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Bdft i, ftmu, unit-i, iii, textile fiber & yarn classification,

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Fashion Design & Textile, Textile Fiber & Yarn Classification

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Bdft i, ftmu, unit-i, iii, textile fiber & yarn classification,

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2 The Textile industry of India important, after agriculture, is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor in textiles. The textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country
  3. 3.  The archaeological surveys and studies have found that the people of Harrapan Civilization[ knew weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand years ago. Reference to weaving and spinning materials is found in the Vedic Literature also. 3
  4. 4.  There was textile trade in India during the early centuries.A block printed and resist-dyed fabrics, whose origin is from Gujarat is found in tombs of Fostat, Egypt.  This proves that Indian export of cotton textiles to the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in medieval times were to a large extent. Large quantity of north Indian silk were traded through the silk route in China to the western countries. The Indian silk were often exchanged with 4
  5. 5.  India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre produced is cotton. Other fibres produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based.  There has been increase in India's share of global textile trading to seven percent in five years 5
  6. 6.  Fiber (Spinning & Twisting, Finishing)  Yarn ( Weaving, Knitting)  Fabric ( Dyeing, Printing, Finishing) 6
  7. 7. 7 Classification of fibers can be done by: Type (Natural and manufactured) Length (Short staple, long staple, continuous filament) Size (Ultra fine, fine, regular, course)
  8. 8. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 4 8 1.
  9. 9. 1. Natural fibers, consisting of animal and plant fibers 2. Man-made or manufactured/synthetic fibers 9
  10. 10. Animal fibers (made of proteins):  Wool from sheep, cashmere and mohair from goats, angora from rabbits, and hair from alpacas, llamas, and camels are commonly used in textiles.  Shimmering (shine) silk from caterpillar (worm) cocoons is longer and not as easily shed.  Triangular structure scatters light like a prism 10
  11. 11. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 4 11 2. 3
  12. 12. Plant fibers (made of the polymer cellulose):  Seeds, fruits, stems & leaves  can absorb water  are insoluble in water  are very resistant to damage from harsh chemicals  can only be dissolved by strong acids  can be common at crime scenes because they become brittle over time 12
  13. 13. Plant fibers:  Cotton from seedpods is the plant fiber most commonly used in textiles (shown above).  Can be woven & dyed easily  Coir from coconuts is durable.  Hemp, jute, and flax from stems grow in bundles.  Flax is the most common, found in linen  Manila and sisal from leaves deteriorate more quickly.  Manila is from abaca leaves, related to the banana tree 13
  14. 14. 14  Cellulosic fiber  From “bolls” (seed pods) growing on bushes  Comfortable  Soft and durable  Porous or leaky, cool to wear  “Environmentally friendly” cotton can be grown in a range of colors Many cottons are also blended with other natural fibers, such as linen, for particular properties
  15. 15. 15  World’s oldest textile fiber  Cellulosic fiber from stem of flax plant  Stiff, wrinkles (folds) easily  Absorbent (leaky), cool to wear in heat  Other uses – Dish towels – TableclothsFlax is the fiber name; linen is the fabric name.
  16. 16. 16 4.5
  17. 17. Mineral Fibers:  Fiberglass is a fibrous form of glass.  Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral with a crystalline structure.  Very durable  Pipe coverings, brake linings, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, fire- resistant work clothes, shingles, siding, insulation  When it’s broken, fibers shatter into tiny fragments that become airborne. If inhaled, they cut the lungs and scar tissue may become cancerous. 17
  18. 18.  Until the nineteenth century only plant and animal fibers were used to make clothes and textiles.  Half the products produced today are artificially produced.  Regenerated fibers or Polymers  Polymers are monomers joined together  Artificially produced fibers include rayon, acetate, nylon, acrylics, and polyesters. 18
  19. 19. Regenerated Fibers (derived from cellulose):  Rayon is the most common of this type of fiber. It can imitate (duplicate) natural fibers, but it is stronger. 19
  20. 20. Synthetic Polymer Fibers:  Petroleum is the basis for these fibers, and they have very different characteristics from other fibers.  Non-cellulose  They have no internal structures, and under magnification they show regular diameters. 20
  21. 21. nylon Examples of synthetic polymer fibers:  Polyester—found in “polar fleece,” wrinkle-resistant, and not easily broken down by light or concentrated acid; added to natural fibers for strength.  Nylon—easily broken down by light and concentrated acid; otherwise similar to polyester.  Acrylic—inexpensive, tends to “ball” easily, and used as an artificial wool or fur.  Olefins—high performance, quick drying, and resistant to wear. 21
  22. 22.  Man-made fibers are not damaged by microorganisms like natural fibers  Man-made fibers can deteriorate in bright sunlight and melt at a lower temperature than natural fibers. 22
  23. 23. Visual Diagnostics of Some Common Textile Fibers under Magnification 23 66.
  24. 24. 24 Yarns can be described as single, or one-ply; ply, plied, or folded; or as cord, including cable and hawser types. 7
  25. 25.  spun yarn—composed of short-staple fibers that are twisted or otherwise bonded together; fuzzy yarn with protruding ends  filament yarn—composed of long fibers grouped together or slightly twisted • smooth filament yarns—straight, almost parallel fibers 25 8.
  26. 26.  twist— • spiral arrangement of fibers around yarn’s axis • produced by rotating one end while holding the other stationary • binds fibers together & contributes to strength • Specified by number of turns per unit length—turns per inch (tpi) or turns per meter (tpm)  direction— 26 9.
  27. 27. Single yarns Single, or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; Single yarns of the spun type, composed of many short fibres, require twist to hold them together and may be made with either S-twist or Z-twist. Single yarns are used to make the greatest variety of fabrics. 27
  28. 28.  Ply, plied, or folded, yarns are composed of two or more single yarns twisted together.. When both the single strands and the final ply yarns are twisted in the same direction, the fibre is firmer, producing harder texture and reducing flexibility. Ply yarns provide strength for heavy industrial fabrics and are also used for delicate-looking sheer fabrics. 28
  29. 29. 29 10.
  30. 30.  Cord yarns are produced by twisting ply yarns together, with the final twist usually applied in the opposite direction of the ply twist. Cable cords may follow an SZS form, with S- twisted singles made into Z-twisted plies that are then combined with an S-twist, or may follow a ZSZ form. Hawser cord may follow an SSZ or a ZZS pattern. Cord yarns may be used as rope or twine, may be made into very heavy industrial fabrics, or may be composed of extremely fine fibres that are made up into sheer dress fabrics. 30
  31. 31.  Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with such special effects as slubs, produced by intentionally including small lumps in the yarn structure, and man-made yarns with varying thickness introduced during production. Natural fibres, including some linens, wools to be woven into tweed, and the uneven filaments of some types of silk cloth are allowed to retain their normal irregularities, producing the characteristic uneven surface of the finished fabric. 31
  32. 32.  Texturizing processes were originally applied to man-made fibres to reduce such characteristics as transparency, slipperiness, and the possibility of pilling (formation of small fibre tangles on a fabric surface). Texturizing processes make yarns more opaque, improve appearance and texture, and increase warmth and absorbency. Textured yarns are man- made continuous filaments, modified to impart special texture and appearance. 32
  33. 33. 33 11
  34. 34. 1) http://www.fashiondesignscope.com/?p=3990 2) http://www.singingfalls.com/mohair.html 3) http://busynothings-jk.blogspot.in/2012/06/maryland-sheep- wool-festival.html 4) http://skindesigns.wordpress.com/2011/05/19/why-choose- natural-fibers-over-synthetic/ 5) http://bellavitabotanicals.com/wordpress/archives/6480 34
  35. 35. 6) http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/wp- content/uploads/2014/03/clip_image00918.jpg 7) https://www.google.co.in/search?q=linen+fiber&biw 8) https://www.google.co.in/search?q=linen+fiber&biw 9) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yarn 10) http://buddhajeans.com/dictionary/ply-yarn/ 11) http://www.otleycourthouse.org.uk/regular-activities/more- information/pic-n-knits/ 35

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