Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy208
“Pharmacy,
Church of the desperate,
a little god in every pi...
CHIRON
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HHHiiissstttooorrryyy ooofff PPPaaarrrmmmaaacccyyy
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Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy4
Copy n. _____________
The autor
__________________________
Ele...
47
49
Caro Dottor Villano,
ho letto con molto interesse ed apprezzamento il Suo libro “Arte e Storia della Farmacia”.
Rappres...
51
53
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 5
To
my son Francis,
a small admirable
scholar of Egyptian hist...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 7
CONTENTS
Presentations 13
Preface 17
Historical notes 21
Old ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy8
Study of botany 131
Herbaria figured 131
Herbaria in impressio...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 9
ùSpecialty Pharmaceutical 169
Pharmaceutical Advertising 171
...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 11
“Nobody knows his profession
unless he knows the story”
Joha...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 13
Presentation
he new book by our colleague Raymond Villano ri...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 15
Presentation
t's not often the case in person, exercising a ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy16
museums, etc.).'s long journey man by the heroic solitude of ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 17
Preface
aced with the disintegration of complex societies, a...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy18
studiositas on everything is not politics and history, or on ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 19
The areas of the discipline of History of Pharmacy as define...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy20
Notes
1 John Cantoni - The monastery and monastic pharmacy - ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 153
“... The ancient vases provide valuable information on the
...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy154
origin already known in Persia and Mesopotamia before the ye...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 155
sixteenth century, moreover, recorded the presence of Neapo...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy156
incurable Stiglio in the salon is kept intact and a rare set...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 157
of ceramics art center of Italy, dates back to the Benedict...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy158
Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century are ...
Synthetic
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already Pon
Society His
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Editor DPC
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(2010); S...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy204
REFERENCES
Books
• Champier S. - Le Myrouel des Appothiquair...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 205
• Mariacher G. - Vetri italiani del ‘600 e ’700 - Milano, 1...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy206
• Merlo E. - Gli speziali milanesi nel ‘700. Storie di antid...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 207
• Peruzzi G. - Nuovi strumenti per la lettura dei semplici ...
ISBN 978-88-904235-74
CDD 615 VIL tra 2012 v1
LCC R 131-687
“We have a responsability
to keep the past alive
from which we...
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Abs: book R. Villano “Elements of art and history of pharmacy” presentations of Prof. Dr. François Ledermann (President International Society for the History of Pharmacyand of Prof. Antonio Carosella (Past District Governor of Rotary International 2100-Italy) - Published by Chiron, ISBN 978-88-97303-02-2, CDD 615 VIL ele 2011, LCC R131-687, p.. 210 (Naples, February 2011);

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Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy: vessels

  1. 1. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy208 “Pharmacy, Church of the desperate, a little god in every pill” Pablo Neruda, Ode
  2. 2. CHIRON EEEllleeemmmeeennntttsss ooonnn AAArrrttt aaannnddd HHHiiissstttooorrryyy ooofff PPPaaarrrmmmaaacccyyy RRRaaaiiimmmooonnndddooo VVViiillllllaaannnooo CHIRON
  3. 3. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy4 Copy n. _____________ The autor __________________________ Elements on art and history of pharmacy © Copyright Raimondo Villano © Research, creation, cover by Raimondo Villano. All right reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced in publications and studies without root’s citation. No part of this book shall be stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by ani means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Editorial: Prof. Dott. Maria Rosaria Giordano. Editors: mobile 338 59 60 222; e-mail: farmavillano@libero.it Advisor executive: Francesco Villano Editions Chiron Found. - Praxys dpt. © 2011 Chiron Foundation, via Maresca 12, scala A - 80058 Torre Annunziata (Napoli) Phone. 081 861 22 99 Fax 081 353 29 81 website: www.chiron-found.org Sales: Prof. Dott. Annamaria Giordano mobile 347 61 71 669. E-mail: annamaria.g10@alice.it; http://www.chiron-found.org Print LP - Napoli. First Edition in December 2004. Second Edition in January 2005. Third edition in April 2006. First published in English in Mars 2011. This volume, with no serial number and signature, shall be deemed counterfeit. ISBN 978-88-904235-36. CDD 615 VIL ele 2011 LCC R131-687 CHIRON FOUND. Praxys dpt
  4. 4. 47
  5. 5. 49 Caro Dottor Villano, ho letto con molto interesse ed apprezzamento il Suo libro “Arte e Storia della Farmacia”. Rappresenta certamente un valente contributo alla Storia della farmacia ed ai suoi uomini che hanno rappresentato una struttura determinante alle cure degli uomini attraverso i secoli. Mi auguro di poterLa incontrare in qualche prossima riunione accademica a Napoli o a Roma. Con i più cordiali saluti. Comm. Prof. Dott. Angelo Capparoni Presidente Accademia di Storia dell’Arte Sanitaria Chiarissimo Dottor Villano, ho avuto modo di leggere ed apprezzare il Tuo testo - Arte e Storia della Farmacia - è scritto con stile piacevole e soprattutto con estrema chiarezza; è il testo ideale per chi vuole conoscere una Disciplina tanto affascinante quale la Storia della Farmacia. Una copia verrà conservata, per i posteri, nella Nostra secolare Biblioteca. Ti ringrazio ancora per il capitolo che hai voluto riservare al Nostro Nobile Collegio e, confidando in una Nostra futura collaborazione, mi complimento vivamente con Te. Nell’anno del Collegio 577 Il Presidente Dott. Gian Carlo Signore Gentilissimo Dottor Villano, mi congratulo con Lei vivamente per la Sua interessante ed elegante opera “Cenni di arte e storia della farmacia”, contributo culturale che certamente figurerà nella nostra biblioteca come volume di referenza. Prof. Rodolfo Paoletti, Preside della Facoltà di Farmacia dell’Università di Milano Gentile Cav. Villano, (…) sono certa che il suo libro sarà una gradita sorpresa anche per i numerosi giovani israeliani che scelgono l’Italia come meta dei loro studi in Farmacologia. Simonetta Della Seta, Direttore Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Tel Aviv, Israele
  6. 6. 51
  7. 7. 53
  8. 8. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 5 To my son Francis, a small admirable scholar of Egyptian history and those who trust in the ethics for a profession to improve quality of life.
  9. 9. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 7 CONTENTS Presentations 13 Preface 17 Historical notes 21 Old recipes and ancient remedies 21 Prescription contraceptive from the "Ebers Papyrus" 113 Recipe for diagnosis of pregnancy by "Papyrus Berlin 113 Amaroco Kos 114 Toothpaste 114 Headaches, due to the heat, especially the Sun 114 Dandruff care 115 Affections of the throat 115 Respiratory diseases 115 Stomach ailments 115 Medicines for hair and skin conditions of the crown 116 Muscerda anti hair loss 117 Elettuario bay 117 Infusion guaiac (or Holy Wood) 117 Emploi Crusta panis 117 Fat rate 118 Hiera composite 118 Mitridatum 118 Medication Roman 118 Arab aphrodisiac potion of formic acid 119 Recipes of the School of Salerno 119 Recipe for stones 120 Recipe for hair removal 120 Prescription painkillers and anticalcolosi 120 Clinical use of urine 121 Therapeutic use of dung 121 Epitima friendly 121 Remedy for hemorrhoids 121 Remedies for skin cosmetics 122 Tamarind 122 Treacle 122 Oil Beeswax 125 Honey Oil 125 Oil Sugar 125 Oil Human Skull 125 Magisterium of red coral 127 Footbath antigelonico of Sennerto 127 Of asthma Sennerto 127 Powder Antigout Benedictine Pistoia 127 Applications aphrodisiac electricity 127 Blood 128 Example of animal products that the chemist must have in its pharmacy 128 Drug minerals used by the Greeks and Romans 129
  10. 10. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy8 Study of botany 131 Herbaria figured 131 Herbaria in impression 132 Dried Herbals 132 Major herbaria Italian 133 Wax Botanical 133 Aloe 134 Instruments and laboratory techniques 135 - Laboratory Techniques 135 Distillation 135 Production of strong acids 135 Distillation (by G. B. Della Porta) 136 Distillation in the sun 137 Heating and temperature misurement 138 The degrees of Fire 138 Bain Marie, or Marino, and vapor 139 - Laboratory instruments 139 Scales, weights and measures 142 Mortars 147 Glass 148 The glass pharmacy 149 Vessels 153 The art of majolica 153 Neapolitan majolica 154 Majolica Cerretese 156 Ceramic Castle 156 Deruta pottery 157 Other production 158 Pharmacies 159 Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica S. Maria Novella 161 Pharmacy Camaldoli Hermitage 162 Pharmacy Pitti 163 Pharmacy banner of the Moro 163 Pharmacy Certosa del Galluzzo 163 Pharmacy of the Boar 164 Pharmacy of the Deer 164 Pharmacy Paturzo 164 Pharmacy Molteni 165 Hospital Pharmacy S. Fina 165 Pharmacy "Del Campo" 165 Pharmacy "Lucerne" 166 Old Pharmacy "Canto alle Rondini" 166 Old Pharmacy Betti 166 Pharmacy Serafini 167 Pharmacy La Fenice 167 Pharmacy "to give St. Marks" 167 Pharmacy Hospital for Incurable Diseases 167
  11. 11. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 9 ùSpecialty Pharmaceutical 169 Pharmaceutical Advertising 171 Noble College Universitas Aromatariorum Urbis 176 Structure and activities 176 Main publications 177 Prize "Superior Gold" 177 Italian Academy of the History of Pharmacy 178 Executive 178 Regional delegations 178 Calendar of recent years 179 Main activities 181 Magazine and Newsletter 182 Editorial Guidelines 183 Statute 183 Foundation "Pier Paolo Daniele" 184 Competition "Christopher Masino" for the History of Pharmacy 185 International Congress of History of Pharmacy 186 Museums 188 Museums in the World 188 Museums in Italy 194 Apothecary jars 196 Apothecary jars in some Italian museums 197 Museum collections: 198 • Aboca Museum of Sansepolcro (AR) 198 • Old Corvi rewarded Pharmacy 198 • Married Anna and Angelo Beccarello 199 • Pharmacy Museum Picciola 1799 - 1999 199 • Pharmacy Museum of Brixen / Bressanone 200 Aphorisms and curiosity 201 Addresses of teh History of pharmacy 203 Internet address 203 Postal addresses 203 References 204 Books 204 Media Books 205 Magazines 205 Communications to Congress 205 Conferences 206 Articles 206 Web Sites 207 Thesis 207
  12. 12. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 11 “Nobody knows his profession unless he knows the story” Johann Wolfgang von Göethe
  13. 13. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 13 Presentation he new book by our colleague Raymond Villano richly illustrated with a gorgeous collection of data and facts about the past of our profession from the earliest times until today. The work offers a presentation of ideas through the history of pharmacy and pharmaceutical literature but also of Italian and European laws, preparation of medicines, and materials used for their preparation by pharmacists. This vast fresco of the author is accompanied by a multitude of practical information on historical pharmacies, museums and structures in the history of pharmacy in the world and in Italy of interest to many enthusiasts of the history of pharmacy. But at the same time, Dr. Villano also effectively addresses the wide audience of pharmacists revealing to people a broad way that leads to cultural and historical knowledge of the pharmacy. Prof. Dr. François Ledermann President of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy T
  14. 14. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 15 Presentation t's not often the case in person, exercising a profession, I also feel the need to possess, in addition to the contents of which it consists and the logic that governs it, including the historical dimension.When this happens, it means that the expertise of the professional field have risen to intellectual needs broader and more articulated, in a word: culture have become such. Such is the case of Raymond Villa, which gives us further evidence of his inexhaustible curiosity and his professional commitment with this work, the fruit together, of painstaking research and intellectual passion. Was well known for its reliability through careful research and diligent other proofs of his industry insight and time to examine with the broad realities of our time (I think especially towards the Global Information Society, 1996) and now that very seriously,rekindles passion and involvement in human search for ways that his profession has changed over the centuries by trial and experiments that have marked and characterized the performance of the same cultural history of mankind. The history of pharmacy, in fact, heard and presented as the struggle that mankind has struggled against physical illness, committed, under the dramatic urgency of suffering, their faith is in divine and the resources of his genius, so that the adventurous tale of attempts successful or denied the experience is identical with man's journey into the dimension of time to the laborious conquest of civilization as slow but inexorable liberation from subjection to the hostile forces of nature and as a gradual but also unstoppable domination of nature. Hence the fascination of a search that will win over not only the interests of employees at work but also, perhaps above all, how many for the first time, as happened to me, facing a horizon stranger who turns out to pleasant surprise harmoniously complements that of the historical and literary studies. If we consider the rich documentation of the professional institutions, civil and political as well as the variety of objects produced by the advance pharmaceutical science historian, you will be more extensive and satisfactory use of fatigue Villano made by offering the vision of many evidence (books, drawings, I
  15. 15. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy16 museums, etc.).'s long journey man by the heroic solitude of the origins of modern comfort care valetudinarian. So we are grateful to the Author of giving us the fruit of his labor can enrich our poor knowledge of the long and difficult man advanced on the path of civil progress with the discovery of an aspect of his achievements so far remained on the margins ofcommon knowledge. Prof. Antonio Carosella Literary critic
  16. 16. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 17 Preface aced with the disintegration of complex societies, as expressed by Salvatore Settis, can be questioned with more acute our present knowledge allows us to open up its sense of the classic elements of story, which never cease to say what they have to say that persists as background noise even when the current rule as incompatible (Calvin) and, having overcome its own ruin and could show his greatness mutilated more attractive to their full integrity, they are both time and memory capacity project. The inferred fragmenta it pereant (John, ch. IV), reconstruction of fragments of the past, long and difficult, which sometimes are not enough tracks, one hand can enhance the awareness of having inherited a well- deserved privilege by our fathers and 'On the other hand, gathering the threads of this same noble heritage, can project into the future today, due to a rapid development of the profession rather than a succession of this is, in fact, almost a present. According Cantoni1 , mainly because Italians often historians tell the story almost entirely of political life, the common awareness of the past, the memory of it comes out deformed, and therefore attention to this. But when this is characterized by a weak policy, the question arises of a reconstruction of this historical time that is not limited solely to a sequence of political action, moreover, at least with recent evidence, not ideologically motivated. And this, the length of time between the twentieth century, the "short century" according to Eric J. Hobsbawm, begun in 1914 and already completed in 19892 , and the early years of Century XXI, which was not chronologically started when he was already under way, is characterized by a common weakness for totalitarian hypertrophy after decompression or compression by other areas of life. That grows in humus, therefore, interest in the life "politics" as politically- conditioning that is the ebb, whether voluntary or promoted, is accompanied by the application of different quality within that unfolds between curiositas and F
  17. 17. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy18 studiositas on everything is not politics and history, or on its characters and permanent changes in its course. If this question remains unanswered and is disappointed by the official authorities, which are most universities, there is legitimate room for corporate initiatives, ie initiatives of those who are curious and scholars of the past of his own business, while satisfying the public interest . While acceptable reflection of the importance of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe completion of their professional knowledge by the knowledge of its intrinsic history, when considered certainty gained profi-cuamente can undoubtedly lead to herald in a remote future, the enormous potential for training on their academic disciplines and professional historian can deploy in implementation projects of even broader than, though valuable, of modern times. In the development of the History of Pharmacy as a scientific discipline are central to the definition of its object of study, its implications on many issues, the demarcation of borders and relations with neighboring or related disciplines. To correctly identify the object of this discipline, therefore, must take into account that the term "Pharmacy" is used to identify both a technical and scientific profession that area: it meets a definition in the various preparatory activities, storage and dispensing of medicines and technical-scientific as the result of an intersection of various disciplines such as Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, having as the relationship between drugs and living organisms. In this view, whatever point of view, the core of its meaning is the medicine. It would be a stretch, therefore, conclude that the subject of History of Pharmacy is the profession and the pharmaceutical medicine. It is not, therefore, to study a medicine as such, nor to study a drug in the abstract but to study a number of different relationships between people and civilizations. Paraphrasing M. Bloch, therefore, the History of Pharmacy is the discipline that studies the relationship between man and medicine. It is this relationship that defines its subject, while its rich domain that shows in all its breadth the importance of this discipline in training future professionals in medicine. In this conceptual framework, the pharmaceutical profession continues to be important as in the past.
  18. 18. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 19 The areas of the discipline of History of Pharmacy as defined above, namely the transformation of theories and concepts in relation to medicines and the transformation that occurred in relation profession-drug-companies, are indeed traditionally the two dominant forms of supervision of History Pharmacy: a History of Science and the other linked to the Economic-Social History. Currently, the main address of pharmaceutical history is the synthesis between these two perspectives that consider the technical specifications of work but are integrated to enable a comprehensive understanding of medicine in human history. The next component integration in the history of science rather than the part next to the Economic-Social History, in each case using methods and techniques identical3 is a problem of relatively recent approach and is largely be the result of the impact of the change it can be seen growing interest and appreciation for Clinical Pharmacy. The attempt here is to be doing, in conclusion, is to stimulate curiosity about the depth of the issues mentioned and Food is responsible for keeping alive the past from which we come at the same time as our father and our son, we can not Moreover, escape from history, or accept that history is made of silence to no end, then, we silence4 below. Engage, even in the relentless race to the future, research applied to the recovery of historical knowledge of the essence and reason of their profession, carefully assessing achievements and mistakes, is - to paraphrase Kaplan consciousness is absolutely necessary because we realize the recognition, of finding oneself, of being. History, in fact, as a "category" of thought, is an inexhaustible source of reflection and critical education exercise, attention and power that is pushing forward is a sense of life, life as one of the pharmacist, but perhaps often misunderstood rich with meaning, full of varied and multiple large part of the great cultural history, civil, economic, political and social of all time. Raimondo Villano
  19. 19. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy20 Notes 1 John Cantoni - The monastery and monastic pharmacy - No Christianity 270, 1997. 2 See Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age, trans. com., Rizzoli, Milan 1995. 3 To study the sources the History of Pharmacy largely applies essentially the same method and the same techniques of historical sciences. The historical method historical criticism is developed in different techniques. The critical documents is to determine rigorously the value of testimony and information if compared to other historical sources. The first stage, the critical external or authenticity, is to determine if a document is authentic or fake or if it is an original or a copy. It is generally divided into a critique of origin (which includes a determination of the author, place and date of preparation) and a critique of Reconstruction (which aims to reconstruct the original text of a document containing, for example, transcription errors ). The internal criticism or credibility is concerned to determine the accuracy of information contained in a document through five steps: critical interpretation (which merges with part of hermeneutics and through who is concerned to learn the content of the text) critical competence (which determines the quality of the text through the author's assessment of the ability to know and understand the facts), criticism of truthfulness (which examines the possible existence of false), rigorous criticism (which identifies the inadvertent errors in the description of facts), and verification of testimonials (which compares the information contained in the text with other available evidence). The use of historical criticism, along with the use of ancillary sciences gives the story its character as a science that should not be confused with experimental science, it is impossible to riproduduzione of historical phenomena in order to prove the hypothesis of, for example, a chemical phenomenon. 4 Carlos Fuentes, author, Mexico City.
  20. 20. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 153 “... The ancient vases provide valuable information on the arduous journey of medical science with their scrolls, decorative and allegorical figures difficult to interpret” Hon Dr Giacomo Leopardi VESSELS The art of majolica fter a thousand years many Italian centers knew the art of majolica, which was characterized throughout the country with artifacts of a dark green on a white ceramic tiled defined archaic. The name majolica seems to derive from the island of Majorca, whose port is a major hub of ceramic products in Spain and North Africa (usually decorated with metallic luster) for medieval Europe. From the sixteenth century onwards, appeared in Italy and broke the tiles engraved Raphael. The client wanted the pottery miniature the great fresco cycles, especially Romans. In mid-sixteenth century, after the great season polychrome, the taste changed. The pottery became white and white became faiance. To shine using iridescence, thin film of small metal particles obtained by applying the object over a preparation of salts that can be silver or copper, depending on whether you want to get a reflex silver or red. The subject treated in this way is put to cook. This is the third firing at lower temperature reducing atmosphere of the previous obtained by placing in the oven closed smoke substances that escape oxygen, type of horse nails or oily rags. When cooked, the surface of objects is rubbed with a cloth. This is an ancient technique of Arab A
  21. 21. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy154 origin already known in Persia and Mesopotamia before the year one thousand, as witnessed by finds of amphorae. Islam came via this method and was widespread in North Africa and from there, then came the Moors of Spain. The kilns of Deruta and Gubbio captured the Arab formula and specialize in the early sixteenth century, this technique of metallic luster (or "Shine") that characterized the Italian production, to the point that you wanted in Italy for majolica its luster these ceramics that were traded across the island of Mallorca. Only the name maiolica was to indicate, broadly, the product majolica. The pottery is all made of clay that is manipulated by man and consolidated with the action of the hot furnace, this concept is universal and unites people of all cultures. Depending on the clay used and degree of cooking, there are different types of ceramics: * Pottery: white body porous ceramics * Glazed ceramic with colored dough compact * Crockery: bricks, garden pots, Terracotta * Finish: white earthy * Terracotta with glaze: with a coating of glaze to make the item waterproof . The glaze can be painted or engraved * Crockery engobed: earthy with a white coating, or slip slipped just said, which is putting a glaze to make the item waterproof. The glaze can be painted or engraved * China: white clay, ceramics compact white paste, cooked at high temperatures with or without glaze, for example, the French biscuit * Majolica: pottery glazed with opaque white glass waterproof coating and polished, said enamel majolica, consisting of oxides of lead and tin mixed together. The mixture of these oxides is calcined to form a mass of white, fine grinding, is put into a tub of suspension. It immerses the object on which biscuit is a layer of enamel. The painted object is then baked a second time. Shall, therefore, that the element is opaque overglaze element together. Neapolitan majolica The vitality of Neapolitan majolica workshops in the Renaissance is reflected not only by substantial examples floors, but also pharmacy kits, as demonstrated by extensive research conducted by Guido Donatone, a distinguished scholar of southern pottery, precious china, bearing the emblem of Alfonso Aragon Duke of Calabria, was the apothecary of the King in Castelnuovo (Angevin) Aragonese palace and fortress, palaces and other spices of Aragon. From grocery monumental Castelnuovo gave rise to the sumptuous taste of spices Neapolitan subsequent centuries. In addition to Naples (Museo di Capodimonte), apothecary jars of that found in various museums (Paris: Louvre, London: British Museum and Victoria & Albert Museum), Lyon: Musée des Arts Décoratifs) and private collections. The Pharmaceutical pottery in the sixteenth century has been remarkable, with characters of color and ornamental beauty. Among the potters in the '500 Neapolitan active in Naples and found documentation that you have to remember Master Caesar Cretara, creator of the kit pharmaceutical pharmacy of San Domenico Maggiore, and Luca Iodice. In the
  22. 22. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 155 sixteenth century, moreover, recorded the presence of Neapolitan majolica in some northern and central regions of Italy: Leonardo Grilli, Ravenna, Giovanni Maria Capua, first in Antwerp and then to Milan, Gian Pietro Leyna in Milan. For the whole of the seventeenth and eighteenth century Naples has provided new forms of expression through the beautiful ceramic art works of the Baroque era. In the early decades of the seventeenth century the Renaissance tradition persists in Naples in the pottery of pharmacy. At the close of the seventeenth century spread the use of decoration en bleu camaieu for entire apothecary jars bearing kits devotional figures, landscape representations, mythological scenes, but the decoration "camaieu en bleu" was used to program more content, such environments small convent spices or private, while in large kits majolica major pharmacies monumental role was entrusted to a potter for more creative freedom. In vast areas of the Sanctuary of Our Lady of spices Arch, the Convent of St. Domenico Maggiore, the Certosa di San Martino, the Monastery of Santa Severina and Sossio, as in the eighteenth century of Incurable, often embellished with elegant frescoes and painted ceilings, an in polychrome decoration. In the seventeenth century potters produced Neapolitan ceramic outfits pharmaceutical taste compendiario, Faenza and Urbino even more (among other things, large hydrias), with summary figures, drawn from the traditional repertoire mannered and, then, from the baroque, and surrounded by calligraphic polychrome decorated, they are also characterized by elaborate floral scrolls loops. In the middle ages viceroyalty there is a cultural phenomenon particularly fruitful for the art of majolica: that of the interplay between Naples and Castles, famous Abruzzo, the best castle builders who moved to Naples, the most important figure is Charles Anthony Grue, one of the protagonists of Italian majolica of the seventeenth century. In the last decades of the century, the influence of the Ligurian pottery factories Neapolitan as important as that of manufacturing Abruzzi: some pharmacists rich Neapolitan ordered, in fact, the entire set of their spices in the ceramic factories in Liguria. Often the manufacturers participating in the Neapolitan style of decoration blue pottery producing pharmaceuticals "in the manner of Genoa". In this type of work emerges a leading personalities: Paul Francis Brandi. The Neapolitan majolica in the eighteenth century had a remarkable flowering, with the phenomenon of immigration dell'incessante potters Abruzzo Castles, intensified at the end of the seventeenth century and then continued throughout the whole of the eighteenth century. The Pharmacy of Incurable is a wonderful example of Neapolitan eighteenth-century decoration: the lab of chemist (controspezieria) above the pharmacy has maintained a first set of hydrias and jars (approximately 240 vessels of various sizes) decorated with landscapes and figures in chiaroscuro blue (camaieu blue), some pots recanolo emblem of the Holy House of
  23. 23. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy156 incurable Stiglio in the salon is kept intact and a rare set of 400 colored earthenware vessels stained in the biggest bear painted biblical scenes while the smallest are represented allegories of the virtues of the seasons and work vessels are of three dimensions: height 35 cm, 26 cm and 24 cm, some are topped with domed lids with knob, others crushed and lids are decorated only the front; not take registration of the name of the medicine. Some vessels are marked by full potter Lorenzo Calandra, active between 1727 and 1748, on a Salandra also wrote that Donato Massa (died 1747) was the "Master of these vessels". The stories painted on the vases are those of the Old Testament, their iconographic source is identifiable in recordings taken from a print of Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican Loggia. Neapolitan majolica palette was warm and mellow tones, the repertoire made use of combinations of yellow, orange (obtained by adding antimony oxide of iron) with the translucent copper green, as well that measured use of blue and purple vinous manganese. Majolica Cerretese Many vessels in Cerreto Neapolitans emigrated and it is therefore difficult to distinguish the production of fine ceramic factories Cerreto from Naples, while it becomes easier to identify as Cerretese those tiles that have a stronger impression and rustic folk. A potter Neapolitan family Giustiniani, perhaps Dominic is attributed the introduction of factories in the repertoire of decorative landscape Cerretese blue chiaroscuro (camaieu blue), unique factory six-eighteenth-century Naples. This blue chiaroscuro decoration conforms the considerable production of pharmaceutical jars from the kilns of Cerreto after 1721, examples of such pharmaceutical kits are jars currently in the Museo del Sannio, Benevento. From the second half of the 700 production of artistic Cerretese apothecary jars is directed to the most elegant and sinuous rococo forms: artifacts lose fast and simple line of cylindrical jars to take the form commonly known as the "inverted pear"; the palette becomes refined, sophisticated color combinations are used in representations "to the Chinese" and reasons "to rubble" that enclose them. The repertoire is of course mediated by the nearby shops in Naples. Noted was the manufacture of Nicola Giustiniani, founder of a dynasty of potters, who prepared dishes for the fine spices of the monasteries (such as, for example, the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Lady of Loreto in the province of Avellino. Around 1754 Nicholas Giustiniani moved his shop in Naples, where he remained open for over a century. Among the potters Cerretese you must remember, also, John Day and Thomas Marchitto. After the first decades of the nineteenth century the furnaces Cerretese declined and the process is common to all the other centers southern children: those Abruzzi, Campania and the Salento. The work of potters was continued only in its humbler forms and the simple requirements of painted pottery. Ceramic of Castelli The origin of the school of ceramics of Castelli, City in the province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region on the slopes of Gran Sasso, one of the most famous manufacturers
  24. 24. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 157 of ceramics art center of Italy, dates back to the Benedictine monks of St. Saviour, who around the year one thousand settled in those parts under the protection of the Counts of Pagliara. Since then and until the fifteenth forwarded ceramic production provides a rich implementation of engobed, painted, glazed and incised. The production of majolica real does not begin before early sixteenth century, using enamel stannate introduced by contact with Spanish-Moorish culture and when they reached the first-known artists, Polidoro and Remo from Lanciano. In those years, took shape in the production of ceramics of the type of kit that said Farnese and Orsini-Colonna. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century the "dynasties" of Grue of Cappelletti and Gentile did reach the highest levels to work with ceramics rich iconographic references to monastic orders, with lake and mountain views and pastoral scenes and the noble families - in particular Neapolitan - the most important patrons of the school castle. In particular, Francescantonio Grue addition to being one of the most famous majolica Castelli, active around the first half of the seventeenth, was also active for a long time by the Royal Factory of Capodimonte in Naples while Fuina Gesualdo was one of the leading innovators of expressive modes of Castelli majolica.Towards the end of the eighteenth century majolica undergoes a deep crisis mainly due to the advent of the porcelain. However, the tradition still continues Castles: many laboratories still produce ceramics and export worldwide. Deruta pottery The first expressions of Deruta pottery artefacts have been documented by archaic majolica dating from the second half of '300: these everyday objects like bowls, plates, mugs and plates, decorated with geometric and floral motifs in green and brown. The most famous and celebrated stage of Deruta majolica was that of the Renaissance. At the beginning of '500 lie types of "petal-back family", with simple decorations in the shape of petals on the back of plates and cups.During the same period, says the production of majolica luster characteristics iridescent metallic gold, it will inform Deruta worldwide. The contemporary production is characterized by polychrome decorations to "crown of thorns" to "floral scrolls", the "china", the favorite subjects are portraits of "beautiful women", allegorical, mythological and sacred, often inspired by the painting schoolUmbrian time. Towards the middle of the '500 painter G. Mancini, said the friar, will lead to Deruta storied type of painting, the representation on plates and vases inspired by mythological or religious scenes. From the second half until the end of '500 '600, is characterized compendiario style: essential and abstract (hence the name) in both subjects represented in that stretch.
  25. 25. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy158 Between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century are distinguished on the majolica paintings of significant artists such as A. Micheletti, A. Magnini, U. Grace, D. Zipirovic: their work helped to renovate, tastefully historicist, the great age of Renaissance majolica of Deruta rich not only in the past but also ingenious copies of a work for the recovery of classical motifs: including favorite was the portrait. Other production • Products in Faenza at the end of the fifteenth century were among the most admired in Italy, famous, then, were the so-called "white" Faenza late Renaissance and Baroque (second half. XVI - end seconds. - XVII). • The tiles in 'metallic luster' of Valencia between the fifteenth and seventeenth- century Moorish particular type of pottery imitating gold reflections, obtained by a cook Teza, according to a formula in the lands of Islam. • Pottery of manufactures and Renaissance Perugia Pesaro. • Products of the famous shop of the castle and the nearby Cafaggiolo Galliano. • Copies of Montelupo document the activities of this Tuscan manufacture that, in the sixteenth century has exported a large quantity of pottery from apothecary, covering the needs of Florence and leaving traces of their hard work in remote areas in the Mediterranean. • Venice products are distinguished by vivid colors and decorations, as well as the quality of enamels. • The Renaissance majolica Marche: in particular, examples of Urbino and pottery Casteldurante. • Products late-Renaissance and Baroque (second half. XVI - end seconds. - XVII) style 'compendiario' set to revolutionize the history of ceramics. • The rare production of Florentine Medici porcelain. • The Italian manufacturers active in the seventeenth and nineteenth century in Milan and Palermo, Pavia and Laterza. • The manufacture of the twentieth century Florentine: Ignatius Press, China, Ginori and manufacturing of Signa. • The Italian art in the Pharmacy also has influenced all European art. They have Italian roots, in fact, the "pharmaceutical faience" in the south-east of France, produced by the sixteenth century in Montpellier, Nimes, Narbonne, the latter characterized by the fusion of Spanish-Moorish motifs, and Italians. The French region of potters learned their art from the first Italian artists in the wake of Governors of the great patrons of the Languedoc region, and thereafter by master potters from Faenza. • Malta has always had special relations with Sicily in the Kingdom, however, was a member until the early nineteenth century. These fruitful relationships are testimony Sicilian ceramics, abundantly present in Malta from where they were required for the pharmacy of the Holy Infirmary of the Sovereign Military Order and to enrich the opulent mansions of the aristocracy of the island.
  26. 26. Synthetic B h H U K Group of S already Pon Society His Noble Chem Collaborat Editor DPC (1985); cert Doctrine of (2010); Scie organizer an (2000), Sec Academy B (responsible Foundation Member sin in Commett Pompeii. C and founde Assistant ro Internation of Action by Crime-Task (Rm 2008); and Society Piccinini-R 2010); Tibe 2013); Rew sanitary, pr Zanichelli, present in i Nations (in Culture, un Intellectuals BAC. Vario Father. Some book (pres. 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  30. 30. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 207 • Peruzzi G. - Nuovi strumenti per la lettura dei semplici agli albori della scienza nuova - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Canova G. M.- La cultura universitaria padovana e la nascita del realismo dell’immagine botanica - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Cappelletti E. - I semplici vegetali negli erbari veneti quattrocenteschi - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Peruzzi G. - Nuovi strumenti per la lettura dei semplici agli albori della scienza nuova - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Giannelli L. - Alopecia, un problema antico - Farmacia News, febbraio 2003; • Giannelli L. - Alle origini dell’Alchemia - Farmacia News, aprile 2003; • Catellani P.- La Croce di Sant’Elena - Punto Effe, settembre 2003; • Catellani P.- Farmacisti o attori? - Punto Effe, settembre 2003; • Giannelli L. - Manualetto per la preparazione di rimedi facili - Farmacia News, ottobre 2003; • Farma Mese - Continuità nella tradizione - gennaio 2004; • Corvi A. - Perché a Bressanone - Farma Mese, gennaio 2004; • Giannelli L. - Gli Egizi e la “Scienza nascosta” - Farmacia News, marzo 2004; • Barberi M. - Quando a salute e malattia ci pensavano gli speziali - Farma News, 14.05.04; Website • cadnet.marche.it/farmacia; • chifar.unipv.it/museo; • diocesi.genova.it; • dipbot.unict.it; • eikonos.it/roccavaldina/farmacia; • elbuenosaires.com.ar; • emmeti.it/arte/toscana; • eurialo.cib.na.cnr.it; • farm.unipi.it; • home.swipnet.sc/pharmhist/museer; • imolanetwork.com; • imss.florence.it; • landferie.dk/pics/sc/detgamle.apotek.htm; • museionline.com; • nobilecollegio.com; • rettorato.unito.it; • mega.it/ita/gui/epo/medalb.htm; • edscuola.com/archivio/alchimia.html; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/oggetti/iimsso.html; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/indici/ipersona.html; • thais.it/scultura/sch00075.htm; • mega.it/ita/gui/monu/bo.htm; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/oggetti/imspecoo.html; • www.unifi.it/unifi/msn/main_eng.htm; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/oggetti/imbotano.html; • chifar.unipv.it/museo/storia_Farm_Pv/St_farmacia_Pv.htm; • medlav.unimo.it/dida/storimed.HTM#Ilrinascimentoscientifico;• medithema.it/testi/storia/sto14_1.htm; • medithema.it/testi/storia/indice.htm; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/farmacie/ifi1.html; • chim1.unifi.it/group/education/montalve/montalve.htm; Thesis • Giordano M. R. – Key historical developments and prospects of Pharmacy – University Federico II of Naples, Faculty of Pharmacy - Thesis completed in Pharmacognosy, AA 2003-04.
  31. 31. ISBN 978-88-904235-74 CDD 615 VIL tra 2012 v1 LCC R 131-687 “We have a responsability to keep the past alive from which we come from; is both our father and our son” Carlos Fuentes

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