Bdft i, ftmu, unit-i, iii, textile fiber & yarn classification,
The Textile industry of India important, after
agriculture, is the only industry that has generated
huge employment for both skilled and unskilled
labor in textiles. The textile industry continues to be
the second largest employment generating sector in
India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million
in the country
The archaeological surveys and studies have found
that the people of Harrapan Civilization[
weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand
years ago. Reference to weaving and spinning
materials is found in the Vedic Literature also.
There was textile trade in India during the early
centuries.A block printed and resist-dyed fabrics,
whose origin is from Gujarat is found in tombs of
This proves that Indian export of cotton textiles to
the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in medieval times
were to a large extent. Large quantity of north
Indian silk were traded through the silk route in
China to the western countries. The Indian silk were
often exchanged with
India is the second largest producer of fibre in the
world and the major fibre produced is cotton. Other
fibres produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and
man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry
is cotton based.
There has been increase in India's share of global
textile trading to seven percent in five years
1. Natural fibers, consisting of animal and plant
2. Man-made or manufactured/synthetic fibers
Animal fibers (made of proteins):
Wool from sheep, cashmere and mohair from
goats, angora from rabbits, and hair from
alpacas, llamas, and camels are commonly
used in textiles.
Shimmering (shine) silk from caterpillar
(worm) cocoons is longer and not as easily
Triangular structure scatters light like a prism
Plant fibers (made of the polymer cellulose):
Seeds, fruits, stems & leaves
can absorb water
are insoluble in water
are very resistant to damage from harsh
can only be dissolved by strong acids
can be common at crime scenes because
they become brittle over time
Cotton from seedpods is the plant fiber most
commonly used in textiles (shown above).
Can be woven & dyed easily
Coir from coconuts is durable.
Hemp, jute, and flax from stems grow in bundles.
Flax is the most common, found in linen
Manila and sisal from leaves deteriorate more
Manila is from abaca leaves, related to the banana tree
From “bolls” (seed pods)
growing on bushes
Soft and durable
Porous or leaky, cool to
cotton can be grown in a
range of colors
Many cottons are also
blended with other natural
fibers, such as linen, for
World’s oldest textile fiber
Cellulosic fiber from stem
of flax plant
Stiff, wrinkles (folds) easily
Absorbent (leaky), cool to
wear in heat
– Dish towels
– TableclothsFlax is the fiber name;
linen is the fabric name.
Fiberglass is a fibrous form of glass.
Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral with a
Pipe coverings, brake linings, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, fire-
resistant work clothes, shingles, siding, insulation
When it’s broken, fibers shatter into tiny fragments that
become airborne. If inhaled, they cut the lungs and scar
tissue may become cancerous.
Until the nineteenth century only plant and
animal fibers were used to make clothes and
Half the products produced today are
Regenerated fibers or Polymers
Polymers are monomers joined together
Artificially produced fibers include rayon, acetate,
nylon, acrylics, and polyesters.
Regenerated Fibers (derived from cellulose):
Rayon is the most common of this type of fiber.
It can imitate (duplicate) natural fibers, but it is
Synthetic Polymer Fibers:
Petroleum is the basis for these fibers, and they
have very different characteristics from other
They have no internal structures, and under
magnification they show regular diameters.
Examples of synthetic polymer fibers:
Polyester—found in “polar fleece,” wrinkle-resistant, and not
easily broken down by light or concentrated acid; added to
natural fibers for strength.
Nylon—easily broken down by light and concentrated acid;
otherwise similar to polyester.
Acrylic—inexpensive, tends to “ball” easily, and used as an
artificial wool or fur.
Olefins—high performance, quick drying, and resistant to
Man-made fibers are not damaged by
microorganisms like natural fibers
Man-made fibers can deteriorate in bright
sunlight and melt at a lower temperature than
Visual Diagnostics of Some Common Textile Fibers
Yarns can be
described as single,
or one-ply; ply,
plied, or folded; or
as cord, including
cable and hawser
spun yarn—composed of short-staple fibers that are
twisted or otherwise bonded together; fuzzy yarn with
filament yarn—composed of long fibers grouped
together or slightly twisted
• smooth filament yarns—straight, almost parallel fibers
• spiral arrangement of fibers around yarn’s axis
• produced by rotating one end while holding the other
• binds fibers together & contributes to strength
• Specified by number of turns per unit length—turns
per inch (tpi) or turns per meter (tpm)
Single, or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of
fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist;
Single yarns of the spun type, composed of many short
fibres, require twist to hold them together and may be
made with either S-twist or Z-twist. Single yarns are
used to make the greatest variety of fabrics.
Ply, plied, or folded, yarns are composed of two or
more single yarns twisted together.. When both the
single strands and the final ply yarns are twisted in the
same direction, the fibre is firmer, producing harder
texture and reducing flexibility. Ply yarns provide
strength for heavy industrial fabrics and are also used
for delicate-looking sheer fabrics.
Cord yarns are produced by twisting ply yarns together, with
the final twist usually applied in the opposite direction of the
ply twist. Cable cords may follow an SZS form, with S-
twisted singles made into Z-twisted plies that are then
combined with an S-twist, or may follow a ZSZ form.
Hawser cord may follow an SSZ or a ZZS pattern. Cord
yarns may be used as rope or twine, may be made into very
heavy industrial fabrics, or may be composed of extremely
fine fibres that are made up into sheer dress fabrics.
Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with
such special effects as slubs, produced by intentionally
including small lumps in the yarn structure, and man-made
yarns with varying thickness introduced during production.
Natural fibres, including some linens, wools to be woven
into tweed, and the uneven filaments of some types of silk
cloth are allowed to retain their normal irregularities,
producing the characteristic uneven surface of the finished
Texturizing processes were originally applied to man-made
fibres to reduce such characteristics as transparency,
slipperiness, and the possibility of pilling (formation of small
fibre tangles on a fabric surface). Texturizing processes make
yarns more opaque, improve appearance and texture, and
increase warmth and absorbency. Textured yarns are man-
made continuous filaments, modified to impart special
texture and appearance.