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Population of Research  Subjects or Participants The foundation of your research
Social Science <ul><li>In most social science research you need people to study.  </li></ul><ul><li>You do not need people...
YOUR CHOICE!  <ul><li>RESPECT </li></ul><ul><li>ABUSE or BELITTLE  </li></ul>
Vulnerable populations <ul><li>Prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally challenged </li></ul><ul><l...
LEARN MORE <ul><li>Wikipedia  </li></ul><ul><li>GET OFFICIAL – traded and certified  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESU </li></ul><...
Population - People <ul><li>Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often referred to as  N (number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oft...
Critiquing Research #1 <ul><li>Population – WHO the researcher studied! </li></ul>Research  STATED  findings Population Re...
Critique  –  What do you mean?  The study will claim to have a  randomized population  and really it randomized for the pa...
Critique  – Desire of Research  <ul><li>Researched  </li></ul><ul><li>Population  </li></ul><ul><li>Stated findings </li><...
End Part 1
Part 2:  Population Terms
Population Terms & Meanings <ul><li>Random Sampling  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very large populations. Every member has an equ...
Population Terms & Meanings <ul><li>Sampling Error </li></ul><ul><li>Website:  Understanding Sampling </li></ul>Greater SA...
Sampling Error – Example & Think…. <ul><li>You want to know how my 20-64 year old adults, in the USA know the difference b...
Sampling Error – Example & Think…. <ul><li>So, you “ randomly” select  1 million from all over the country. Ouch, that is ...
Sampling Error – Confidence?  <ul><li>When you are reading a study that talks about statistics, they will talk about the  ...
<ul><li>Question for Thought : IS THERE ever true Randomization? Math says so, but can people defy math?  </li></ul>
Participant terms and meanings  <ul><li>Purposeful Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting participants because they  do ...
Participant terms and meanings  <ul><li>Saturation  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewed enough people that the answers begin...
CRITIQUE!!!  <ul><li>Always ask if the  population makes sense  for the question! </li></ul><ul><li>Could the researcher b...
References <ul><li>US census -  http://www.census.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>Creswell, J. W. (2003).  Research design: Qualita...
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Participants

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Populations review for research critiques.

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Participants

  1. 1. Population of Research Subjects or Participants The foundation of your research
  2. 2. Social Science <ul><li>In most social science research you need people to study. </li></ul><ul><li>You do not need people when – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already passed-on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using extant research </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. YOUR CHOICE! <ul><li>RESPECT </li></ul><ul><li>ABUSE or BELITTLE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vulnerable populations <ul><li>Prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant Mothers </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired decision making </li></ul><ul><li>… Elderly </li></ul><ul><li>… Poor </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEARN MORE <ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>GET OFFICIAL – traded and certified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Provided link then, to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Protecting Human Research Participants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Population - People <ul><li>Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often referred to as N (number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often called Subjects in quantitative studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the non-bias nature of research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher had little contact with population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often referred to as N (number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called Participants in qualitative studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the understood bias in all research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher has contact with population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Critiquing Research #1 <ul><li>Population – WHO the researcher studied! </li></ul>Research STATED findings Population Researched Research STATED findings Population Researched = ≠
  8. 8. Critique – What do you mean? The study will claim to have a randomized population and really it randomized for the particular population or group, but really cannot be applied to all groups of people. Example : A study will claim its finding apply to all those who teach, but the research explored only pre-service teachers.
  9. 9. Critique – Desire of Research <ul><li>Researched </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Stated findings </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions for researcher & others </li></ul><ul><li>Helps solve a problem or question </li></ul>=
  10. 10. End Part 1
  11. 11. Part 2: Population Terms
  12. 12. Population Terms & Meanings <ul><li>Random Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very large populations. Every member has an equal opportunity of being selected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple Random Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking a small group of population and every member has opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convenience Sample (MOST sampling!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience that is available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like college students  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly applied to quantitative studies - Desire apply statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>WEBSITE : Statistics Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Sampling </li></ul>
  13. 13. Population Terms & Meanings <ul><li>Sampling Error </li></ul><ul><li>Website: Understanding Sampling </li></ul>Greater SAMPLE SIZE LESS SAMPLING ERROR! Why? The closer you get to the population the closer you get to you answer, with complete certainty!
  14. 14. Sampling Error – Example & Think…. <ul><li>You want to know how my 20-64 year old adults, in the USA know the difference between there, their and they’re. </li></ul><ul><li>You could test all adults – about 200 million. You would have 0 sampling error ! </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible, you would only test some. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sampling Error – Example & Think…. <ul><li>So, you “ randomly” select 1 million from all over the country. Ouch, that is a lot. But, how do you get them? Email? Phone? Phone book? Going door to door? Whatever the case, you will still be making particular assumptions. Like what…. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sampling Error – Confidence? <ul><li>When you are reading a study that talks about statistics, they will talk about the confidence interval which is based on math. Most report 95% confidence level. This means that probably 95% of the population would fall between 1 standard of error. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Question for Thought : IS THERE ever true Randomization? Math says so, but can people defy math? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Participant terms and meanings <ul><li>Purposeful Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting participants because they do have a particular characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homogenous group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying how group is similar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extreme/Deviant Case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who feel different from most of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random Purposeful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random within a group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually used for Qualitative studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Participant terms and meanings <ul><li>Saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewed enough people that the answers begin repeating themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers should always openly state their bias! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually used for Qualitative studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CRITIQUE!!! <ul><li>Always ask if the population makes sense for the question! </li></ul><ul><li>Could the researcher be missing an important piece of the population studied? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the research make claims larger than the population represented? </li></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>US census - http://www.census.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA; London, UK; New Delhi, India, Sage Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Olson, H. (1995). &quot;Quantitative versus qualitative research: the wrong question.&quot; Retrieved 1/15/03, 2002, from http://www.ualberta.ca/dept/slis/cais/olson.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Websites that are linked </li></ul>

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