Comprehension Skill


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Comprehension Skill

  2. 2. COMPREHENSION SKILLS • Previewing • Making Inferences • Understanding Paragraphs • Patterns of Organization • Skimming • Summarizing • Critical Reading
  3. 3. Previewing an Article or an Essay • Look at most of the first paragraph, the first sentence of each paragraph and the concluding sentences • Ask youself questions as follows:
  4. 4. Previewing questions for an article • What is it about? What is the title? What do I already know about this? • What kind of text is this?Is it a description? An argument? A narrative? • Is the text divided into parts? How is it organized? • Are there any maps, numbers, italicized words, or names in the text?
  5. 5. Previewing a Textbook • Read the table of content • Read the outline of a chapter to find out what they contain • Preview the text in a chapter or a section of a chapter before reading it
  6. 6. Previewing a Textbook Passage • Read the main heading • Check to see if the passage is divided into parts • Read the first few sentences • Read the first sentence of each paragraph after that • Read the final sentence of the passage
  7. 7. Making Inferences In addition to reading the words, a reader uses his imagination and knowledge about the world to fill in facts and ideas that are not stated in the text.
  8. 8. Separating Fact from Inference • Facts are statements of information that can be verified Example: Her election campaign in Chile was based on promises of social and economic reform aimed at more equality • Inferences are educated guesses that are based on facts. Example: People in Chile want changes in their society and economy
  9. 9. Understanding Paragraph A. Identifying the Topic of a Paragraph - the topic is the word or phrase that best describes what all of the sentences in the paragraph are about - words related to the topic are usually repeated several times in a paragraph
  10. 10. B. Topic Sentence • usually near the beginning of a paragraph • Can also be found in the middle or at the end
  11. 11. C. Main Ideas of Paragraph • Topic Sentences and Main Ideas In addition to stating the topic, most of sentences also tells the writer’s main idea (the idea that the writer wants to express about the topic)
  12. 12. D. Inferring the main Idea In some paragraphs, the topic sentence may not state the complete main idea. The topic may be stated in one sentence, and the writer’s idea about the topic may be expressed in another sentence or in several sentences to infer the complete main idea. Note: To make sure that it is really expressing a complete idea, the main idea statement should always be stated in a complete sentence with a subject and verb
  13. 13. E. Connecting Ideas in Paragraphs • Pronouns as Connector - Personal pronouns ( He, it they, him, etc) - Possessive pronouns ( His, her, etc) - Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, etc) - Relative pronouns ( Which, who, etc) • Transition Words and Phrases as Connector)