Caribbean 2013


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  • TABLE 5.1
  • Caribbean 2013

    1. 1. Chapter 5 1
    2. 2. Learning Objectives  Compare and contrast two seemingly similar regions (Latin America and Caribbean)  Understand the following concepts and models  Plantation system  “Brain drain”  Hurricanes  Remittances  Free trade zones  Offshore banking FIGURE 5.6 Los Roques Islands 2
    3. 3. Introduction  Setting the boundaries  Islands and “rimland” (coastal Belize and the Guianas)  Cultural diversity greater than Latin America  Caribbean includes 26 countries and dependent territories,     located on Caribbean Sea Europeans, then the United States, influenced the region Plantation agriculture is important. Tie to deforestation High population densities, environmental problems Economy based on tourism, offshore banking, manufacturing, exports (e.g., flowers)  Disparities in wealth in the region 3
    4. 4. Environmental Geography: Paradise Undone  Agriculture’s legacy of deforestation  Europeans cleared much of the tropical rainforest to grow sugarcane, to produce fuel to refine sugar, to build houses and other structures, and because it was viewed as unproductive. Plantations usually consisted of one cash crop which was exported.  Haiti’s forests almost gone; used for charcoal  Managing the rimland forests  Rimland: coastal zone of mainland, from Belize to South America  Less threatened, has more forests; supports diverse wildlife; conservation is successful FIGURE 5.7 European Space Agency Center, Kourou, French Guiana 4
    5. 5. 5
    6. 6. Physical Geography of the Caribbean Because the region is located at the juxtaposition of plates, many of the islands are volcanic in orgin—high hazard potential. 6
    7. 7. Environmental Issues in the Caribbean What are the difficulties of being an island? 7
    8. 8. The Caribbean and Climate Change  Rising sea level  3 to 10 feet in this century  Bahamas most vulnerable: could lose 30 percent of its land  Belize, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname also affected  25 to 30 percent of people could be displaced  Increased storm intensity, including hurricanes  More variable rainfall (floods, droughts)  Loss of biodiversity in forests and coral reefs 8
    9. 9. Some photos of the marine life in the Belize Reef, one of the most biologically diverse marine ecosystems. The region is also blessed in terms of its biogeography, making it a sought out location for tourism, a main contributor to the economy. Tourism however is also detrimental to the environment. 9
    10. 10. Climate Map of the Caribbean • Most of the region is classified as having either a tropical wet (Af) or tropical savanna (Aw) climate. • Temperature varies little across the region. • Important differences in total rainfall and the timing of the dry season distinguish different places 10
    11. 11. What are the hazards of the Caribbean?  Dr. Chris Emrich, University of South Carolina  Please see video under the “Geography Department videos” button.  You may need to download Quick Time first.  Length is about 5 minutes  As you watch make a list of the hazards that he discusses. 11
    12. 12. 12
    13. 13. Kingston Harbor, Jamaica 13
    14. 14. Population of the Caribbean The major population centers are on the islands of the Greater Antilles. The pattern here, as in the rest of Latin America, is a tendency toward greater urbanism. The largest city of the region is Santo Domingo, followed by Havana. In comparison, the rimland states are very lightly settled. 14
    15. 15.  87 percent of the region’s population is concentrated on the four islands of the Greater Antilles  Largest population in Cuba; Puerto Rico has highest population density  Demographic trends  Region is currently growing at a rate of 1.2 percent  Fertility decline  Education, urbanization, preference for smaller families  The rise of HIV/AIDS  Infection rate more than twice that of North America  More than 1 % of Caribbean population ages 15 to 49 has HIV/AIDS; Haiti, Guyana, Belize, over 2 % 15
    16. 16. European Settlement  What did the Europeans want from the Caribbean region?  Land for plantation  But diseases wiped out native populations  Imported labor from abroad  Slaves from Africa  European countries out lawed slavery  Later on indentured servants from Asia 16
    17. 17. COLONIAL SPHERES 17
    18. 18. Colonial History Country Independence in: From: Haiti 1804 France Dominican Republic 1844 UK Cuba 1898 Spanish Suriname 1954 Netherlands Jamaica 1960’s UK Bahamas 1973 UK Dominica 1978 UK Belize 1981 UK St. Kitts and Nevis 1983 UK 18
    19. 19. Territories Today  British  Cayman Islands  Turks and Caicos  Anguilla  Montserrat  French  French Guiana  Martinique  Guadeloupe  Dutch  Curacao  Bonaire  St. Martin  Saba  USA  Puerto Rico 19
    20. 20. Why do so many of the territories in the Caribbean still remain part of the colonial system? 20
    21. 21. Migration  Caribbean diaspora: the economic flight of Caribbean peoples across the globe As a region, the Caribbean has one of the highest negative rates of net migration in the world, at –3.0. That means for every 1,000 people in the region, 3.0 annually leave. Pull towards the former colonial powers This migration pattern has spread aspects of Caribbean culture around the world. FIGURE 5.12 Caribbean Diaspora 21
    22. 22. Looking at it another way, notice that many countries have a negative migration rate—people are moving out. 22
    23. 23. Urban Geography  The contrast between urban and rural is not as stark here as in other regions.  Rural activities in urban settings  Influence of plantation and subsistence farming.   Arable lands were owned by elite; small plots for subsistence agriculture Large urban centers were unnecessary  Houseyards – small, enclosed properties of half acre or less  Typifies blending of rural subsistence, economic survival, and matriarchy 23
    24. 24. The look of the city  Cities were laid out on a grid like their Spanish counterparts   Heavily fortified Easier to control native populations  Housing   As urbanization occurred, thousands poured into the cities  Erected shantytowns; filled informal sector  Electricity pirated from power lines In Cuba, government-built apartment blocks reflect socialism  Housing landscape homogeneity 24
    25. 25. Houseyard Features: • Elements of subsistence farming, animals, trees • Extended family residents • Rental units (sometimes) • Fence • Private space in urban area—few outsiders • Matriarchal—women household heads • Many household members work in city and migrate for work in tourist industry 25
    26. 26. In this map of the Kingston Jamaica, notice that the city is an amalgamation of houseyards in the interior. Most of the city’s infrastructure is on the harbor side and is to service tourism. 26
    27. 27. 27
    28. 28. 28
    29. 29. Language is ALWAYS a clue to culture. This map shows the official language in the area. None of these are native, all are imposed by colonialism. 29
    30. 30. African influences At least 10 million Africans landed in the Americas during the four centuries in which the Atlantic slave trade operated. Most of the slaves came from West Africa, especially the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and the Bight of Biafra (now Nigeria). Angola, in southern Africa, was also an important source area. Area sometimes referred to as NeoAfrica (new Africa), 30
    31. 31. Creating a Neo-Africa  Maroon societies  Communities of escaped slaves (“Maroons”)  Many short-lived, but others survived and helped African traditions and farming practices to survive  Exist in isolated areas, e.g., the Bush Negroes of Suriname 31
    32. 32. African religions FIGURE 5.20 African Religious Influences • Most strongly associated with northeastern Brazil and the Caribbean • Voodoo most widely practiced • Great example of religious syncretism 32
    33. 33. Creolization  Blending of African, European, Amerindian cultural elements into a unique system  Language     Spanish (24 million) French (8 million) English (6 million) Dutch (500,000)  How does this relate to the African Diaspora?  How does this relate to colonization? FIGURE 5.21 Caribbean Language Map 33
    34. 34. Caribbean states The cultural diversity persists today. Country Pop den. Ethnicity Literacy Unemployment Antigua & Barbuda 338 Black, UK, Port, Lebanese 4% 9% Belize 28 Mestizo, Creole, Maya, Garafunda 91% 13% Bahamas 55 Black, White 90% 9% Haiti 641 Black, Mulatto, European 53% 60% Guyana 8 East Indian, Black, Mulatto, Amerindian, Chinese, European 99% 12% Jamaica 601 African, Euro., East Indian, White, Chinese 98% 4% 36
    35. 35. Creolization and Caribbean identity  Music  Several forms emerged in the region  Reggae, calypso, merengue, rumba, zouk, Afro-Caribbean  Steel drums  Music of Bob Marley reflects Jamaica’s political situation FIGURE 5.22 Carnival Drummer FIGURE 5.23 Haiti’s Rara Music 37
    36. 36. 38
    37. 37. You may skip this section in the book and there will be no quiz. 39
    38. 38. 40
    39. 39.  From fields to factories and resorts  Historically linked to world economy through agriculture  Tourism, offshore banking, assembly plants more important now  Sugar  Crucial to the economic history of the Caribbean  Importance of sugarcane has declined somewhat  Since 1990, Cuban sugarcane harvest has declined by 50 percent  The banana wars  Major exporters are in Latin America (not Caribbean)    Several states in Lesser Antilles are dependent on banana production Sales depend on trade agreements and consumer whims Experiments with other crops to reduce dependence on bananas 41
    40. 40. Remittances  Money sent by immigrants to their country of origin.  Related to  Brain Drain  Caribbean Diaspora 42
    41. 41. Brain Drain and Remittances  Dr Jerry Mitchell, University of South Carolina  Both of these short videos are posted under the button “Geography Department Videos”  You may need to download Quick Time for them to play. 43
    42. 42. Poverty  A discussion of poverty in the region is the subject of your weekly topic on the discussion board. 44
    43. 43. 45