C++    SUBMITTED BY-RAJANDEEP KAUR          ROLL NO- 115332        BRANCH- CSE (2nd SEM)SUBMITTED TO- Er. JAGDEEP SINGH MA...
1         The Task of Programming►   Programming a computer involves writing    instructions that enable a computer to car...
1        The Task of Programming►A  translator (called either a compiler or an  interpreter) checks your program for synta...
1            Procedural Programming►   Procedural programs consist of a series of steps or    procedures that take place o...
1        A main( ) Function in C++►   C++ programs consist of modules called    functions►   Every statement within every ...
1         Creating a main( ) Function►   Every complete C++ statement ends with a    semicolon►   Often several statements...
1          Working with Variables►   In C++, you must name and give a type to    variables (sometimes called identifiers) ...
Common C++ Keywords
1           Working with Variables►   A C++ keyword cannot be used as a variable    name►   Each named variable must have ...
1           Working with Variables►   Explicitly stating the value of a variable is    called assignment, and is achieved ...
1            Creating Comments► A line comment begins with two slashes (//) and  continues to the end of the line on which...
1            Using Libraries and           Preprocessor Directives►   Header files are files that contain predefined    va...
2        C++ Binary Arithmetic Operators►   Often after data values are input, you perform    calculations with them►   C+...
2         Shortcut Arithmetic Operators►   As you might expect, you can use two minus    signs (--) before or after a vari...
2        Shortcut Arithmetic Operators►   The prefix and postfix increment and decrement    operators are examples of unar...
2     Shortcut Arithmetic Operators► Thedifference between the results produced by the prefix and postfix operators can be...
2        Evaluating Boolean Expressions►   The unary operator ! Means not, and essentially reverses    the true/false valu...
2                         Selection►   Computer programs seem smart because of    their ability to use selections or make ...
2        Some Sample Selection    Statements within a C++ Program
2               The if Statement►   Any C++ expression can be evaluated as part of    an if statement
2            The switch Statement► When you want to create different outcomes  depending on specific values of a variable,...
2                    The if Operator►   Another alternative to the if statement involves the if    operator (also called t...
2        Logical AND and Logical OR►   In some programming situations, two or more    conditions must be true to initiate ...
2    Logical AND and Logical OR
2            Using the Logical OR► In certain programming situations, only one of  two alternatives must be true for some ...
2    Using the Logical OR
2                  The while Loop►   Loops provide a mechanism with which to    perform statements repeatedly and, just as...
2                   The for Statement► The for statement represents an alternative to the while  statement► It is most oft...
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C++ rajan

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C++ rajan

  1. 1. C++ SUBMITTED BY-RAJANDEEP KAUR ROLL NO- 115332 BRANCH- CSE (2nd SEM)SUBMITTED TO- Er. JAGDEEP SINGH MALHI
  2. 2. 1 The Task of Programming► Programming a computer involves writing instructions that enable a computer to carry out a single task or a group of tasks► A computer programming language requires learning both vocabulary and syntax► Programmers use many different programming languages, including BASIC, Pascal, COBOL, RPG, and C++► The rules of any language make up its syntax► Machine language is the language that computers can understand; it consists of 1s and 0s
  3. 3. 1 The Task of Programming►A translator (called either a compiler or an interpreter) checks your program for syntax errors► A logical error occurs when you use a statement that, although syntactically correct, doesn’t do what you intended► You run a program by issuing a command to execute the program statements► You test a program by using sample data to determine whether the program results are correct
  4. 4. 1 Procedural Programming► Procedural programs consist of a series of steps or procedures that take place one after the other► The programmer determines the exact conditions under which a procedure takes place, how often it takes place, and when the program stops► Programmers write procedural programs in many programming languages, such as COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, and RPG► You can also write procedural programs in C++
  5. 5. 1 A main( ) Function in C++► C++ programs consist of modules called functions► Every statement within every C++ program is contained in a function► Every function consists of two parts:  A function header is the initial line of code in a C++ which always has three parts: ► Return type of the function ► Name of the function ► Types and names of any variables enclosed in parentheses, and which the function receives  A function body
  6. 6. 1 Creating a main( ) Function► Every complete C++ statement ends with a semicolon► Often several statements must be grouped together, as when several statements must occur in a loop► In such a case, the statements have their own set of opening and closing braces within the main braces, forming a block
  7. 7. 1 Working with Variables► In C++, you must name and give a type to variables (sometimes called identifiers) before you can use them► Names of C++ variables can include letters, numbers, and underscores, but must begin with a letter or underscore► No spaces or other special characters are allowed within a C++ variable name► Every programming language contains a few vocabulary words, or keywords, that you need in order to use the language
  8. 8. Common C++ Keywords
  9. 9. 1 Working with Variables► A C++ keyword cannot be used as a variable name► Each named variable must have a type► C++ supports three simple types:  Integer — Floating point — Character► An integer is a whole number, either positive or negative► An integer value may be stored in an integer variable declared with the keyword int► You can also declare an integer variable using short int and long int
  10. 10. 1 Working with Variables► Explicitly stating the value of a variable is called assignment, and is achieved with the assignment operator =► The variable finalScore is declared and assigned a value at the same time► Assigning a value to a variable upon creation is often referred to as initializing the variable
  11. 11. 1 Creating Comments► A line comment begins with two slashes (//) and continues to the end of the line on which it is placed► A block comment begins with a single slash and an asterisk (/*) and ends with an asterisk and a slash (*/); it might be contained on a single line or continued across many lines
  12. 12. 1 Using Libraries and Preprocessor Directives► Header files are files that contain predefined values and routines, such as sqrt( )► Their filenames usually end in .h► In order for your C++ program to use these predefined routines, you must include a preprocessor directive, a statement that tells the compiler what to do before compiling the program► In C++, all preprocessor directives begin with a pound sign (#), which is also called an octothorp► The #include preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file as part of the finished product
  13. 13. 2 C++ Binary Arithmetic Operators► Often after data values are input, you perform calculations with them► C++ provides five simple arithmetic operators for creating arithmetic expressions:  addition (+) – subtraction (-)  multiplication (*) – division (/)  modulus (%)► Each of these arithmetic operators is a binary operator; each takes two operands, one on each side of the operator, as in 12 + 9 or 16.2*1.5► The results of an arithmetic operation can be stored in memory
  14. 14. 2 Shortcut Arithmetic Operators► As you might expect, you can use two minus signs (--) before or after a variable to decrement it
  15. 15. 2 Shortcut Arithmetic Operators► The prefix and postfix increment and decrement operators are examples of unary operators► Unary operators are those that require only one operand, such as num in the expression ++num► When an expression includes a prefix operator, the mathematical operation takes place before the expression is evaluated► When an expression includes a postfix operator, the mathematical operation takes place after the expression is evaluated
  16. 16. 2 Shortcut Arithmetic Operators► Thedifference between the results produced by the prefix and postfix operators can be subtle, but the outcome of a program can vary greatly depending on which increment operator you use in an expression
  17. 17. 2 Evaluating Boolean Expressions► The unary operator ! Means not, and essentially reverses the true/false value of an expression
  18. 18. 2 Selection► Computer programs seem smart because of their ability to use selections or make decisions► C++ lets you perform selections in a number of ways:  The if statement  The switch statement  The if operator  Logical AND and Logical OR
  19. 19. 2 Some Sample Selection Statements within a C++ Program
  20. 20. 2 The if Statement► Any C++ expression can be evaluated as part of an if statement
  21. 21. 2 The switch Statement► When you want to create different outcomes depending on specific values of a variable, you can use a series of ifs shown in the program statement in Figure 2-14► As an alternative to the long string of ifs shown in Figure 2-14, you can use the switch statement► The switch can contain any number of cases in any order
  22. 22. 2 The if Operator► Another alternative to the if statement involves the if operator (also called the conditional operator), which is represented by a question mark (?)► E.g.► cout<<(driveAge<26)?”The driver is under 26”:”The driver is at least 26”;► The if operator provides a concise way to express two alternatives► The conditional operator is an example of a ternary operator, one that takes three operands instead of just one or two
  23. 23. 2 Logical AND and Logical OR► In some programming situations, two or more conditions must be true to initiate an action► Figure 2-16 works correctly using a nested if— that is, one if statement within another if statement► If numVisits is not greater than 5, the statement is finished—the second comparison does not even take place► Alternatively, a logical AND (&&) can be used, as shown in Figure 2-17
  24. 24. 2 Logical AND and Logical OR
  25. 25. 2 Using the Logical OR► In certain programming situations, only one of two alternatives must be true for some action to take place► A logical OR (||) could also be used► A logical OR is a compound boolean expression in which either of two conditions must be true for the entire expression to evaluate as true► Table 2-4 shows how C++ evaluates any expression that uses the || operator
  26. 26. 2 Using the Logical OR
  27. 27. 2 The while Loop► Loops provide a mechanism with which to perform statements repeatedly and, just as important, to stop that performance when warranted while (boolean expression) statement;► In C++, the while statement can be used to loop► The variable count, shown in the program in Figure 2-21, is often called a loop-control variable, because it is the value of count that controls whether the loop body continues to execute
  28. 28. 2 The for Statement► The for statement represents an alternative to the while statement► It is most often used in a definite loop, or a loop that must execute a definite number of times► It takes the form: for (initialize; evaluate; alter) statement;
  29. 29. Thanks

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