Makalah bahasa inggris

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Makalah bahasa inggris

  1. 1. makalah bahasa inggris 1. PHONETICS AS A SCIENCE 1.1. Phonetics As Part Of Linguistics The study og longueage in general is called linguistict. Which my be subdivided into phonology and grammar. Phonologi is the study of phones or speech sounds while grammar is the study of the meaningful units of sound and their arrangement into phonology and grammar. The study of speech sound may be carried out from different. When we study peech sounds : as sound without regard to regard to their function as signaling units of language science is called “ phonectics”. Study speech sounds with a view to finding out the significant units of sounds in a given language. The science is called “phonemics”. thes signeficant units of sounds distinguish utterances and are called phonemes. Phonetics is druided into two kinds namely Articulatory phonetics and acoustics. Articulatory phonetics studres speech sounds from the point of view of their ways of production by the speech organs. Acoustics on the other hand, studies speech sound from the point of view of their physicalattributes and deal among other with measuring the loudness, pitches and natural characteristics of sounds. 1.2. English Phonetics Phonetics may narrow down its scope by … 2. PRONUNCIATION PROBLEMS 2.1. Speaking is matter of habit Speaking is matter of habit. The acquistion of any habit is accomplished through. Repeated and antring prachce on the part of the learner. An Indonesian student who wants to pronounce an english world. Like “bow” / bau / tends to say / bou / such as found. In the Indonesian word “ kerbau ” . which will sound unenglish. Only through imitation. Constant drill and practice. Will he be able to pronounce the english sounds correctly. 2.2. Reasons for pronunciation problems The difficulty encountered by the student in learning a second language is couse by the different element found between his language and the target language. The degree of difficulty in learning is also determined by the degree of difference between the two languages. On the other hand this is called transfering one’s natue sounds into foreign language. Different elements in sound system between the native and the foreign language may be of several kinds. One of them is the existence of a given sound in the latter. Which is not found in the former. Another learning problem may be caused by sounds which have the same phonetic features in both languages but different their distribution. That is when and where they may occur in an utterance. This can be illustrated by the so called voiced stop consonant / b.d.g / voiceless stops that is / p /, / t / and / k /. There is still another source of difficulty that is coused by similar sounds in the two languages. Which have different variants or allophones. An allophones is a conditional variant predictable environment. 2.3. Nature of ponunciation problems One problem is concerned with the indification of the foreign sound. This is a matter of ear –
  2. 2. training. Which means that his ears must be trained and drilled in hearing the sound in question again and again till they get familiar with it and can remember its acoustic quality. Another problem has to do with the production of the foreign sounds by his organs of speech. When has heard the sound produced by someone else. He may be able to produce it himself by imitating the speaker. This is a matter of training to move the speech organs. Or also called mouth Gymnastics. Which should be practised over and over again. 3. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION 3.1. Phonetic and Orthographic Writing Writing is very important as part of man’s culture because it can be used to preserve thoughts, idea, and also speech sounds by reading the written symbols man can reproduce the sequences of speech sounds produced by the original speaker. There are several ways writing. Which can be grouped into main types. First, writing in which each character is a picture of objects or ideas. Is called picture writing or ideographic writing such as the ............ of the ancient Egyptians. Second, writing in which each character represents speech sounds. A writing system in which each character represents a syllable is called syllablery. 3.2. The use of phonetic transcription Many exercises must be done in odder to get familiar with phonetic symbols. This can be done by reading passages or words which are written in phonetic transcription, and also by transcribing his own utterances or some printed material in phonetic symbols. 3.3. Broad and Narrow Transcription Phonetic transcription were to use a separate symbol every discernible sound it would involve a very large number of symbols. Which will make phonetic transcription difficult to read. A phonetic transcription my transcribe the small differences mentioned above by using diacritics or other specifics symbols to indicate them. Phonetic transcription uses special symbols for minutely different sounds that belong to one phoneme. Such as mentioned before. A board transcription is comparatively more practical and more easily learned than a narrow transcription. Because uses the smallest number of symbols which represent sounds unambiguously. 3.4. Phonetic symbols and Their Values The following symbols are mainly adopted from the international phonetic alphabet. Which are spelled in orthography. Consonant sounds Symbols key words phonetic writing / p / part [ pa :t ] / b / bed [ bed ] / t / tell [ tel ] /d / dark [ da :k ] / k / cat [ kæt ] / g / gap [ gæp ] / f / ferry [ feri ] / v / very [ veri ] /  / thigh [ a ]
  3. 3. / ð / thy [ ðal ] / s / sea [ si : ] / z / zoo [ zu : ] /  / shoe [ u : ] / З / rouge [ ru : З ] / h / head [ hed ] / t / chain [ tein ] / dЗ / jane [ dЗein ] / m / man [ mæn ] / n / name [ neim ] / ŋ / sing [ siŋ ] / l / lap [ læp ] / r / red [ red ] /w / wet [ wet ] / y / yes [ yes ] Vowel sounds Symbols key words phonetic writing / i : / see [ si : ] / i / sit [ sit ] / e / set [ set ] / æ / sat [ sæt ] / ә / ahead [ әhed ] / ә / bird [ bә:d ] / a: / father [ fa:ðә ] / Λ / love [ lΛv ] / o / hot [ hot ] / o : / haughty [ ho :ti ] / u / pull [ pul ] / u: / food [ fu:d ] / ei / day [ dei ] / ou / so [ sou ] / ai / high [ hai ] / au / cow [ kau ] / oi / boy [ boi ] / iә / here [ hiә ] / εә / there [ ðεә ] / uә / your [ yuә ] / oә / your [ yoә ] 4. THE ORGANS OF SPEECH 4.1. Production of speech sounds Speech sound are sounds produced by the speech or vocal organs which inculde the mouth and the respiratory organs. The function of these organs is primary biological because they are used to preserve our life. 4.2. Sub – division of speech organs On the basis of their function our speech organs ............... be subdivided into the following a. Initiator
  4. 4. The initiator is the speech organs that sets the air into motion for the production of the speech sounds the main of initiator is the lungs. b. Phonator The term “ phonate “ refers to the vocal cords in the larynx. In normal breathing the two vocal cords are widely separated and thus allowing the air to go in and out freely. c. Articulator The speech organs that are used to obtrude the out going air in the production of speech sounds are called “ articulators “. 4.3. Cross section diagram of the speech organs 4.4. Articulation In obstructing the out going air usually two articulators are involved. One articulator is of the lower margin. And the other is of the upper margin. 5. SEGMENTALS AND SUPRAGMENTAL 5.1. Two speech features When a speaker produces an utterance .e.g “ good heavens “ two features can be distingushed : 1. Segmental features or just segmentals which refer to sound units arranged in a sequental features phonetically. Franscibed in the following way .................... 2. Suprasegmental feature or just suprasegmentals. Which refer to such features as stress pitch length intonation, and other feature that always accompany production of segmental. 5.2. Difference between the two speech features Segmental can be studied in isolation. Where as supra segmental cannot every utterance may be cut up or segmented into a linear sequence of segmental feature. Each can be examined and analyzed separately without considering the other segmental in the same utterance. 6. ENGLISH STRESS AND LENGTH PATTERNS 6.1. Stress defined By “ stress ” is meant the degree of force or loudness with which a syllable is pronounced so as to give it prominence. The term “ syllable “ is hard to defame but for practical purposes it may be said that a vowel sound like a. I. u etc. Is the nucleus of a syllable in English. Thus a syllable is that it is pronounced with one single impulse of breath. Three degrees of stress can be observed in English :  Strong or primary stress  Medium or secondary stress  Weak stress The ways of marking stresses very with different writers or dictionaries. One of them is to use the symbol / ‘ / above the syllable for primary stress. The symbol / , / below the syllable for secondary stress. While the weakly stressed syllables are left unmarked. Here the symbol / ‘ / is used for secondary stress. 6.2. Word stress It is very common for English words and their derivatives to have different stress patterns consider for instance. Prepaŕe – preparation Intérrogate – interrogative
  5. 5. Decláre – declarátion Monosyllable words in isolation bear primary stress for instance : Mán iń ańd cań Cáll wíll róugh gláss Cút áll hé fór Ís eát ás lándés Two syllable words may have primary stress on the first syllable and weak stress on the second for instance. Báby going Désert rébel Or the first syllable bears the weak stress and the second syllable primary stress. Agó hotél Deseŕt objéct In some compound words consisting of two parts or words the primary stress is on the first syllable and the secondary stress on the second : Meálhme bóok – mark dáylight Sómeone heártfelt cleár – cut Thee are also compound words with primary stress on both elements, e.g : Déad – tiréd oĺd – world Hálf – way hánd – knít Three syllabic words may have the primary stress on a) the first b) the second and c) the third syllable, e. g : a) Árticle b) Novémber c) Guaranteé cápital allówance advísee 6.3. Sentence stress Consider the following examples : 1. This is my house : primary stress on “ house “ this is the normal way of saying the sentence. 2. This is my house : primary stress “ my “ to emphasize the possessor the implication is that it is not your house or his house but my house. 6.4. Stress Timed Rhythm Stressed syllables without any intervening unstressed syllables tend to be spoken mor slowly Examples : Pút dówn Pút them dówn Pút them dówn on the floór Pút them on the floór Pút them on the floór near the bóx I’ve aśked him to Pút them down On the floor oppsite the bóx 6.5. Length 1. A diphthong is reactively longer than a pure vowel e.g : Diphthong Pure vowel  Code / koud / cod / cod /  Nose / nouz / nostril /nostril /  Laid / leid / led / led / 2. A vowel defined as a long vowel that is, which is indicated by a lengthening mark in
  6. 6. phonetic transcription / : /. Such as / a : /, / ә : /, / o : /. is relatively longer than the other short vowels e.g : Long vowels short vowels  Fern / fә :n / for you / fәyu /  Bird / bә :d / cup – board / kΛbәd /  Cord / co :d / cod / cod / 3. A vowel in an open syllable is relatively longer than when it occurs in a closed syllable. e.g. Open syllable closed syllable He / hi : / heal / hi :l / Fee / fi : / feast / fi :st / Who / hu : / whose / hu :z / 4. A vowel in a stressed syllable is relatively longer than when it occurs in an unstressed syllable .e.g : Stressed syllable unstressed syllable Bird / bә :d / cup – board / kΛbәd / First / fә :st / canvas / kænvәs / Through / ðtu : / throughout / ðtu’aot / 5. When a vowel occurs in a slosed syllable. its relative length is determined by the nature of the following ........  Seize / si :z / : longest : followed by a voiced fricative.  Seal / si :l /  Seem / si :m / second longest : followed by a voiced lateral or nasal  Seen / si :n /  Seed / si :d / : third longest : followed by a voice stop.  Cease / si :s / : fourth longest : followed by a voiceless fricative. 6. It is clear form the example in ( 5 ) above that vowel relatively longer when it is followed by voiced consonant than when it’s followed by a voiceless consonant. e.g : Voice consonant voiceless consonant  Side / said / sight / salt /  Robe / roub / rope / roup / 7. ENGLISH INTONATION PATTERNS 7.1. Pitch level clouse terminals and intonation contours Speaking is like singing. The means that the voice of the speaker goes up and down in tone at different syllable. each syllable is said with some degree of lowness or highness of tone which is called “ pitch “. Pitch level ( 2 ) is the normal pitch by which we normal start an utterances. 1. Hallo 3. Im going home etc 2. Good morning Pitch level ( 3 ) is a bit higher than pitch level / 2 / and is normally used to accompany the strongest stress in a sentence ( sentence stress ). Pitch level / 1 / is somewhat lower than / 2 / and / 3 / and is normally used to end a sentence. This pitch also called “ low “. Pitch level / 4 / is even higher than pitch level / 3 / and is therefore called extra high. 7.2. The high – low falling intonation ( 231 # ) or ( 31 # )
  7. 7. The high – low falling intonation or just called the falling intonation is used e.g in odders. Decided statements prohibitions and question words questions. 7.3. The mid – high rising intonation / 23 // / The mid – high rising intonation or just the rising intonation is used in yes no questions. Polite requsts statements implying concern sorrow apology or other emotions or other statements of less definite type. 7.4. High – normal sustained intonation / 23 / / The use of this intonation pattern implies non finality of an utterance. 7.5. Some additional notes on intonation patterns In addition to the intonation patterns mentioned above attention should be paid to some intonation “ patterns “ used with certain phrases and sentence structures. 8. TRANSITION 8.1. Close and Open Transition By transition is meant the way of moving from one sound to another sound in speaking. 8.2. Some Reminders on English Transition The following hints are presented here to help the foreign leaner in mastering the smooth and unjerky english rhythm : 1. It should always be borne in mind that in close transition no pouses should made between sounds while in open transition the slight pause which is caracteristic of it should almost be annoticable. 2. The transistion from any should not involve the production of a gottal stop. A kind of sound such as the final sound of the indonesia word “ tidak “ in indonesian. 3. When the vowels / i / or / I / is immediately followed by an other vowel sound. A gliding sound / y / is normally hard and when the vowels / u / or / v / is followed by another vowel sound a gliding sound / w / is commonly product. 4. When the stop consonant such as / b. p. d. t. g. k / is immediately followed by another sound. 5. When words spelled with a final , such as “ brother “ “ tour “ and “ sister “ are followed by vowel sounds a liking / r / sound is usually heard to make smooth transition. 9. STRONG FORMS AND WEAK FORMS 9.1. Structural and Content words The strong forms of a word is that form of pronunciation which is used when it’s found in stressed or final positions or in isolation. The weak form of word is that form of pronunciation. Which is used when it occurs in an unstressed position. 9.2. Features of weak forms English is known to have stress – timed rhythm : this means that stresses occur more or less regulary in a sentence and that unstressed syllable. namely those of function word are slurred over by the speaker. 9.3. Sentence for Practice The following sentence serve as examples to use of weak and strong forms of function words in various situations : Word weak forms strong forms Am i’m always at home Are you mr.smith’s son ? yes i am Notes : 1. Notice the weak form of “ are ” in contracted forms such as in “ we’re, there’re etc “. And that of “ not “ in such contracted forms as “ can’t, don’t, won’t, shan’t, must’t “ in which the usually pronunciation of the preceding words is slightly modified.
  8. 8. 2. Some nouns may also have weak forms when they occure. Are second element of compound words such as in the following example. Word strong form weak form Berry a berry rasp – berry Land my land England mainland 10. VOWELS AND CONSONANT 10.1. Distinction between vowels and consonant The classification of speech sounds vowels and consonant is based on the difference in their function in an utterance and in their ways of production. 1.02. Difference in syllabically A syllable ................... centers around a vowel sound with or without consonants surrounding it. In other words, a vowel sound normally contifutes a syllable. or the pick or center of a syllable. whereas a consonant normally does not. The reason why a vowel sound is syllabic and consonant non – syllabic is because a vowel sound has inherently greater sonority or greater carrying power than a consonant. Although consonants are normally non – syllabic certain consonant may sometimes be syllabic. 10.3. Difference in the way of production. A vowel is also different from a consonant in terms of its way of production. Any sound which lacks at least one of these basic features in not vowel but a consonant. 11. CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS 11.1. Three variable for describing vowels. An vowel sounds are therefore classified and described on the basic of the following variables. a. Which part of the tongue is raised b. Low high in the mouth some part of the tongue is raised ( the degree of rising the tongue ). c. The position of the two lips. That is whether the two lips are rounded or on rounded. 11.2. Front, central, an back vowels. The front of tongue is gradually lowered so that mouth cavity. 11.3. Open, half –open, half – close, and close vowel. When the tongue is highest in the mouth. In such a way that is does not surpass the so called “ vowe – limit “ 11.4. Rounded and unrounded vowel For all English front vowel the lips are always spread. For back vowels the lips are always rounded while for the central vowels the lips are always neutral. 12. VOWEL DIAGRAMS 12.1. Diagram of english vowel Called front vowel this means that in producing then the front the raised in the direction, called bad vowel. The differences among those four back vowels are caused by the difference. Front central back close I ve half - close e half - open æ Λ open
  9. 9. 12.2. Diagram of cardinal vowel Close i u close Half close e o half close Half open E o : half open Open a c open 13. PURE VOWELS VS DIPHTHONGS 13.1. Difference between pure vowel and diphthongs. A pure vowel is a vowel in the production of which the organs of speech remain in a given position for an appreciable period of time. 13.2. list of english pure vowels and diphthongs. Pure vowel Phonetic symbols key words in othograph phonetic writing 1. / i : / bee / bi : / 2. / i / bit / bit / 3. / e / bet / bet / 4. / æ / bat / bæt / 5. / a : / far / fa : / 6. / o / hot / hot / 7. / o : / cord / co :d / 8. / u : / who / hu : / 9. / u / clould / kud / 10. / Λ / but / bΛt / 11. / ә : / bird / bә :d / 12. / ә / ago / әgou / Diphthong Phonetic symbols key word in othograph phonetic writing 1. / ei / lay / lei / 2. / ou / no / nou / 3. / ai / lie / lai / 4. / au / how / hau / 5. / oi / boy / boi / 6. / iә / here / hiә / 7. / eә / hair / heә / 8. / uә / poor / puә / 9. / oә / yours / yoәz / 14. PURE VOWELS IN DETAILS 14.1. / i / I. Articulatory definition / i / : is an unrounded close front vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / i : / the front of the tongue is raised.  It is raised almost to the close position.
  10. 10.  The lip position is unrounded or spread. It may even be neutral.  The jaws are slightly apart from each other.  The organs of speech are relatively fortis or tense.which can be low the jaws. III. List of words He / hi : / He sees the key beneath the valise. Feel / fi : / Feel the eel creeping over your feet. IV. Note / i / : differs from / i / in that is higher in tongue position and in that it may be found in open syllables. V. Spelling This vowel sound / i : / may be spelled in ways in english the common letters that represent it being the following. e : he, she, be ee : bee, reet, feel ea : sea, tea, meal ei : ceiling, seize, receipt i : police, in vailide, machine ie : chief, brief, thief 14.2. / I / I. Articulatory definition / I / is un rounded half. Close to close front vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / I / the front the tongue is raised.  The tongue is raised to a point slightly above the half close position.  The lips are spread or neutral.  The jaws are a bit wider than for / i : / III. List of words / i : / / I / Seen / si :n / sin / sin / Seat / si :t / sit / sit / Sheep / i :p / ship / ip / Some sentence for practice  His ship is filled with ..... of milk.  Bill hit him with a thick stick.  His rich sister lives in this city. IV. Notes  In final unstressed position the vowel / I / is opener than normal / I /. For instance lazy hobby many in non final unstressed positions the vowel becomes lower and also centralized so that us sometimes replaced by the central vowel / ә / : for instance in the words before leration become.  When the vowel / I / is immediately followed by another vowel sound.  When the / I / is compared with / i : /. The former is lax or ......... not fortis or tense as the letter. V. Spelling The vowel / I / is normally spelled in orthography by the letters i or y. Other letters are sometimes used to represent it ex : I : bill, hill, lily, rich, mister, live. Y : hymn, merry, quality, privacy.  In unstressed prefixes and suffixes / I / may be spelled in various ways. Examine, aged, roses, hisses, naked.
  11. 11.  Irregular spelling in found in some words for instance. England, pretty, minutes, cabbage. 14.3. / E / I. Articulatory definition / E / is an unrounded half. Close to half open front vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / E / the front of the tongue is raised.  The front of the tongue is raised to point half way between the half close position.  The lip position is apread or neutral.  The opening between the jaws is medium. A bit wider than for / I /. III. List of words / i : / / I / / E / Heed / hi :d / hid / hid / head / hed / Feel / fi :l / fill / fil / fell / fel / Seat / si :t / sit / sit / set / set / Some sentences of practice.  Many gantleman went together to settle here.  I intend to present a better had  My friend sent letters to betty yesterday IV. Spelling The vowel / E / is normally represented in orthography by the letter e or ea. E : ten, den, men, tell, fellow. Ea : head, sweat, health, read.  Irregular spelling. Friend, quess, says, again, said, many. 14.4. / æ / I. Articulatory definition / æ / is an unrounded open to half open front vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / æ / the front the tongue is raised.  The front the tongue is raised a little bit to a point midway between the open and the half open position.  The lip position is spread or neutral.  The jaws are rather widely opened. III. List of words / æ / / E / Band / bænd / bend / bend / Land / lænd / lend / lend / Bad / bæd / bed / bed / IV. Notes  Indonesian student many have difficulty in producing this vowel. Since this type of vowel does not exist in their native language.  In oder to produce the vowel sound correctly the student has to try to open his mouth widely and to lighten the muscles of his throat.  Philippines replace this vowel by a much opener front vowel. V. Spelling Normally this vowel is represented by the letter a in conventional spelling.
  12. 12. A, bay, bal, bad, lact, Palestine.  Irregular spelling : ai : in plaid Plait. 14.5. / a : / I. Articulatory definition / a : / is an unrounded open back vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / a : / the front of the tongue is raised.  The raising of tongue is only slight so that tongue can be said to very low in the mouth and is then at the fully open position.  Though classed as a back vowel.  The jaws are fairly wide apart. III. List of words / a / / æ / Harm / ha :m / ham / hæm / Hard / ha :d / had / hæd / Heart / ha :t / hat / hæt / Some sentences for practice.  They laugh at the guard in the park.  It is rather dark in the garden.  The clerk asked after my aunt. IV. Notes  This vowel sound is a bad vowel.  The vowel / a : / is one of the points in which American english and british english differ from each other. British English American English Class / kla :s / / klæs / Half / ha :f / / hæf / Card / ca :d / / cæd / V. Spelling The vowel sound / a / is regulary spelled by the letter a which is immediately followed by the letter. Ar : far, cart, card. Ask : basked, mask, flask. Asp : grasp, raspberry. Ass : class, glass, grass. Ast : fast, vast, past. Aff : staff, chaff, quaff. Aft : raft, drafted, after. Al : calm, half, calf. Anch : branch, ranch. Ance : dance, trance,chance. Ant : plant, slant, can’t. And : command, demand, reprimand. 14.6. / o / I. Articulatory definition / o / is rounded open vowel. II. Articulatory description
  13. 13.  For the production of / o / the back of the tongue is slightly raised.  The raising of the bad of the tongue is so slight that it is almost near the fully open position.  The lips are slightly rounded but not .................  The jaws are rather wide apart. III. Words of practice / o : / / o / / a : / Cought / ko :t / cot / kot / cart / ka :t / Dawn / do :n / don / don / darn / ka :n / Some sentence for practice  We all thought he’d fought in the war.  Paul saw the ball in the hal. IV. Notes / o : / / o / This vowel is relatively this vowel is relatively Longer shorter V. Spelling  O followed r Force lord sword Born sort stork  A followed by l or r Ball bald chalk Fall after jakal  Au or aw Audience awkward warm Clause gnaw war  Ought or aught Bought sought Taught wrought  Oar, our, oor Boar door roor Four mourn course 14.8. / u / I. Articulatory definition / u / is a rounded half close to close back vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / u / the back of the tongue is raised.  It’s raised to a point slightly above the half close position.  The lips are fairly closely rounded and slightly ................ III. Words of practice Could / kud / Put / put / The cook put the boot on the bulwark. IV. Notes  The vowel / u / is not a real back vowel.  Raising is more advaced from a true back position.  This is a lay vowel lax vowel.
  14. 14.  The degree of raising the back of tongue for / u / is ................ the same as the raising of the front of the tongue for / I / V. Spelling U : put, bull, bush. Oo : food, good, hood. 14.9. / u : / I. Articulatory definition / u : / is a rounded close back vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / u : / the back of the tongue is raised.  It’s raised to a point very near the close position.  The lips are closely rounded with little protrusion. III. Words of practice Fool / fu :l / Pool / pu :l / They lose their soes near the canoe. IV. Notes / u : / differs from / u / in that it’s higher in tongue position and in that may occur in open syllable. V. Spelling U : rule, rude oo : food, goose. Eu : rheumatism ou : route, rouge. Ew : crew, blew. Oder spelling. Do, who, to, shoe. 14.10. / Λ / I. Articulatory definition / Λ / is an unrounded half open centroback vowel. II. Articulatory description  In producing / Λ / some part between.  It’s raised to half open position.  The lip position is unrounded or neutral.  The jaws are wide apart. III. Words of practice Bud / bΛd / Tusk / tΛsk / Lust / lΛst /  Mother is studying Dutch just for fun.  One dozen persons were punished by goverment. 14.11. / ә : / I. Articulatory definition / ә : / is an unrounded half close to half open central vowel. II. Word for practice Lurk / lә :k / Curt / kә : /  The early bird catcher the worm.  The early hear no word about her.
  15. 15. 14.12. / ә / I. Articulatory definition ( 2 varieties ) a. / ә / is an unrounded half open to half close central vowel ( same as / ә : / so normal / ә / ). b. Lowered / ә / is an unrounded half open central vowel. II. Word for practice Breakfast / beakfәst / Forward / fo :wәd /  The docter has breakfast at seven o’clock. 15. DIPHTHONG 15.1.Glide in a diphthong Is a kind of vowel sound with a special feature. That is there is a ................ glide made from one vowel position to another vowel position and which is produced in on syllable.  The pronunciation of / ei / is a front closing half diphthong. / ei / / beit / / sein / Age aim Able away  The pronuncaition of / ou / Is a back. Back closing half diphthong. Oh! Snow Know window Open october  The pronunciation of / ai / Is a front . front closing full diphthong. Ride file Mine like  The pronunciation of / au / Is front back closing full diphthong. Sow bout Bow rout  The pronunciation of / o / Is a back front closing full diphthong. Toy annoying Enjoy pointing 16. CONSONANTS Types of consonants. a. Plosive or stop consonants. b. Affricate consonants. c. Rolled consonants. d. Semi – vowel or glide consonants. e. Fricative consonants. f. Nasal consonant. g. Lateral consonant.
  16. 16.  The pronunciation of / p / Is a voiceless bilabial stop. Words / sentence for pronunciation practice/ Piece / pi :s / copper / kopә / • Pul the paper around the upper part of the pan.  The pronunciation of / t / Is a voiceless alveolar stop. Words /sentence for pronunciation practice. Tea / ti : / Taste / teist / • To tackle the tough situation is • Dont touch teddys coaf and towel.  The pronunciation of / k / Is voiceless velar stop. Words /sentence for pronunciation practice. Key / ki : / Case / keis / • I came across a crazzy coward in kent  The pronunciation of / ? / Is defined as (voiceless ) glottal stop. Thus there are two ways of beginning a vowel sound which may be called. a. Sudden or clear beginning. b. Gradual beginning. • The position of the vocal cords in ( a ) are as follows 1. Position of vocal cords for restful breathing ( wide part ). 2. Position of vocal glottal stop ( closed position followed by a sudden opening ). 3. Position of vocal cords for voice ( the basic feature of all vowel is all but closed position ). • Position of vocal cords in ( b ) 1. Position of vocal cords for restful breathing. 2. Position of glottal friction ( the glottis or the apace between the two vocal cords). 3. Position vocal cords for voice.  Pronunciation of / g / Is a voiced velar stop. Words and sentence for practice. Bag / bæg / Dog /dog / • Can you guarantee that they will come back again. 17. FRICATIVE CONSONANTS  The pronunciation of / f / Is a voiceless labio – dental fricative. Pronunciation practice. Pond / pond / Pole / poul / • My wife found a knife near the safe. • The family find comfort for the first time.  The pronunciation of / v /
  17. 17. Is a voiced laboidental fricative. Pronunciation practice. Very / veri / Vast / va :st / • We have to save the life of his wife. • You can save enough money safely in a bank.  Thepronuncation of / θ / Is a voiceless dental fricative. Pronunciation practice. Thin / θin / Thought / θo :t / • Do something about your • Though the three walked through.  The pronunciation of / ð / Is a voiced dental fricative. Pronunciation practice. They / ðei / Those / ðouz / • The visit their other brother. • Smoother than that weather.  The pronunciation of / s / Is a voiceless blade – alveolar fricative. Pronunciation practice. / stop / / s / + / nasals / + ( / liquids / ) / liquids / Spell / spel / Still / stil / • She spent her vacation at seashore. • She sees my ships by the sea shore.  The pronunciation of /  / Is a voice palato – alveolar fricative. Pronunciation practice. She / i : / Shin / in / • She sees many ships by the sea – shore. • She saw the shade of a sea – saw.  The pronunciation of / з / Is voice palato – alveolar fricative. Pronunciation practice. Rouge / ru :з / Mirage / mira :з / • No vision of treasure in the garage. • Measure the collision of the car with precision.  The pronunciation of / r / Is voiced post – alveolar fricative. Pronunciation practice. Wrong / roη /
  18. 18. Write / rait / • My brother gradually grows stronger. • He ran rapidly through the crowd.  The pronunciation of / h / Is a voiceless glottal fricative. Pronunciation practice. Eat / i :t / Heal / hi :l / Hike / haik / • Whose house is this ? • Help me do his homework. Spelling H : he, has, humble, home, her. Wh : who, whoop, whole, whose. 18. AFFRICATIVE CONSONANTS Is a kind of stop, thus the outgoing air also meets with a complete obstruction somewhere in the mouth. The stoppage in an affricate is gradually.  The pronunciation of / t / Is a voiceless palato – alveolar affricate.  Articulatory description • The lips are slightly rounded. • The soft palate is raised. • The vocal cords are not vibrating.  Pronunciation practice Sheet / i :t / Ship / ip / Shop / op / • The child has a chance to to change the • Each of the children eats a peach. • Charles chose to go to church.  Spelling Ch : church, choke, chin, macth. T : courteous, mutual, fortune.  The pronunciation of / dз / Is a voiced palato – alveolar affricate.  Articulatory description The way of producing / dз / is the same as the way of producing / t / above exept that the vocal cords are in vibration.  Pronunciation practice Chin / t / Chest / test / Choke / touk / • Jack and Jill enjoyed oranges in Japan. • George joined the agent joyfull in June.
  19. 19. • Aids are needed by people of all ages.  Spelling J : ( regular spelling of / dз / ) jest, joke, ajar, Jane. G : ( before e. i. y ) gypsy, college, giant. Dg : ridge, judge. Ch : Greenwich, Harwich, Norwich. D : soldier, granduer, procedure. 19. NASAL CONSONANTS Is similar to a stop in terms of its way of production.  The pronunciation of / m / Is a voiced bilabial nasal.  Articulatory description • The outgoing air is completely blocked up by putting the two lips to each other thus in the some way as for / b, p /. • The soft palate ( velum ) is lowered so as to allow the outgoing air to escape through the nasal passage. • The vocal cords are vibrating.  Pronunciation practice Man / mæn / More / mo : / Master / ma :stә /  Spelling / m / is always spelled with the latter / m / in orthography.  The pronunciation of / n / Is a vioced alveolar nasal.  Articulatory description The vocal cords are made to vibrate.  Pronunciation practice Not / not / Nasal / neisәl / Can / kæn / Fine / fain /  Spelling N : no send Kn : know loan  The pronunciation of / η / Is a voiced velar nasal.  Articulatory description • The outgoing is completely blocked up by putting the back of the tongue against the soft palate just as for / k / or / g /. • At the same the soft palate is loweren so that the air escapes through the nose. • The vocal cords are made to vibrate.  Pronunciation practice Sing / siη / Song / soη / Uncle / ankәl /
  20. 20.  Spelling N : brink sank : pink flunk 20. LATERAL CONSONANTS Is side consonant.  The pronunciation of / I / Is a voiced alveolar lateral consonant.  Articulatory description • The lip of the tongue is in close contact with the teeth ridge. • The air goes out round the sides of the tongue. • The vocal cords are in vibration and the soft palate is raised. • The two varieties of / I /, viz.  Pronunciation practice Fill / fil / Filled / fild / Full / ful / • Help me fill the glass with milk • My uncles will call you all.  Spelling / I / is regulary spelled with the letter / I /.sometimes the letter “ I “ may be mute as in calm / ka :m /, pam / pa :m /, psalm / sa :m /. 21. SEMI VOWEL (GLIDE CONSONANTS )  The pronunciation of / W / Is a voiced labio – velar semi vowel  Articulatory description • The speech organs start from the position for / u /. • The soft palate is raised so as to close off the nasal passage. • The vocal cords are in vibration as is the case for vowel sounds. • The breath force is weak and there is lack of stress.  Pronunciation practice Wet / wet / Wine / wain / Wail / well / • When will we leave the west volley ? • We want to watch the waning moon. • We were waiting with patience.  Spelling W : we, went, westward U : quick, question, language.  The pronunciation of / y / Is a voiced palatal semi vowel.  Articulatory description • The soft palate is raised so as to close on the nasal passage. • The vocal cords are in vibration such as for vowel sounds.
  21. 21. • The breath force is weak and there is lack of stress.  Pronunciation practice Yeast / yi :st / Yes / yes / You / yu : / • Did you say it yesterday ? • Lay the egg in the yart.  Spelling Y : yes you yard U : union use ubiquity 22. PHONEME Consider for instance, the following utterances in english which differ only in their initial sounds : the utterances are kept apart from each other in their meanings by the initial sounds. Which are consequently interprefed or different phonems. / p / pill / pil / / g / gill / gil / / b / bill / bil / / s / sill / sil / / t / mill / mil / / r / rill / ril / / d / till / til / / h / hill / hil / / n / nill / nil / / dз / gill / dзil / / k / kill / kil / / w / will / wil / 23. SIMIUTUDE, ASSIMILATION AND MORPHO PHONEMICS The basic form of the phoneme is therefore adjusted to the environment in which it occurs and changed into its appropriate allophone. Thés process is then called adaptation or similitude. Stated in a different way by similitude or adaptation in phonetics is ment a process by which the basic form of phoneme is replaced by its allophone in oder to adapt it self to the surrounding sounds. The following are other types similitude as found in english with some explanation on similarities in their phonetic features. 1. Similarity in voicing / unvoicing. • Vioced phonemes like / m, n, l, r, w, y / become partly. • Unvoiced after voiceless consonants. Especially aspirated voiceless stups. Smith / smiθ / Snail / sniel / Swim / swim / • The voiceless / h / phoneme becomes voiced when it occurs intervocalically or two voiced sounds. 2. Similarity on tongue position. The following is an example of writing the basic and allophones of a phoneme. ( g ) : / g / in “ geese “ / gi :s / / g / in “ goose “ / gu :s / / g / in “ girl “ / gә :l / ( η ) : / η / in “ sing “ / siη / / η / in “ song “ / soη / / η / in “ hung “ / sΛη / ( t ) : / t / in “ teeth “ / ti :θ /
  22. 22. / t / in “ tooth “ / tu :θ / / t / in “ turn “ / tә :n / ( n ) : / n / in “ near “ / niә / / ń / in “ nose “ / nouz / / n / in “ nurse “ / nә :s / 3. Similarity in lip position. The two lips are rounded for / k / and / g / when the labiovelar semi – vowel / w / follows. Such as in quite / kwait /, language / langwidз /. The bilabial nasal / m / may become. Laboidental when a labiodental fricative / f / or / v / follows. As in : Camfort / kamfәt / Converse / kәnvә :s /  Assimilation. Similitud is a process in which one sound is replaced another sound both of which are allophones of the same phoneme. And which take place in one single morphome or word. Assimilation is a process in which one phoneme is replaced by another phoneme as the combining one morpheme with another.  Kind of assimilation. When the change of the one sound into another one is influenced by a following sound. The assimilation is called iregressive assimilation e.g.  In impossible ( in - ) becomes ( im - ) because of the in fluence of the following bilabial sound / p /.  In with / witθ /: / d / in / / becomes / t / because of the infuence of the following dental sound / θ /.  In newspaper / nyuspeipә / : the sound / z / of / nyuz / becomes / s / because of the influence of the following vioceless sound / p /.  In horse – shoe / ho : u: / : the sound / s / of / ho :s / becomes /  / because of the influence of the following sound /  /.  Thus the negative prefix ( in - ) in ( impossible ) viewed as : 1. Regressive assimilation, because the assimilation is affected by the following sound. 2. Assimilation of place of articulation, because there is change in place of articulation : “ alveolar “ becomes “ bilabial “. 3. Partial assimilation, because the sound / n / is not completely change into / p /.  Other morpho – phonemic changes. Other types of morpho – phonemic changes are as follow : 1. Lass of sound or sometimes called elision. This dropping of sound takes place especially because morphemes are juxtaposed to each other and also because of their occurrences in unstressed syllables or in rapid speech. Ex : ( he is ) is pronunced / hi :z / : / I / of / iz / is dropped or elided. 2. Addition of sound. The following example show on addition of the sound / n / : ( solemn ) / solәm / becomes ( solemnity ) / sәlemniti /. ( hymn ) / him / becomes ( hymnal ) / himnәl / ( condemin ) / kәndem / becomes (condemnation ) / kәndemnetәn /. 3. Shift of stress. A shift of stress usually results in a change of a vowel quality. Which is then called gradation. ( admire ) / әdmai / becomes ( admirable ) / ædmirabә / ( prepare ) / pripeә / becomes ( preparation ) / prepәreiәn / ( confer ) / konfә : / becomes ( conference ) / konfәrәns / 4. Dissimilation.
  23. 23. The base of morphome in some cases. Though very rare in english. Be made completely dissimilar or different from the next sound for instance / n / becomes / g / in the following : ( in - ) and ( noble ) become ( ignoble ) ( in - ) and ( nominious ) become ( ignominious ) 5. Synthesis. Two sound to different morphomes may be fused of sythesized into each other and become a new sound is different from the original two sounds e.g. ( act ) / ækt / and ( ion ) / yәn / become ( dicision ) / disiзәn / 6. Suppetion. When an allomorph. Is completely different in its phonemic form from the base of the morpheme. It’s called suppletion. English has some such examples with certain particular morphems.  ( ox ) and ( plurality ) become ( oxen ) in which / әn / is completely different from / ә /. The base of the plural morpheme.  ( go ) and ( past tense ) become ( went ) in which / wen / is completely different from / gou /.  ( good ) and ( comparative morpheme ) become ( better ) in which / bet / is completely different from / gud /.

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