Did You Know?
Today, a CPU core cancycle three billion times      in one second.
In about 1 second, lighttravels to the moon …
… but during one CPUcycle, light travels only           10cm.
Did You Know?
A motherboard witheight x 16 core CPUs will  soon be available …
That is 128x the computing   power of a single CPU …… or over 400 billion CPU cycles per second                   on a    ...
But …
… most of that computingpower will be wasted …
… waiting for data.
2010 - 2022                       128X increase in transistors per chip              CPUNIC                       RAM     ...
2010 - 2022                      128X increase in transistors per chip              CPU NIC                     RAM       ...
2010 - 2022                  128X increase in transistors per chip       CPUNIC                   RAM            FLASH    ...
Disks are Tape                                                DISK“Spinning Rust”                                        ...
2010 - 2022                   128X increase in transistors per chip       CPUNIC                   RAM           FLASH    ...
Latency and Bandwidth          2 determining factors , which won’t change :                 RAM – CPU latency : ~ 0.1 µs  ...
Did You Know?
A CPU accesses Level 1 cache  memory in 1 – 2 cycles.
A CPU accessesLevel 12 cache memory– It accesses Level cache memory in 1            in 6 – cycles.                 2 20 cy...
It accesses Level 2 cache memory in 6 – 20It accesses RAM in 100 – 400 cycles.                  cycles.
It accesses Flash memory in 5000  It accesses RAM in 100 – 400 cycles.               cycles.
It accesses Flash memorystorage       It accesses Disc in 5000 cycles.        in 1, 000, 000 cycles.
translate cycles to miles andassume you were a CPU core ..   … then Level 1 cache would be         in the building …      ...
Software ImplicationsRoundtrip latency              500                              cycles                               ...
Software Implications  Latency and locality are the determining factors             What could that mean?Roundtrip latency...
Why Bother ?  Systems may just get smaller !   More users for transaction  processing on a single machine -         isn’t ...
or ? .......
Think in opportunities .......
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In-Memory Computing

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Did you know

  1. 1. Did You Know?
  2. 2. Today, a CPU core cancycle three billion times in one second.
  3. 3. In about 1 second, lighttravels to the moon …
  4. 4. … but during one CPUcycle, light travels only 10cm.
  5. 5. Did You Know?
  6. 6. A motherboard witheight x 16 core CPUs will soon be available …
  7. 7. That is 128x the computing power of a single CPU …… or over 400 billion CPU cycles per second on a single server blade or socket.
  8. 8. But …
  9. 9. … most of that computingpower will be wasted …
  10. 10. … waiting for data.
  11. 11. 2010 - 2022 128X increase in transistors per chip CPUNIC RAM FLASH DISK  Moore’s Law will continue for at least 10 Years  Transistors per area will double ~ every 2 year  128 X increase in ~ 12 years  2022: 512Gbit / DRAM, 8 Tbit / Flash  Frequency Gains are difficult Pollack’s rule: Power scales quadratic with clock performance  Parallelism with more cores is a must
  12. 12. 2010 - 2022 128X increase in transistors per chip CPU NIC RAM FLASH DISK  2014: 64 cores, 2016: 128 cores, 2022: 1024 cores Memory/IO bandwidth need to grow with processing power  Disks cannot follow!
  13. 13. 2010 - 2022 128X increase in transistors per chip CPUNIC RAM FLASH DISK 2010 2022 CORES PER 10 1024 CHIP MEMORY Challenging! BANDWIDTH 40 Gb/s 2.5 Tb/s But needed to feed the cores ! IO 2 Gb/s 250 Gb/s BANDWIDTH •No big change : Single Core Clock Rate (will stay < 5GHz ) •But impressive overall computing power:  5000 ( core * GHz )
  14. 14. Disks are Tape DISK“Spinning Rust”  Forget Hard Disks !  Disks cannot go faster  Disks cannot follow bandwidth requirements  Random-read scanning of a 1TB disk space today : takes 15 – 150 days (!)  To reach 1TB/s you would need 10.000 disks in parallel  Disks can only be archives any more (sequential access)  DRAM, Flash and PCM will be replacement
  15. 15. 2010 - 2022 128X increase in transistors per chip CPUNIC RAM FLASH DISK 2010 2022 CORES PER 16 1024 CHIP MEMORY BANDWIDTH 40 GB/s 2.5 TB/s IO 2 GB/s 250 GB/s BANDWIDTH No big change : Latency
  16. 16. Latency and Bandwidth 2 determining factors , which won’t change : RAM – CPU latency : ~ 0.1 µs NIC latency via LAN or WAN : 0.1 – 100 ms RAM CPU DISK NIC FLASH archive  NICs move to PCI Express  Throughput x 2 / year  May move onto CPU chip  Access time falls by 50% / year 10 – 100 Gbit/s already today  goes from SATA to PCI ExpressLatency in cluster ~1 µs possible (Infiniband/opt. Ethern.)  LAN/WAN latency 0.1 – 100 ms
  17. 17. Did You Know?
  18. 18. A CPU accesses Level 1 cache memory in 1 – 2 cycles.
  19. 19. A CPU accessesLevel 12 cache memory– It accesses Level cache memory in 1 in 6 – cycles. 2 20 cycles.
  20. 20. It accesses Level 2 cache memory in 6 – 20It accesses RAM in 100 – 400 cycles. cycles.
  21. 21. It accesses Flash memory in 5000 It accesses RAM in 100 – 400 cycles. cycles.
  22. 22. It accesses Flash memorystorage It accesses Disc in 5000 cycles. in 1, 000, 000 cycles.
  23. 23. translate cycles to miles andassume you were a CPU core .. … then Level 1 cache would be in the building … Level 2 cache would be at the edge of this city … RAM would be in a different state … Flash memory would be a different country …... and disc storage would be the planet Mars.
  24. 24. Software ImplicationsRoundtrip latency 500 cycles RAM CPU DISK NIC FLASH 1000 – 500,000,000 5,000 1,000,000 archive cycles cycles cycles
  25. 25. Software Implications Latency and locality are the determining factors What could that mean?Roundtrip latency 500 cycles RAM CPU DISK NIC FLASH 1000 – archive 5,000 1,000,000 500,000,000 cycles cycles cycles
  26. 26. Why Bother ? Systems may just get smaller ! More users for transaction processing on a single machine - isn’t that great? Already today most customers could run the ERP load of a company on a single blade Commodity hardware becomes sufficient for ERP No threat! (… or may be becoming a commodity is a threat?)
  27. 27. or ? .......
  28. 28. Think in opportunities .......

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