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B.sc i ecls_u-1.5_nouns number

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B.sc i ecls_u-1.5_nouns number

  1. 1. Nouns: NUMBER Course – B.Sc. Subject – English Communication and Life Skills Unit – 1
  2. 2. Nouns: Number • Nouns: Number – A word which indicates whether a noun is singular or plural is known as number. • A noun has two numbers: a) The Singular Number b) The Plural Number
  3. 3. Kinds of Nouns: Number • A noun that denotes one person or thing, is said to be in the Singular Number; as, boy, book, pencil, tree, river, etc. • A noun that denotes more than one person or thing, is said to be in the Plural Number; as boys, books, pencils, trees, rivers, etc. • Thus, there are two numbers in English – the Singular and the Plural.
  4. 4. How are Plurals formed? • Singular denotes ‘one’ and Plural denotes ‘more than one’.
  5. 5. RULE: 1 • Nouns ending with ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘x’, ‘s’, ‘ss’ form their plurals by adding “es” to the singular: • “es” is pronounced as ‘iz’ Batch – batches Brush – brushes Box – boxes Glass – glasses Branch – branches Dish – dishes Tax – taxes Class - Classes Catch – catches Bush - bushes Fax - faxes Cross - crosses Inch – inches Church – churches Sandwich – Sandwiches Kiss – kisses Patch – patches Match – matches Beach – beaches Lass - lasses Torch – torches Peach – Peaches Crash – crashes Guess - guesses Bench – benches Watch - watches Reflex – reflexes Address - addresses Bunch – Bunches Ash - Ashes Virus – viruses Atlas – atlases
  6. 6. EXCEPTION TO RULE: 1 • Ox – ends in x but we add “en” to make it Plural. • Ox – Oxen. Stomach – ends in ch but we add “s” stomachs. • Other words: Wax - waxes Fox – foxes Wish – Wishes Bus – Buses Loss – Losses Pitch – Pitches Gas – Gases Dress - Dresses
  7. 7. RULE: 2 • Nouns ending in “o” add “es” to make Plural. Tomato – tomatoes Volcano – volcanoes Potato – potatoes Motto – mottoes Cargo – cargoes Avocado – avocadoes Hero – heroes Domino – dominoes Echo – echoes Dingo – dingoes Buffalo – buffaloes Veto – vetoes Mango – mangoes Embargo - embargoes Mosquito - mosquitoes Negro - negroes
  8. 8. Cargo - Cargoes
  9. 9. Dingo - Dingoes
  10. 10. Domino - Dominoes Volcano - Volcanoes
  11. 11. Negro - Negroes
  12. 12. Avocado – Avocados/Avocadoes
  13. 13. Exceptions to Rule: 2 Canto – Cantos Memento – Mementos Commando - Commandos Kilo – Kilos Logo – Logos Bamboo – bamboos Solo – Solos Ratio - Ratios Eskimo - Eskimos Piano – Pianos Radio - Radios Kangaroo – Kangaroos Photo – Photos Stereo – Stereos Video - Videos
  14. 14. Continued – Exceptions to Rule 2 Zoo – zoos Patio – Patios Taco – Tacos Casino – Casinos Zero – Zeros Sombrero - Sombreros
  15. 15. Sombrero - Sombreros
  16. 16. Taco - Tacos
  17. 17. Kangaroo - Kangaroos
  18. 18. Patio - Patios
  19. 19. Eskimo - Eskimos
  20. 20. RULE: 3 • Nouns ending in ‘y’, preceded by a consonant, form plural by removing ‘y’ and adding “ies” Lady - Ladies City - Cities Baby - Babies Army – Armies Story - Stories Pony - Ponies Body - Bodies Country – Countries Copy - Copies Cry - Cries Duty - Duties Family – Families Diary – Diaries Fairy – fairies Fly - flies Reply – replies Berry - berries Party - parties Jelly – Jellies Belly – Bellies Cherry – cherries Daisy - daisies Ferry - ferries Remedy – remedies
  21. 21. Exceptions to Rule: 3 Day - days Ray - Rays Monkey – Monkeys Play – plays Key - Keys Donkey - Donkeys Boy - boys Delay - delays Toy – toys Joy - Joys Chimney - Chimneys Valley - Valleys
  22. 22. RULE: 4 • Nouns which end in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ add “ves” to make plural: Leaf – Leaves Wife - Wives Life - Lives Thief – thieves Loaf - Loaves Half - Halves Calf - Calves Knife – Knives Self - Selves Wolf - Wolves Shelf - Shelves Elf - Elves
  23. 23. EXCEPTION TO RULE: 4 Chief - Chiefs Handkerchief - handkerchiefs Dwarf – dwarfs Belief - beliefs Roof - roofs Proof – proofs Cliff - Cliffs Gulf - gulfs Safe – Safes Cuff – cuffs Giraffe – Giraffes Reef – reefs Hoof – hoofs Earmuff - earmuffs Dandruff – dandruffs
  24. 24. Cliff - Cliffs Reef - Reefs
  25. 25. Gulf - Gulfs Earmuff - Earmuffs
  26. 26. Dandruff - Dandruffs Hoof - Hoofs
  27. 27. Important • Sometimes a word may completely change its form when a plural is made: Child - children Man - men Woman – women Goose - geese Mouse - mice Louse – lice Tooth - teeth Foot - feet Person – people Fungi - fungus Datum - data Cactus – Cacti Radius - radii Formula – formulae/formulas Agendum – agenda Brother - brethren Medium - Media Syllabus – Syllabi/syllabuses
  28. 28. Some words may same the same in their Singular and Plural forms: Deer - Deer Sheep - Sheep Scissors – Scissors News - News Information - Information Series – Series Trousers - Trousers Socks - Socks Shorts – Shorts Goods - Goods Valuable - Valuables Spectacles – Spectacles Surroundings - Surroundings Eatables - Eatables Billiards – Billiards Wages - Wages Rice - rice Luggage – Luggage Furniture - Furniture Dozen – dozen Hundred – hundred Thousand – thousand Water - Water Jeans – Jeans
  29. 29. Exercise 1 This - These • This is a box. • These are boxes. • This is a lady. • These are ladies. • This is a story. • These are stories • This is a knife. • These are knives. That - Those • That is a potato. • Those are potatoes. • That is a pen. • Those are pens. • That is a buffalo. • Those are buffaloes. • That is a leaf. • Those are leaves.
  30. 30. Exercise 2 One - Many • One glass – many glasses. • One dish – many dishes. • One tomato – many tomatoes. • One army – many armies. • One wife – many wives. • One pencil – many pencils. • One mouse – many mice. • One louse – many lice. One - Some • One school – some schools. • One brush – some brushes. • One watch – some watches. • One mango – some mangoes. • One hero – some heroes. • One city – some cities. • One match – some matches. • One mosquito – some mosquitoes.
  31. 31. Exercise 3 There is … • There is one branch in this tree. • There is a sharpener on the table. • There is an eraser in my bag. • There is a cow in the field. • There is a leaf on the road. • There is a mobile in the shop. There are … • There are many/few branches in this tree. • There are many/some sharpeners on the table. • There are erasers in my bag. • There are cows in the field. • There are leaves on the road. • There are mobiles in the shop.
  32. 32. Recourses/References • Advanced English Grammar by Wren and Martine • https://www.google.co.in/search?q=images+noun+plural+and+singular&biw • www.google.co.in/search?q=images+noun+plural+and+singular • www.google.co.in/search

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