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Sage(salvia officinalis)

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Salvia officinalis
Salvia officinalis
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Sage(salvia officinalis)

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Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.

Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.

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Sage(salvia officinalis)

  1. 1. By: Raju Bishnoi 14111033 Sage (Salvia officinalis)
  2. 2. • Common name: Common sage, Kitchen sage • Family: Lamiaceae • Genus: Salvia • Distribution: Yugoslavia, Italy, Albania, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Cyprus, England, Canada, USA and India. • Common Indian name:  Hindi: Salvia, Sefakus  Malayalam: Salvi tulasi  Bengali: Bui tulasi  Panjabi: Sathi Salvia officinalis
  3. 3. • Cultivars are quite variable in size, leaf and flower color :- o Brownish stem is 2-3 feet high , hairy and with few branches. o Leaves are greyish green, 7-8 cm long. On drying, leaves turns into silvery grey. o The flowers can be blue, purple, or white in colors. • It is a common ingredient of tooth-powders. • it is commonly used spice in western countries in food supplements. It is used for flavouring meat and fish dishes. • The leaf is used to make medicine. • Extraction of phenolics compounds, flavonoids and other components from sage (Salvia officinalis) performed by ethanol–water mixture method. Commonly used for rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosinic acid. Salvia officinalis
  4. 4. Chemical constituents Monoterpenes(α-Pinene, β-Pinene, Camphor, Borneol, thujone), Diterpenes(carnosol, ursolic acid), Triterpenes(Oleanolic acid, uvaol, betulinic acid), Phenolic acid(Salvianolic acid, Rosmarinic acid, Lithospermate B, caffeic acid, luteolin 7-O-glucoside), Flavonoids(apigenin, Hispidine) etc. Carnosic acid Rosmarinic acid Salvianolic acid
  5. 5. • ALZHEIMER'S TREATMENT Rosmarinic acid enhance the activity of acetylcholine by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterage(AChE) enzyme. Taking extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis) 1g/day for 4 months seems to improve learning, memory and information processing. • MENTAL PERFORMANCE Sage tea is often referred to as “thinker’s tea”. Research published in the June 2003 issue of Pharmacological Biochemical Behavior has shown that even small amounts of sage or sage tea can increase recall abilities, alertness and attention and helps to deal with depression. • BONE STRENGTH One of the most overlooked benefits of sage is actually its superior level of vitamin K, an essential vitamin for the body that isn’t found in many common foods. If someone suffer from early signs of osteoporosis or have lived a rather nutrient-poor, bone health is likely low. Adding sage leaves in diet can increase your vitamin K result as a improvement in bone strength. Medicinal use
  6. 6. • ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Sage contain numerous antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds ( carnosol, carnosic and rosmarinic acids, rosmadial, rosmanol, epirosmanol, salvianolic acid) and flavonoids (apigenin, hispidine).Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of the plant. • DIABETES Sage extracts has anti-hyperglycemic properties. Studies have shown that this tea holds potential for lowering blood sugar levels in the body. Drinking sage tea regularly may help to do this, proving an effect supplement for diabetics and it may also have the potential to help encourage insulin production in the body. • CANCER Carnosol, Carnosic acid, beta-ursolic acid are responsible for anti-cancer activity of sage. These compounds arrest the cancer cells development at different phase of cell cycle. Medicinal use(contd...)
  7. 7. • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES It reduce the inflammations of the skin, inflammation due to fever by reducing the inflammatory response by altering the concentration of inflammatory messaging molecules. The flavonoids and phenolic compounds found in sage are responsible for these beneficial effects. • ANTIFUNGAL, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES The presence of camphor and camphene in gives it an antifungal property. These are capable of inhibiting fungal infections and gives relief from fungal infections like skin diseases. The components which give protection against fungal infections also provide protection against microbial infections too. • OTHER USES Digestion, Sunburn, Obesity, Stomach pain Medicinal use(contd...)
  8. 8. • Sage is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken it's high doses or for a long time because contain a chemical called “thujone”. • Thujone is a monoterpene and act as a gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist. • This chemical can cause seizure or can damage to the liver and nervous systems. Side effects and Precautions
  9. 9. • Taking sage during pregnancy is LIKELY UNSAFE because of the possibility of consuming thujone, this could cause a miscarriage. • Stop using common sage as a medicine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery. • Sage might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar and monitor blood sugar carefully if someone have diabetes. • Common sage might lower blood pressure in people with blood pressure that is already low so while taking sage, Be sure to monitor your blood pressure. • Adults can consume up to 3 cups of sage tea each day, but may depends upon health of a person. Side effects and Precautions (contd...)
  10. 10. • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4003706/ • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769154/ • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923227/ • http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380534014_Melo%20et%20al.pdf • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814606002913 • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923227/ • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11684396/ • http://www.microbiologyresearch.org/docserver/fulltext/jmm/60/5/612_jmm027748.pdf?expires=14871 85169&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=D310FE47D8D2ECC44B592E26D2DAC77A • http://www.indianspices.com/spice-catalog/sage References
  11. 11. Thank you

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