inlow rainfall areas such as the east coast, fertilizers have to be applied and raked into the soilalong the drip line of tree canopies. In laterite soils and steep lands of the west coast, fertilizer isapplied in circular trenches of about 25 cm width along the drip line of trees. Trenches are filledand a mulch is applied to ensure soil moisture retention.5.3 Weeding
  7. 7. Until tree canopies shade out the weeds, weeding is essential around the tree trunks up to a radiusof about 2 m. The rest of the orchard requires slashing of under growth at least twice a year. Theweeding cycles are generally confined to the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods to coincidewith the fertilizer application.Alternatively, weedicides may also be applied after slashing, well in advance of the rainy seasonif the under growth is too dense. The recommendation is to apply Agrodar-96 (2-4 D) at the rateof 4 ml/litre of water followed by Grammoxone at the rate of 5ml/litre of water. Approximately400 litres of spray is required to cover one ha. The spraying is repeated in the post monsoonseason if the weed load is heavy.5.4 MulchingIn low rainfall areas, mulching around the base of trees helps in the control of weeds, retention ofmoisture and modulation of soil temperature, especially in the hot summer months. Thisbecomes an essential operation as cashew is usually planted in very dry areas where other cropsare seldom grown. Most growers utilize the slashed weeds to mulch their orchards.5.5 Training and PruningDuring the initial phase of orchard establishment, shoots arising on the rootstock have to beregularly removed to promote better scion growth, particularly in the first year after plantingwhen scion rejection could occur if rootstock shoots are left unchecked. Training of young treesduring the first three years is essential to develop uniform canopies. Training in the juvenilephase comprises of removing basal branches and water shoots. The plants are trained to a singlestem and branches are allowed to grow about 0.75-1m from ground level. Deformed branches arealso removed during the first few years. Since cashew trees tend to spread their canopies andlodge easily, proper staking is also essential. Trees are kept under check by topping off the mainstem at a height of 4-5m from ground level. Orchard operations such as terracing, weeding,fertilizer application, nut collection and stem/root borer infestation control can be easily achievedif trees are properly trained. Pruning should be carried out in August-September at least once inthree years when unwanted growth is removed to provide adequate sunlight into the canopy.Since fruiting is only encouraged from the third year, de-blossoming has to be carried out asflower clusters appear during the juvenile phase.5.6 Plant ProtectionRoot and stem borer infestation is usually controlled with swabbing tree trunks with carbaryl (2%) or using a coal tar/kerosene suspension (1:2). After pruning of trees, a standard practice is tosmear all cut surfaces with Bordeaux mixture paste (10 %) to prevent fungal infections and die-back. A 1 % Bordeaux spray is also administered if the cut surfaces are small.More than 60 species of insect pests have been identified in cashew in India. The major pests arethe tea mosquito, stem/root borer, leaf minor, leaf and blossom webber and flower thrips. Nomajor diseases that cause economic losses have been reported so far in cashew.
  8. 8. For efficient management of the tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis antonii), it is important to checkthe build up of the pest population on the cashew crop as well as on the alternate hosts such asneem, drumstick, cocoa, guava etc. Tea mosquito bugs can be effectively controlled by threesprays at flushing, flowering and fruiting stages with endosulfan or monocrotophos (0.05 %) forthe first and second sprays and carbaryl (0.15 %) for the third spray. In case of severe infestation,it may sometimes lead to die-back caused by a secondary infection of Botrydiplodia theobromae.In such instances it will require pruning of the diseased shoots and swabbing of the cut surfaceswith 10 % Bordeaux paste and spraying the trees with a 1 % solution of Bordeaux mixture.The stem and root borer (Plocaecderus ferrugineus L.), is capable of killing cashew trees. Insevere cases of injury by this pest, gummosis of the stem and yellowing followed by drying ofleaves can occur. The effective control measure is to remove immature stages of the pest andswabbing the trunk and exposed roots with carbaryl (0.2 %) or neem oil (5 %) and application ofSevidol 8G (75g/tree) into the basin around the tree. Prophylactic treatment of swabbing thetrunk up to one meter height with coal tar and kerosene in the ratio of 1:2 twice a year duringMarch and November could also give effective control. The spray schedule indicated for teamosquito bug will also be effective against the control of other foliage and inflorescence pests.5.7 Cover-Cropping and Inter-CroppingPopular cover crops for cashew plantations are Peuraria javanica, Calapagonium muconoidesand Centrosema pubescens which improve the fertility and moisture balance and help conserveorchard soils. Cover crop seeds are generally sown with the advent of the monsoons at a seedrate of about 7 kg/ha. On degraded steep lands, cover crops are usually established on seed bedsbetween tree rows.Inter-cropping has become popular with the systematic establishment of large-scale orchards. Itis practiced in the first few years when there is sufficient space between crop rows with the mainobjective of deriving some income until the cashew starts giving economic returns. In AndhraPradesh, popular inter-crops are horsegram, cowpea, groundnut etc. Casuarina is also a tree inter-crop planted at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m in cashew orchards in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. Inthe west Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, cashew is grown in combination with casuarinaand coconut.In Kerala and coastal Karnataka, pineapple is grown as a biennial crop in the initial 4-5 years andfarmers find it far more profitable than crops such as redgram and cassava. Adopting a two-rowsystem of planting in contour trenches, yields of 15-20 tons/ha have been achieved from thisinter-crop. The pineapple inter-crop also indirectly benefits the main cashew crop as contourtrenches help to conserve water and nutrients. When hedge-row planting at a spacing of 5m x10m is used, inter-crops of Acacia, casuarina etc. are taken without any ill-effects on the maincrop. These trees are planted about 3.5 m away from the cashew in two-row plots spaced 1m x1m apart in the center of crop avenues.5.8 Irrigation and Drainage
  9. 9. Cashew cultivation is generally carried out under rainfed conditions. In homesteads however, itis preferable to give some supplementary irrigation during the warm summer months fromJanuary to March. An application of about 200 liters of water per tree every fortnight was foundto double cashew yields in trials conducted at the National Research Center at Puttur. In thesandy tracts of the East coast, although frequency and quantity of water applied varies, trees arewatered during the summer months. Both in the homesteads and large-scale orchards, cashew issusceptible to waterlogging and proper drainage is essential in low lying areas.6. HARVESTING OF NUTS AND CASHEW YIELDSBearing commences after the third year of planting and the trees will be in full production by thetenth year whilst the economic life of a tree is about 20 years. The main harvesting season isfrom February to May. Most farmers harvest their crop before they drop to prevent pilferage.This very often results in poor quality of the kernels. The optimum stage of harvest is when nutsdrop to the ground. High quality nuts are obtained when freshly fallen nuts are separated fromthe cashew apples and sun dried for 2-3 days to bring down the moisture percentage from about25 percent to below 9 percent. It is very essential to dry the nuts in order to prevent spoilageduring storage. The drying process helps to retain flavor and quality of the kernels. When cashewapples are used for processing, harvesting has to be carried out before they drop. A simple test ofmaturity is to float nuts in water when mature nuts will sink while the immature and unfilled nutswill float. Nuts are usually gathered every week during the harvest season. Cashew apples for thefresh fruit market should be harvested daily.Normally, about 92 % of the trees yield by the third year from planting. The average yield pertree increases from about 2 kg at 3-5 years to 4 kg at 6-10 years and 5-10 kg when trees are 11-15 years of age. Thereafter, trees yield in excess of 10 kg as the trees get older.7. MARKETINGRaw cashew nuts are a seasonal commodity and the trading season is from March to May.Growers usually supply the primary or village markets where small traders collect and supply theurban markets. The cashew trade is seldom handled by exclusive traders. Usually, those traderswho collect other plantation products also trade in cashew. Due to the highly competitive natureof the cashew trade growers have few marketing problems. When large quantities are collectedby middlemen, the processors enter the marketing chain and make wholesale purchases. Gradesand standards for cashew are yet to be introduced in India. Quality is generally determined byappearance and cutting tests that traders employ prior to purchase. The raw cashew nut marketinvolves a large amount of capital where nearly 80 percent of the produce is transacted within amatter of 35 days. The current value of Indian production is estimated at around Rs. 10,000million. This capital is made available by industry for procurement and processing operations.There are no growers’ cooperatives or organizations for cashew marketing. In Kerala however,the government has been involved in the procurement process and supply to large-scaleprocessors. This adversely affected the cashew trade and has now been replaced by a free marketpolicy.
  10. 10. In addition to the local production of nearly 430,000 tons, India also imports a considerablequantity of raw nuts from several African and South-east Asian countries to satisfy the nationalprocessing capacity of 700,000 tons established in the country.8. POTENTIAL FOR CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENTIn 1960-61, 228,000 tons of raw nuts were processed of which nearly 50 percent was imported.During the same year, 44,000 tons of processed kernels were exported which accounted for 77percent of the total kernel output from the industry. The processing output has considerablyincreased in recent years and in 1995-96, about 640,000 tons were processed (Table 4) of which65 percent raw nuts were obtained from local production. Domestic consumption has alsoincreased considerably from 13,000 tons in 1960-61 to 92,000 tons in 1995-96, while the countryalso earned a foreign exchange equivalent of Rs. 12,320 million (US$ 352 million) through theexport of cashew kernels and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Export earnings reached a peak in1994-95 when 77,000 tons of kernels were exported with a value of Rs. 12,440 million (US$ 355million). With the establishment of new orchards using high yielding vegetatively propagatedplanting material, the future looks bright for the cashew industry in India.Table 4. Raw Nut Availability, Processing and Export Statistics of India, 1960-96, (in ‘000tons). Year Domestic Imports Total Raw Kernels Exports Domestic Production Nuts Consumption1960- 111 118 228 57 44 13611970- 177 169 346 87 50 37711980- 185 16 201 50 32 18811990- 295 83 378 95 49 46911995- 418 222 640 160 68 92969. CONSTRAINTS IN CASHEW NUT PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENTA study of the industry prior to 1985 revealed that most of the plantations were of seedling originand cashew cultivation was mainly carried out as an afforestation and conservation program forwaste lands rather than an economic venture. Since productivity was not the basic objective ofsuch a program, the cashew was maintained under highly neglected conditions. Poor soil fertilityin cashew growing areas, seedling progenies of nondescript origin and neglect of the cropresulted in low productivity. This was prevalent in most of the cashew growing areas ofKarnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. Neglected trees established forconservation purposes hardly responded to the application of any inputs. Seedling progenies that
  11. 11. were established in Maharashtra however, showed that these plantations responded to the application of modern inputs developed by research. These seedling progenies were from selected stock and orchards had received better attention from the beginning of their establishment. In order to ensure better productivity, all new plantings are encouraged to use vegetatively propagated material of recommended cultivars and the use of seedlings is completely discouraged. One of the major thrusts being advocated at present is to rehabilitate existing unthrifty seedling plantations. It may however, not be profitable to attempt rehabilitation of senile and sparsely populated orchards. The working group responsible for the preparation of the 8th national plan revised yield estimates from 2 tons per ha to one ton per ha, mainly having these plantations in view. The current area of 635,000 ha is likely to reach 1 million ha by the turn of the century. Cashew is being considered as a candidate crop for rehabilitation of waste lands by many development planners. The issue is however, being debated whether more waste land be brought under cashew or rehabilitation of old orchards be undertaken using elite planting material. Waste lands that are now being considered are far more inferior to those areas which already have cashew plantations. The cashew crop has contributed in some ways to conserving the soil in the existing orchards. The logical alternative would therefore be, to utilize existing cashew lands for a development program using available technologies to reach the required production levels without expanding into any more degraded waste lands. 10. CONCLUDING REMARKS One of the key factors in favor of expanding the cashew industry in India is the stable price in the International market when compared to other nuts such as almond, hazel nut etc. Nutritionally, cashew also compares well with other tree nut crops. It is a commodity rich in unsaturated fatty acids with high protein and low levels of saturated fats and soluble sugars. Higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids which lower blood cholesterol is particularly of high nutritional significance. The crop is steadily gaining acceptance in many western markets where consumers are more health conscious. The elaborate research network and development infrastructure in India is beneficial for the expansion of the cashew industry. Development and introduction of eco-friendly production packages such as organic farming and integrated pest management can provide a further boost to the development of the crop and the cashew industry in the future. [4] Director, National Research Center for Cashew, Puttur, 574202, D.K., Karnataka, India.plans to become cashew hub
  12. 12. lkarni / Bangalore September 01, 2005has initiated massive efforts in conjunction with indsutry and farmers to emerge as the largest producer of raw cashew in the country. Thesures to expand the area under cultivation and achieve a four-fold rise in productivity.ry has set a target of producing 1,50,000 metric tonne (MTs) from the present 40,000 MTs annually, while the area under cultivation is exp 1.20 lakh hectare.to a vision document prepared and presented to the state government by Karnataka Cashew Manufacturers Association (KCMA), the Manciation representing the cashew interests in the state, presently, the area under cashewnut cultivation is estimated to be 60,000 to 70,000Karnataka’s cashewnut production is a nineth of the conservative estimate of 3,60,000 MTs produced in India, said Giridhar Prabhu, coordeering Committee on cashew under the Union Ministry of Agriculture.la is the largest producer of cashew at 1.25 lakh metric tonne, there has been no major efforts to increase the cultivation and production irs are changing over from cashew to rubber cultivation and the processing industry is also migrating to neighbouring Tamil Nadu.u accounts for about 50,000 metric tonne of cashewnut and Andhra Pradesh produces nearly 70,000 tonne and aims to increase it to one lMaharashtra claims to be producing 1.2 lakh metric tonne, the industry estimates put it at just 35,000 tonne.hopes to attain the number one status in production of cashewnut by focusing on cultivating high yielding varieties as well as bringing mor overnment has taken steps to grow cashewnut in the districts of Kolar, eastern Uttara Kannada, eastern Belgaum, eastern Dharwad, Myso dagu in a big way.rts 5,60,000 metric tonne from over 15 countries in the world. The industry hopes that the same quantity will come in this year too. Procedy taken up a good portion of the West African material and will soon be shopping in Indonesia and East Africa for the 2006 crop, adds Pra assumes importance as the Karnataka cashew industry has been growing at a clipping pace and is now racing to have 10 per cent of the n against 3 per cent just five years ago. This was possible due to the maturity of the exporting community, prominently in Udupi District in th
  13. 13. s in rural areas are churning out cashew kernels out of 100,000 metric tonne. lbavi, president, KCMA said the cashew industry wants growers in the state to aggressively take on cashew cultivation through modern scihe immediate need is to have a mindset for cultivating cashew orchards,” he said. This is a major change compared to just planting cashewhave developed over 20 varieties which are validated by the Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR). These can produce over 10 kilonventional seedling varieties producing one kilo per tree. “We aim to increase the yield from 800 kg per hectare to 2 tonne per hectare byd. of 150,000 MTs of cashewnut in 2021 even at current prices will amount to a total output of Rs 525 crore. The value addition will be Rs 20erefore, the total shipped value can be around Rs 725 crore. urns for farmers will be around Rs 350 crore and Rs 175 crore will be the value of inputs and labour that go into the production effort, the stated.es provided by New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) and regular container services now make Karnataka competitive in import and export acational market is ruling steady at 230 cents per lb for W-320 grade cashew kernel presently after it dipped in June and July due to accumul tember to December are peak consumption months for cashew both in the domestic and international markets.of tree nuts is globally very high. Almond prices are at record highs. In the local market almonds are selling at Rs 485 per kilo in the Delhi a arkets plus tax. Cashew at Rs 265 to Rs 310 looks handsomely priced for seasonal sales. Hazelnuts, walnuts and all tree nuts are facing verdst growing demand and tight supplies from producing centres. ill occupy a growing place in the diets of consumers worldwide as nuts are recommended as a must in a balance diet needed for healthy limany are not aware that cashews are zero cholesterol.there are 175 cashew manufacturing units in Karnataka employing over 40,000 women in the coastal districts of Mangalore, Udupi and No
  14. 14. ka plans to become cashew hubarni / Bangalore Sep 01, 2005, 21:04 ISTogle Your Business? : Fairfax County, Virginia is the gateway to the US market. See why.axCountyEDA.org