R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century

776 views

Published on

13. R. Villano “ Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century ”, integral communication of Raimondo Villano in Parallel Session II (Chairmains: A. Iwona / S. Anagnostou) of 41 International Congres for the History of Pharmacy (10/15 september by: International Society for the History of Pharmacy, Societé Francaise d’Histoire de la Pharmacie; Acadèmie Internationale d’Histoire de la Pharmacie), in the Bilski Pasquer Lecture Hall, with 79 authors of the 31 Pays et students of the over 50 Nations (Paris, Paris-Sorbonne UFR University, Medicine Faculty Pierre and Marie Curie, Les Cordeliers, september 11, 2013) - Chiron, CDD 945 VIL asp 2014 en, LCC R131-687, pp. 72, Rome, February 2014;

Published in: Health & Medicine, Travel
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
776
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century

  1. 1. RRRAAAIIIMMMOOONNNDDDOOO VVVIIILLLLLLAAANNNOOO “T hat’s evil that everywhere terror M aale that the heavens in his fury He invented to punish the crimes of the earth ” Diderot and D’Alembert Encyclopedia of the Sciences, the Arts and Craft Paris (1751) PPPRRROOOPPPHHHYYYLLLAAACCCTTTIIICCC AAANNNDDD TTTHHHEEERRRAAAPPPEEEUUUTTTIIICCC AAASSSPPPEEECCCTTTSSS AAAGGGAAAIIINNNSSSTTT TTTHHHEEE PPPLLLAAAGGGUUUEEE IIINNN SSSOOOMMMEEE SSSTTTAAATTTEEESSS OOOFFF IIITTTAAALLLYYY FFFRRROOOMMM XXXIIIVVV TTTOOO TTTHHHEEE XXXVVVIIIIII CCCEEENNNTTTUUURRRYYY
  2. 2. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 5
  3. 3. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century6 Copie n. __________________ L’auteur _________________________ © Copyright Raimondo Villano. © Research, creation, cover by Raimondo Villano. All right reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced in publications and studies without root’s citation. No part of this book shall be stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by ani means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Editorial: Prof. Dott. Maria Rosaria Giordano. Editors: mobile +39 334 14 33 878; e-mail: farmavillano@libero.it Advisor executive: Francesco Villano. Chiron Edition. © 2013 Chiron Foundation, via Maresca 12, scala A - 80058 Torre Annunziata (Na). website: www.raimondovillano.com. Sales: giovanna.ce@libero.it; www.raimondovillano.com. Print: LP - Naples. First edition: January 2014. Translate: December 2013. Finished writing: Ten February 2013. Serialized. This volume, with no serial number and signature, shall be deemed counterfeit. Number of total pages: 72. 1^ cover: the plague of doctor in traditional clothing. 4^ cover: wax of the plague (Museum of the Specola, Florence) by Gaetano Giulio Zumbo, or Zummo (Syracuse 1656 Paris, December 22, 1701), abbot and wax modeller Sicilian of the most famous of seventheenth century. CDD 945 VIL asp 2014 en. LCC R131-687.
  4. 4. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 7 Index Keiwords 11 Abstract 11 Chronology 15 Premise 17 Outline Global Epidemiological 17 Historical epidemiological Italian notes 19 Historical and literary notes of medical pathology 22 Historical notes sociological and demographic 23 1. Introduction 28 2. Conditions of physicians and apothecaries 30 3. Prophylaxis protocols 36 4. Substances for treatments of environments 44 5. Fragrant preparations 44 6. Therapies 45 7. Therapies for less well-off 48 8. Phlebotomy 48 9.iiiInsights on the treaty “Instruttione sopra la peste” by M. Michele MieMercati 50 10. Insights on the treaty “Contro alla peste” by Marsilio Ficino 56 Notes 63 Apparatus fontium 65 Select bibliography 67 Synthetic profile of the author 68
  5. 5. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 9 « When is the memory to lose something, as happens when we forget and try to remember, where ever we try, if not to the same memory? And it is there that, if by chance you come to a different thing, reject it, until it happens that we seek. And when it happens, we say: "Is this," neither would say so without recognizing it, nor would recognize without a reminder. So, and we were really forgotten. Or maybe there was no fall in full by the mind and we, with the part that we kept, we went in search of the other party as if the memory, feeling not develop all at once what he used to remember together, and limp, so to speak, with a stump of habit, call upon the return of the missing part and limp, so to speak, with a stump of habit, call upon the return of the missing part? ». St. Augustine
  6. 6. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century10 Paulus Fürst - The doctor of the plague (etching, 1656)
  7. 7. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 11 Keywords Plague - Italy - Middle Ages. Abstract Starting from a historical chronology, pathological, epidemiological, demographic, sociological and literary plague, we describe the conditions and environment of physicians and apothecaries, we examine the protocols of prophylaxis and make a reconnaissance of the main drugs used for prevention and treatment , coming to examine in detail some of the most important works in this subject and date (XVII century) compared to the epidemic periods considered, the pre-eminent precepts clinical treatment protocols, dietary prescriptions, the composition of medicines and the most important processes for their preparation, setting the stage for various lines of comparative analysis.
  8. 8. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 13 “That’s evil that everywhere terror Maale that the heavens in his fury He invented to punish the crimes of the earth” Diderot et D’Alembert Encyclopedia of the Sciences, the Arts and Crafts Paris (1751)
  9. 9. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 15 Chronology From the twelfth century in Europe there is an epidemic of plague more or less severe on average every 10-15 years; 1333: Asian contagion spreads to India and affects the Crimea, the Black Sea and other areas of Mesopotamia, Arabia, Egypt; 1346-53: pandemic in the Maghreb and Europe to Scandinavia, with peaks in the Mediterranean countries; October 12 1347: twelve Genoese galleys coming from Caffa in the Crimea, which was besieged for three years by the Tartars, arrive in Messina on board with sailors dead or dying infected died of the plague as projectiles thrown over the walls of the city; 1348: with severe pandemic spread in the Netherlands, England, Germany, Poland and Russia; after 1348 : the plague is still endemic in Italy; 1353 in extinction on the shores of the Black Sea, point of origin. After 1350 in Europe remains endemic, reappearing periodically at intervals of about ten years in the individual regions. In the second half of the fourteenth century: the plague occurs 5 times in Italy in epidemic form. Twenty years of the fifteenth century: the plague occurs 2 times in Italy in epidemic form. Seventy years of the fifteenth century: the plague occurs 2 times in Italy in epidemic form. 1537: ceases cyclical epidemic of the plague; 1630: outbreak in northern Italy, with a peak at Milan; seventeenth century: plague occurs 2 times in Italy as an epidemic; 1647: the pandemic in the Maghreb and Europe; 1649: pandemic Naples; 1656: pandemic in Rome; Half eighteenth century: the plague left the European continent.
  10. 10. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century16 ToggenburgBible,RepresentationofthePlague(1411).
  11. 11. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 17 Premise The oldest known outbreak of plague in history (ca. 1490 BC, the year of the world 2513, or 1600 BC according to others) could be the biblical episode in which “the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Pharaoh, and I will smite all the 'Egypt with the plague of pestilence(1) ” and the terrible epidemic invades the country. Shortly after the epidemic is described by Ovid(2) , which reached Greece from Egypt and Ethiopia. The first plague of Italy, narrated by Dionysius, dates from the year 2778 of the world. “This disease is born in the year 541 in Ethiopia, and, according to others, in Egypt, a year after moving to Constantinople, then to Italy, in Spains and Gauls and even in England, he touched almost all the then known world, and repeatedly raged for over fifty years, not forgiving anyone, by slaughter of men wherever they were(3) ”. In Constantinople in acute epidemic kills over ten thousand people for day. Outline Global Epidemiological In 1333 in Asia, spreading to India but also affects other areas of the Crimea and the Black Sea on one side and Mesopotamia, Arabia and Egypt on the other hand; arrived in Italy in 1347; spreads in Holland, England, Germany, Poland and Russia to become extinct in 1353 on the shores of the Black Sea, point of origin, probably for the survivors of 20 years before now immunized. There are a disaster socio-economic and demographic crisis. In 1647 “a vessel full of leather and other skins, from Algiers brought the plague in Valencia”:
  12. 12. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century18 PlagueofAzoth(oiloncanvas,1630).
  13. 13. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 19 the disease develops into the city from the shoemakers and in 4 months there are about 20,000 deaths of about 40,000 inhabitants(4) . The black death reaches unstoppable other cities invading in a few months the whole of Spain, including the islands of Majorca and Minorca; in 1649 the plague has spread throughout Provence and furiously produced in Marseille a massacre among the most severe in history. Historical epidemiological Italian notes Not to mention leprosy, a disease known since ancient times and most of which is already talk in the Bible, the pathologies that most frequently cause deaths are: malaria, your shingles, variola, typhus, scurvy, and especially plague bubonic. It should be clarified, however, that the word pestilence to any kind of plague epidemic disease diffusible quickly, even for reasons other than infection itself (poisoning , food shortages...). To explain these die-offs the medieval epidemiology uses natural and supernatural interpretations: the most widespread opinion is the presence in the air of harmful vapors containing a pestilent poison, another hypothesis is that gigantic fires in the East that produce poisonous fumes, or the disease coming from the bowels of the earth or the sky due to malignant astral conjunctions. Then there are those who think the poisoning of wells by Jews and lepers, so as unleashing real persecution, especially in France (the belief that remains rooted in history giving rise to rumors on the ‘spreaders’ in successive epidemics). The contagion of 1348 is violent in Italy but spread throughout Europe rampage
  14. 14. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century20 for three years, followed by a ten-year cyclicity endemic regional with massive damage and loss of at least a quarter of the population(5) . In particular, after the severe pandemic of 1348 the plague is still endemic in Italy, occurring in epidemic form five times in the second half of the fourteenth century, twice in the twenties and two in the seventies of the fifteenth century, twice in the sixteenth century and, finally, twice in the seventeenth century. The ships that arrive in Messina have their holds full of Russian grain they eat hundreds of mouses blacks contaminators whose fur is ideal microclimate for millions of fleas Indian pestiferous of type Xenopsylla cheopis. The mouses blacks, especially the dying, go outside to look for light and their fleas take root in humans that is suitable habitat for clothes, dirt(6) and body heat. Rats and fleas are also physiologically integrated to the metabolism of the city hygienically precarious between anabolism of the granaries and catabolism of the sewers, open drains and stagnant excremental sewage in the streets. The epidemic of 1630 devastated northern Italy, especially Milan. From time immemorial the plague is considered holy terror, so it is exorcised by mediation of Saints, such as San Rocco, or Madonna: the epidemic, therefore, quickly spreads by contagion as a factor having also the numerous propitiatroy functions in places of worship or public crowded with people. “The plague that the court of health had feared he could enter with the German gangs in Milan, there really was (...). In late March , they began , first in eastern Gate , then in every neighborhood of the city, take frequent buboes; deaths, with accidents strange of spasms, palpitations, lethargy,
  15. 15. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 21 delirium, with the fatal bruises and swellings; mostly dead fast, violent, often sudden, without any prior indication of illness. (...) Since that day, the fury of the contagion went always growing: in a short time, there was almost no house untouched, in a short time the lazaret (...) increased from two thousand to twelve thousand; later, according to almost everyone came up to sixteen. On July 4 , as I find in another letter to the Governor of the Conservatories of Health, the daily mortality exceeded five hundred. Later, at the peak, arrived, according to the most common calculation , a thousand two hundred, fifteen hundred; and more than three thousand five, if we are believe to Tadino(7) ”. In 1649 from the port of Marseille, thanks to its natural vectors (fleas of mouses) a epidemic arrives in Sardinia, where the viceroy of Naples, Juan Alfonso Enríquez de Cabrera order exceptional security measures in ports and roads. From the island the plague arrived in Naples, already in serious conditions of hygiene and health, although it is active the port of Mandracchio, designed to operate in a capillary customs controls on goods in transit , “during the night the sailors seek pleasure to Lavinaio on pallets of women exchanging hugs and paying fleas naturally with infected goods. Disembark from the holds full of grain big mouses that find refuge in the sewers and new food in the trash... (8) ”. On June 9, 1656 a Neapolitan mariner at an guest-house in Trastevere falls ill and, was admitted to the hospital St. John, dies. Five days after the landlady and her daughter died with signs of plague and so the next day the landlord. Pope Alexander VII, without waiting the official medical response, order the litanies in the churches and cancel the procession of Corpus Domini
  16. 16. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century22 in order to avoid contagion. In addition, he makes put gates at the crossing points of the Lungara and squares of Trastevere, guarded by armed guards with orders to shoot on sight to those who try to enter or exit. On June 18, with a another dead this time for declared cause of plague, have closed the doors of the Ghetto and are reserving the transit only to 14 Jews for supplies(9) . Historical and literary notes of medical pathology notes The plague is manifested in the form that is transmitted by contact infecting the blood and with the symptoms of buboes and black stains and in the most violent form that is transmitted by air attacking the respiratory system. Patients with bubonic plague have the full body with black stains and swellings black exuding blood and pus in the groin and under the armpits or a very high fever with pulmonary hemorrhage that kills even in a single day(10) . “At first sprouted in both males and females some bulges (...) most certain indication of future death (...) almost all within three days of the appearance of these signs, some sooner and some less, and no more no fever or other illness died(11) ”. An anonymous chronicler of Orvieto ranks among the causes of death, even the ‘consternation of the people’: a very violent mental trauma caused by the fear of the plague(12) . Of this scourge of the black plague of 1348 also tells Boccaccio in the Decameron while that of 1630 in Milan is described by Manzoni in the book Promessi sposi. The plague is considered predominantly “poisonous vapor mixed with air, the enemy of the spirit vital:
  17. 17. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 23 enemy no to quality, but to specific property(13) ”. At the dawn of the seventeenth century, then, the definition of plague are still various opinions of the ‘enlightened’ insiders. It shows approximately a dissertation about(14) : “The same Hippocrates called Wrath of the Gods, and Galen protest, that to escape from that, he consecrated himself as Voting to Asclepius the god of medicine believed then; and so it is that Disease is called by all the Divine Evil, and the test Diemerbroeck; second, for severity of its effects; thirdly for the violence of the Poison, and finally for the ease of propagation, which can not recognize other cause beyond the bully, namely the Divine. But to give notice in accordance with my purpose, which is used for definition of the Plague, and omitted for brevity as Galen says in the book to Pison . Chap. 14 . p. m. 168., which compares to a Beast that, being able to attack all, and is confirmed by Zacuto tom. I, lib. 2, Hist. med. hist. 89, dub. 52, p. m. 338., as well as omitted definitions of Mercurial, Quercetano, Sylvio, and More, which explains imperfectly authorized by the universal consent of the Ancients, and Moderns, say, meanwhile, that the Plague is a bad thing, most terrible of all evil, since it has itself four main quality, all fatal, which is divided into all other evils, constantly infected, so it is not surprising that Lindelio Scotus in the Book of feb. p. 204 , calls it evil that multiplies all evil ...”. Historical notes sociological and demographic Italy, 1348: occur a disaster social and economic and a demographic crisis; out of a total of 11 million people, 60,000 people die in Naples, 40,000 in
  18. 18. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century24 Expansion of the plague in Europe and North Africa (1346-53)
  19. 19. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 25 Genoa, Venice 100,000, 96,000 in Florence and 70,000 in Siena: consider these figures and deaths in all other cities, the overall peninsula lost about half of the total population. Rest of Europe: in three years (1347-50) out of a population of about 100 million units, an estimated 30 million to 35 million victims of the epidemic: the United Kingdom, for example, the threshold of the black death has 3,700,000 inhabitants while in 1377 drops to 2,200,000(15) , in London the mortality rate is approximately 300 victims per day(16) . The demographic contraction, first slowly and then very fast, is stable for nearly two centuries, roughly around the lowest level reached. With demographic drop you a significant decrease in the average length of life(17) : of 35 or 40 years would be achieved before the great plague you come back at 25 of the ‘dark ages’ (in England seems from 34 in about 1300 to 17 in the period of the plague to go up to 32 in the early fifteenth century). This change of social structure and the effects of the crisis extend beyond the fourteenth century. And “since only a minority arrived at mature age, few adults had the burden of maintaining many and adolescents, and the society was holding on the experience of a few(18) ”. The fear and uncertainty of the future comes to determining a barbarism of manners and restraint gives way to extreme behavior: surpasses the selfishness in place of respect and compassion, avoids contact with other people, growing unrest and resentment among municipalities immune and infected. With regard to the risk of importation of the disease from one municipality to another, in particular, a physician of
  20. 20. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century26 Padua, where the disease is brought from Venice, opens its Regimen against the plague the eloquent prayer: “O thou true guidance, you that determines everything in this world! May you that live forever to save the inhabitants of Padua and as their father does that no epidemic affects them”. Rampant, also, aggression and hysteria of those who flagellates or go to hunting for Jews as scapegoats (to the point that even intervene to Pope Clement VI in 1349 with two Bubbles of 4 July and 26 September condemning anti-Jewish persecutions under pain of excommunication). During the centuries the popular anger often leads to ferocity in murderous hunting the alleged perpetrators, the spreaders: foreign, different, who speak another language, dressed differently, with different attitudes. At the beginning of 1348 begins to circulate the accusation that Jews poison wells and sources and in Savoy some of them under investigated and tortured of course admit that offense and their confession spreads quickly throughout Europe. The Pope, on his part, invites the clergy to put the Jews under his protection; Clement VI prohibits killing them without trial and to plunder the houses. The Papal Bulls, however, have effect only in Avignon, while elsewhere contribute little to save Jews. Even Queen Joanna I of Naples in 1348, is forced to reduce the taxes of the Jews in his possessions Provencal for compensate the losses suffered due to looting. In Naples in 1656 “(...) fell innocent victims of a thousand sacrilegious hands not only with veins cut, but with inhuman cruelty bloody havoc, made in pieces and scattered outside the city thrown to the dogs. (...) A woman in dress foreigner who had a baby strapped to her chest, for you do not know the difference with
  21. 21. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 27 L. Pogliaghi - Plague in Florence (engraving,1348) (in “History of the Renaissance” by F. Bertnini)
  22. 22. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century28 the seller, because tossed the breast in the common ground some cherries, believing with these had poured poison, is dragged with the child and made into pieces, thrown from the bridge of the Magdalene. (...) The popular anger is against the government guilty of wanting to exterminate the people down even when the disease has not arrived at the top. There are rumors of foreign poisoners who spread dust contaminants on food and even in the holy waters and begins the hunt for the stranger. The inability of the Deputation of Health and regents to combat the plague feeds and formalizes the rumor, and are condemned to the wheel alleged spreaders caught in the act(19) ”. In 1630 the flagellum black of plague abbot on Italy in particular, especially in North Milan, as also described by Alessandro Manzoni’s Promessi Sposi that, citing Tadino, says that the population of Milan for the plague fell from 250,000 to about 64,000 inhabitants(20) , in 1656 the victims in Naples would be around 450 thousand(21) and 14,473 in Rome. 1. Introduction The words plague and contagion inspire terror because it can be connected directly to death even at a young age: the plague going around the city with gaping like a weasel. It is believed, also , that the disease is a kind of divine chastisement to punish the corruption of morals(22) , the same Pope Clement VI specifically mentions the divine wrath that afflicts of the plague the Christians. The black death is considered the livid mark of the fourth seal
  23. 23. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 29 apocalyptic(23) : the apocalypse itself, then, is exorcised by the aforementioned popular invocation “a fame, peste, bello, libera nos, Domine” (“by famine, plague, beautiful, deliver us, God”) which, in total crisis of medicine, entrusts exclusively to God the full protection from evil. However, the reaction of the people facing the disease is paradoxically twofold: some get depressed, pray repenting of sins in view of the imminent end of the human race and live a life more sober and God-fearing, avoid contact with other people to escape disease; however, “other than the contrary opinion, affirmed drink a lot and enjoy and sing and amuse and satisfy the appetite and what happened laugh and mock the medicine: and so as they said they did, day and night going from tavern in tavern , drinking without so and measure(24) ”. The costumes do not change, finally, for the survivors, that “... being in a few, and abundant for inheritance and succession of earthly goods, forgetting the past, you gave the most indecent and dishonest life that were not before, idle and dissolute gluttony, banquets, taverns and delicate with delights food, games, unbridled lust, finding strange clothing and dishonest ways, changing all of them to new forms furnishings(25) ”. The religious, at times, rather than bring extreme comfort to the dying, for fear of infection deserting the task generating the discomfort of a transition without confession and extreme unction: “many confessed when they were still in good health. Day and night remained exposed on the altars the consecrated host and the oil of the sick. No priest wanted to take the sacrament except those that were intended to reward some. And almost all of the mendicant friars and priests of Trent have
  24. 24. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century30 died(26) ”. In 1656 Pope Alexander VII index a Jubilee to invoke the grace of God. Bloom also numerous events pagan or superstitious behaviors, for example: carrying on bottles of liquid saints, amulets, holy cards and various devotions. The sick are abandoned in the homes from come cries for help that remain unanswered; the family crying are held at a distance: “ ... many died alone, and many died of hunger, because as someone got sick in bed, family astonished they told him: < I'm going to call the doctor > and closed the door from the street, and never returned . He abandoned by people, without food and feverish died. Many begged the family not to abandon them, when they came in the evening. And when the patient fell asleep, they went away, and did not return. If for her misfortune was the night comforted food in the morning alive and strong look out the window, (...) as well as any passed, and he heard a voice was thin, it was not the rescue. Because no one, or just wanted to get into the house, where she was a patient(27) ”. 2. Conditions of physicians and apothecaries Coinciding with the plague of 1348 and the subsequent waves of epidemic occurs corporations Art of Apothecaries development, born in genteel age, also grows the role of local spices: various cities, in fact, during the epidemics are divided into districts entrusted commissioners, doctors, surgeons and apothecaries. They are active in several Member bodies. In Venice, for example, one of the authorities in charge of monitoring the pharmacy from 1348, which was to become in time one of the most admired and famous
  25. 25. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 31 European civil courts, is the Office of the Sages of Health, composed of three noble men , with the task principal to ensure the protection of public health at the end of the epidemic, however, the office is canceled and then, tentatively restarted at each new outbreak . In this judiciary alongside : the chief physician for certain skills, the Superintendents of Health in Terra Firma, special officials sent in cases of medical emergency, the Superintendents to Pharmacies. Since 1423 , however , at the highest levels often overlap the various measures approved by the Senate and Full Board, making it often difficult and confusing a unified vision of health protection, with the aggravating circumstance of judicial co- operation of other lower courts: the Lords of Night, operators of the mortality register of the epidemic of 1423, 1440 and 1450, the Procurators of San Marco of citra, administrators budgets and bequests for the benefit of the two Lazarets the city's public, and the Magistrate to Sal, a provider of financial means for the ordinary course of Lazarets. The epidemics of 1478 and 1485 are entrusted to the care of Superintendents to Sal, inadequate performance, are replaced by the Senate in the same year with the above Healthcare Providers. The latter, made immediately dependent judiciary branch offices all existing health care in the state, have extensive supervisory tasks(28) , including that on health arts, including supervision and coordination in the production of medicines. Later they established the Above Superintendents of Health, who since 1554 have criminal jurisdiction in the health sector , expanded faculty from 1556 until the imposition of the death penalty and, as a result, further enhanced by the
  26. 26. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century32 JulesElieDelaunay-ThePlagueinRome:theAngelofDeath(nineteenthcentury).
  27. 27. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 33 establishment of the Superintendent -General against the Plague, supervisor of health action against epidemics inside and outside the Republic of Venice. For doctors and apothecaries, however, the epidemics constitute a real defeat the insipience and misunderstanding results a total helplessness! Guy de Chauliac writes that the black plague is “not very convenient for doctors and such to make them ashamed, because dare not visit for fear of contagion and when they visit did little or nothing and almost all patients die”. For this failure informs also Boccaccio that concludes his description of the plague in the Decameron saying: “How many valiant men, how many beautiful women, many young graceful, than others, but Galen, Hippocrates or Asclepius had judged very healthy, ate in the morning with faily, comrades and friends, and then the next night they dined in the other world with their dead!”. The majority of physicians and apothecaries, in fact, often in the face of plague refers to the Galenic precept “cito, longe fugeas et tarde redeas” (quickly runs away and come back later you can), leaving the field open to would-be curators improvised touting ineffective remedies sold for their weight in gold. Even the personal physician of Pope Clement VI, Guy de Chauliac, attempted from the escape, shared by several bishops, admits: “For fear of dishonor I dared not flee. Continually tormented by fear, I tried to protect myself as best ...”. By another doctor of Avignon close to the Pope, Chalin de Vinario, we understand clearly the idea prevalent among doctors and health professionals in general: “we are the next of ourselves. None of us are blinded by such a folly to devote more of the salvation of others as their own,
  28. 28. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century34 especially as the disease is so rapid and contagious”. In authoritative texts, then, referring to the recommendations of Avicenna, Tommaso del Garbo recommend “before the primary, and sure remedy is to escape from the place where the plague, and go to the place where the air is healthy, and not to flee in place, which is close to the place where the highest mortality. (...)You can escape the city in the countryside(29) ”. In Rome in 1656, it promulgated an edict forbidding, under penalty of death and confiscation of property, to physicians, surgeons and surgeons to move away from the Urbe . Despite many ‘precautions’, prophylactic and therapeutic protocols , in 1630 the devastation of the disease is not curbed and strikes primarily on the most vulnerable: on doctors to whom, for collective fear of not having more available, in many cases it is advisable to live in the homes of the peripheral areas of the country; on decimated apothecaries, whose ‘workshops’ are empty of all good generating widespread inability of supplies of medicines. At the end of the epidemic cycle the apothecaries are almost extinct in many places, while some are on the verge of bankruptcy for credit supplied to the lazarets and receiving, then, many years later, in some cases not isolated even after more than a decade. After the plague, finally, because of the carnage of Apothecaries operated by the disease, the leaders of the College of Milan allowed to register external candidates to the families of the Masters Apothecaries, but by creating a sub-category of operators authorized to sell and not only to compose drugs. During this century increase professional aggregations; in many cases begin to be imposed on the category of
  29. 29. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 35 Sacramentofcommuniontoasickperson.
  30. 30. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century36 apothecaries Statutes that require inspections of the College of Physicians, thus losing part of autonomy. 3. Prophylaxis protocols Because therapies often do not show any effectiveness, the doctors believe “the preservative part very noblest and most necessary of healing(30) ”. At the beginning of the seventeenth century in France the doctors who visit the sick of the plague begin to wear a cloak of oil-cloth, linen cloth coated with paste wax mixed with aromatic substances, baleful clothing that becomes very popular especially in Italy considering able to prevent the atoms of the poisonous miasma ‘attach themselves’ to its surface smooth and slippery. The special medical kit, in addition to the apron waxed black morocco of Levant to the foot ( cloth for his smell and his hair is best suited to resist the poison of pestilential), generally has the same shoes to the Polish Moroccan Levant, leather breeches tied to boots and a leather jacket as well; finally, there are gloves and hat, even in Moroccan, stick and completing a sort of bird's beak on the nose (pierced by only two holes, one on each side, but sufficient for respiration and with the openings necessary to view protected to avoid any danger, by two small crystals)(31) containing the pomum ambrae, sponge or gauze soaked in the mixture of substances believed to be protective, inhaling all the time; the doctor, also, when you visit the sick is held at a distance. For the purification of air from the pestilential diseases is used to calefaction: large fires that are thrown ointments, resins and herbs to purify
  31. 31. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 37 the air by the stench which is believed to spread evil as it is opposed to the stench coming from the bodies abandoned in putrefaction. It is then introduced the use of applications to the nostrils of odorous substances to purify the air inhaled directly. More prophylaxis precepts recommend: ventilation of rooms, use of good wine and healthy foods, abstaining from coitus during sexual intercourse, personal ablutions with vinegar and rose water. Who can swallow gemstones for an alleged miraculous power or preventive medicines: various texts recommend antimony compounds with Among the preventive remedies against the plague of Hortus sanitatis (1517 ) shows the “eat in the morning out of bed with a walnut and a fig tree”; in many herbaria for prevention of the disease is recommended to wash the floors with vinegar and wipe with garlic and rose water. The belief in the therapeutic properties of the incense, together with the passion for cosmetics ‘amber and musk’ will continue throughout Europe until at least mid- eighteenth century. Moreover, the ‘pleasure of smell’, as well as aspect of the philosophy of sensism , is a response of the upper classes to the miasma of the city and poor personal hygiene. It should not be silent, then, that in the sixteenth-eighteenth centuries, believing plague and syphilis originated by smells, is extremely widespread fear of water based on the theory ‘scientific’ of the porous body: it is argued that the disease passes through the pores and, therefore, it is necessary to preserve the body waterproof and bathing suit with a thousand precautions and only in very rare cases, even on medical prescription(32) ( conception disappeared only in the nineteenth century, with
  32. 32. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century38 the discovery of microbes). In Naples, as often in other cities, are boarded up and marked the houses where there is a death and life partners are imprisoned in them while foods are sent to them ‘through the basket from the windows, at the expense of the government’. You will burn clothing and objects of plague victims while the priests are forbidden to bury the plague victims in the churches. In Naples in 1649 you will burn even stocks of cod and salted fish, which are considered carriers of the disease, while walking in the streets with large scallops or smoking torches of burning pitch to drive away moods lethal. Conversing at a distance. In times of contagion of the plague taking restrictive measures aimed at protecting communities still free. One of the most challenging implemented by all States to protect themselves from the plague is the banning of a city where you suspect the existence of an outbreak of infection. The ban is closely related to another measure of protection: the establishment of sanitary cordons on land or at sea to avoid contagion. The ban should be considered as the most frequently used to try to achieve a prevention of epidemic diseases. It involves the interruption of every business relationship and communication with the town considered a potential source of infection. The countries of the Ottoman Empire and Africa are often banned because they were considered dangerous. To spread the message of risk and the need to stop travel to places or countries, civil authorities or medical use people called ‘preachers’ with the task of spreading this message among the sparse population in the area and, for the most part, illiterate. The order submitted by the auctioneer is called Bando, Edict ,
  33. 33. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 39 Decree or Ordinance. The arrivals of people, goods and animals are viewed with frightened eyes and everyone is trying to protect yourself from these possible vehicles of infection. One of prevention measures oldest, the most widespread and best documented, is the establishment of the Faith of Health, certificate which must arm who embarks on a journey to earth and that ‘authentic’, certifying the state of health of which enjoyed by the country of origin of the traveler and therefore, presumably, the traveler himself. The Faith of Health, real health passport, is considered document particularly important for the authorities, for fear of fraud, followed closely by the press to delivery to the compiler. While similar document that accompanies a boat, the Patent of Health, it is issued by a authority of port (a Deputation Health with great powers), the Faith of Health has issued also in small towns. While the Patent of Health are often beautiful prints with known stamps of health, the Faith are often small and simple handwritten sheets of a municipal employee. The Faith must retain the physical features of the person to whom they are issued and any relevant information for secure identification. The Patents of Health are carefully controlled by officials or members or medical deputy to health check. If the vessels come from ports suspected, if while browsing the boat is attacked by pirates, the crew, passengers and cargo are quarantined. In Venice, to physically isolate those affected by the disease, the Republic establishing on two islands Lazarets (Venetian dialect corruption of St. Mary of Nazareth: is the first example in the world of isolation hospital , where once cured lepers.
  34. 34. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century40 LucaGiordano-ThePlague(oiloncanvas,1656).
  35. 35. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 41 The Lazarets are divided into old (oldest to institution) and new(33) . These enclosed areas at seaports are located in various cities of Italy and in their ships, sailors and their goods are subject to quarantine periods in times of suspected plague. In addition to quarantine in lazarets, in times of epidemics people can be seized at home, especially if the family that lives in that place had a death. In addition to quarantine in lazarets, in times of epidemics people can be subject to seizure at home, especially if the family that lives in that place had a death. In Rome in June 1656 are structured five lazarets: in Tiber Island (with its two lanes wide side deck access and entry permitted only with boats from the Tiber River); in San Pancrazio; in Casal Pius V, for convalescents from the Tiber Island; in Giulia street for “corroboration of health after his recovery”; to the monastery of Saint Eustace, for the quarantine of suspected plague victims. The plague victims are “ brought to the military hospital in a coffin covered by slaves , that men sentenced to jail , who are dressed in a tunic porter green canvas tarp with gloves at the hands of Moroccan black”. The end of the plague is officially announced on 8 September by Pope(34) . The mail (letters, manuscripts, telegrams, newspapers), already for centuries considered dangerous vehicle of infection considering the paper is able to receive, store and transmit the infection, is subject to extensive and rigorous disinfection as a measure of prevention of infection. Letters can be disinfected externally or internally and externally. Along the consular roads, or at least along the route of the mail flows are disinfection
  36. 36. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century42 stations where workers with gloves and aprons oilcloth take pliers with long letters by placing them on tables, opening, and then disinfecting them to collect and burn off any remaining pieces. The disinfection is different for areas and eras. For centuries the purifying virtues attributed to the fire calmed those in charge of disinfection of the letters. We use aromatic woods, aromatic substances or scrub (unfortunately the paper burns easily so great care is needed in the steps of the letters on the flame): splits along the length of the ends of a rod in the gap and pulls the sheet to pass the flame. The immersion in vinegar is considered very secure system of disinfection: the letters are opened, sprinkled with vinegar, then dry (even this system has drawbacks as not all inks are resistant to vinegar and some manuscripts become unreadable: irreparable harm when these are business letters or bank documents, in an attempt to avoid at least some of the disadvantages, traders shorten the maximum dive time). In other cases, it spreads quicklime on the cards or sheets are passed to the oven. The coins, then are often thoroughly washed with vinegar. In Naples in 1649, also, in the first Pragmatic Health of promulgated by Viceroy emerge initial measures taken against a deep urban and social decay: “Having known the damage it can make to the health of this City the multitude of dogs and pigs, walking through the city, considering that in the current weakness may be great cause as aforesaid dogs creep into infected houses, and then they go in the other houses of the healthy. Therefore, with this announcement ... It is
  37. 37. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 43 L. Pogliaghi - Plague in Florence (engraving,1348) (in “History of the Renaissance” by F. Bertnini)
  38. 38. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century44 ordered that all the hosts of these pigs, even though they were of the Abbey of St. Anthony, and the owners of the dogs, that within twenty four hours of the publication of this Notice must withdraw them in their own homes, (...) The Deputies of health”. 4. Substances for treatments of environments Among the most commonly used substances for calefaction are: pine resin burned on larch wood, sulfur, malodorous materials (bovine dung, horns, nails, glands, and animal hair), able to overpower the stench of miasma. In many herbaria to prevent the disease we recommend washing the floors with vinegar and rub with garlic and rose water. The vinegar with lime is also used to treat the walls. The following are an indication, some of the provisions enacted in Naples: “Item order that the houses of the dead, sick, or convalescent, denounced, must be cleaned in the following way: in each room burns a quarter of a roll of sulfur in windows closed for half an 'hour, and then turns off in container filled with vinegar, lime required, even doors and windows shut, and paint it white twice the room. This is for the poor at the expense of the public(35) ”. 5. Fragrant preparations The pomum ambrae, by doctor insistently sniffed, is a sponge or gauze soaked in vinegar mixture in which they are dissolved powder of cloves, cinnamon and other spices. Moreover, they are widely used buccheri (reddish fragrant land of exotic countries and the Americas, fashion in the seventeenth
  39. 39. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 45 century) to make tablets and fragrances from the alleged beneficial fragrances. It is widespread, in fact, the belief in the therapeutic properties of aphrodisiac scents, so there is the habit of emitting species in the meeting places of habitation and salvific and perfective arguing the virtues of medicines not only fragrant but even food fragrant. Other products: as a result raging between the rich fashion: chocolate jasmine, amber and musk-laden sorbets, ‘fertilized waters’. 6. Therapies Among the therapies are: the inevitable theriac; ‘clutches of the extreme parts’ with vinegar or rose water, vernaccia, malvasia, purifying the corrupted humours based purges and bloodletting; local superfluity eliminators based of cauteries ‘present’ (red-hot iron) and of cauteries ‘potential’ (vitriol, quicklime); Armenian bole; some lands sealed; ersicaria herbs, by drying properties moods and reducing fevers; saffron, for pale skin; deer horn powder or filings, antitoxic and comforting; oil of scorpions, smeared on buboes; sapphire and emerald, purifiers and moderators of internal heat and sweat and purification of the corruption of the body and the sins of the soul. To sick, also, are administered orally electuaries of rhubarb, cassia herbs, red corals, minced pearls, cinnamon and chamomile flowers. Among the remedies and cures for the plague reported in the Hortus sanitatis (1517) include the practice of grease wrists and nostrils with oil barrel and “take a few drops a day in water and blessed thistle herb scabiosa” to delay
  40. 40. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century46 putrefaction and corruption of blood and humors in diseased; taken against pestilential fevers dried or fresh leaves or juice elixir seeds of Ersicaria herbs, which cool the mood until the last level. Other remedies and cures against the plague are in the discussion ‘De bubone pestilentiae’ (XVI century) by the illustrious Gabriel Falloppio: diet, isolation of infected persons; cruet of aromas of garlic, vinegar, camphor, rosemary, wormwood, oil of scorpions under the nostrils; packages of antiseptic odoriferous plants hanging on the heart; medicinal wine with betony herb, wormwood, etc.; garlic. Around the middle of the sixteenth century is written by Hermani Grüße the Code Herbarium of ‘diagram of flavors’ that are listed by month aromas and flavors of herbs that are constituents of medicines for the treatment of plague. In this great tragic theater of the plague, in addition, the cumbersome and evanescent medicine offers another miserable show: come to be packaged powders against the plague composed even with more than 150 simple, especially based theriac and ‘cordial’. It is customary to use, both as a preventive and therapeutic, smoking pipe of tobacco, indeed in some cases it is also believed that tobacco vendors are immune from the pestilential disease(36) : “(... ) one day, having gone to visit a (...) hit by the plague, ( ... ), I was suffocated by the horrible smell that was around, I was struck by contagion. I made a very short visit and left with dizziness, nausea and anxiety, and narrowing of the heart that convinced me to be attacked by the pestilent poison. Then, forgetting all my efforts (there were ten in the morning), I locked myself in the house, where I smoked six or
  41. 41. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 47 HallHotelDieu-Paris,engravingwood(sixteenthcentury).
  42. 42. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century48 seven excellent tobacco’s pipe. Immediately all the symptoms disappeared and I was hit so well that I did not hear any more noise and I was able to continue my visits, after swallowing, before leaving the house, a drama of good theriac... these pipes and tobacco, as I said, I have always been of great benefit all the times I’ve been attacked by the pestilential poison. Although these good results have not been achieved by all, the effects of this plant have benefited many soldiers, as confirmed repeatedly by their commanders. And you can confirm something more; because it is said that in London, during a great plague, the houses of those who sold tobacco were not affected(37) ”. 7. Therapies for less well-off Among the therapies for underserved appear, in place of the theriac, the lemon seeds or the crust of toasted bread soaked in vinegar with rue and onion. To the patients, in addition, are administered by mouth electuaries based rhubarb, cassia herb, red corals, pearls minced, cinnamon and chamomile flowers while for prevention various texts recommend medicaments based on antimony with sugar rosé wine or water. 8. Phlebotomy Phlebotomy is practiced with technique ‘derivative’ (in pathological area to reduce the mass) or technique ‘revulsive’ (the opposite side to deviate from the outbreak the moods corrupt); some apothecaries, however, performed with leeches even applications to anus of plague victims.
  43. 43. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 49 Paris:thelavishhospitalS.Louis,incision(theseventeenthcentury).
  44. 44. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century50 9. Insights on the treaty “Instruttione sopra la peste” by M. Michele Mercati First, for prevention is mentioned Avicenna that “advises that one extracts the superfluous moisture from the body superfluous” with phlebotomy “or with drugs (the evacuation, which is done with the exercise, abstinence, occult evaporation, clutches, and bathrooms). (...) In the bodies, therefore, that have blood superfluous, does the phlebotomy, to do, how he wants a modern doctor, through the common vein of the right-hand man, but not in large quantities, so that, (in the case of plague supervening) the virtue is not found too weak. And if for some reason you do not make the phlebotomy, sticking bloodsuckers on the buttocks, & up to above the hemorrhoid, or remove the flesh from the buttocks, and extract blood with small cups(38) . But these operations require preparation, so “before extracting blood gets an clyster in previous evening with common herbs, adding borage, buglotta, melissa, sorrel, bettonica, and rue capraria, with three ounces of rose honey, of which one of a red sugar, three egg yolks, & a little salt. Everything you do, when there is suspicion of plague, as soon as possible. Some want that in every moon is extracted a little blood, which is not the blames on those who have large amounts, and it usually draw(39) ”. Without phlebotomy, if other humors abound, reduce mixing in the medicaments ‘things cordial’. Starting on the third day, if the choler abounds, we use ‘medicines blessed’ to reduce it according to this prescription: Manna elected ,Trifera persica, Rhubarb elected; to dissolve with a decoction of: Marguerites, Hyacinths and Emeralds; Barbe of: Valerian, Bugloss, Borage and Angelica; Been red and
  45. 45. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 51 white, raw Silk. You have to crush everything all and close in a cloth tied and placed overnight in water Sorrel, of Scordio, Road capraia Tormentilla, Cicorea, Clover and White Dittany boiled. There is, then, a prescription for preparing to take the next day at dawn to expel residues of matter: water sorrel syrup and cedar vinegar with water of hops, borage and endiuia. In the syrup is mixed and left overnight a powder in a cloth tied composed of marguerites, red coral and Armenian bole. After the phlebotomy the patient of the plague are recommended even eight grains of emerald(40) with one drama an antidote of blood; and, then, an efficient secret remedy: mixture of onion juice (ounce i), apples liqueur (ou ii), strong vinegar (ou iii) to drink warm with the patient in bed well covered to induce heavy sweating(41) . Are described, in addition, the modality to preserve from the plague with evacuation of ‘superfluous’ making use of catheters in various parts of the body, especially 4-5 fingers below the left knee; in addition to what is recommended that the famous and popular pills of Ruffo (two parts of aloe, one of saffron and one of myrrh amalgamated with wine) that Avicenna recommended daily intake of about 1 drama three hours before dinner. At seven o'clock before eating is recommended lattovari large (theriac, mitridatum) while 2-3 hours before dinner, we recommend sorrel or bettonica. It is advised, also, to use powdered rhino horn or unicorn who defend the heart from ‘poisonous fumes(42) ’. Then there is a therapeutic program(43) : 1st day: theriac; the 2nd day: tormentil powder, cedar and holy thistle seeds in equal parts; on the 3rd day: lattovario of Armenian bole (dr. VI),
  46. 46. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century52 cinnammomo (dr . II), galangal (dr. I), carnations (dr. I and a half), tormentil beard (½ ounce ), sugar infused into rose water infusion (lib. I); on the 4th day: pills Ruffo about 1 drama; the 5th day: hazelnut or mitridatum (dr. II ); the 6th day: 1 dr. lenia earth dissolved with rose water or wine; the 7th day: dr. 1 and a half of antidote of sludges; 8th day: pills Ruffo; the 9th day: 12 grains of Bezaar stone; the 10th day: 3 ounces of mixture: pink water (½ lib.), fragrant wine (onc. ii), Armenian bole (dr. ii); day 11: juice of rue capraia called in Rome Turina, in Lombardy Galena and in Tuscany Capraggine; day 12: pills Ruffo; day 13: scordeo powder with rose water or wine; a mouthful of Verbena supine (St John’s Herbs); a compound with rhubarb; a complex lattovari; an antidote. By then, the cycle is repeated for another 13 days and a shortfall of some remedy can be replaced with a ‘bite’ of Sorrel in the morning and Clover said ‘hallelujah’ in the evening. Other remedies are : a bite St John’s Herbs (Verbena supine), 1 scruple of rhubarb chewed slowly; 2 walnuts, 2 dried figs and about 20 leaves of rue with a little salt; Armenian bole distilled to alembic (ou I) infused for 24 hours with strong vinegar (ou IIII) and lemon juice (lib II). In another famous remedy very complex (already used in the plague epidemics of 1348 and 1376), to be taken in quantities of 1 drama every morning on an empty stomach, include over 40 elements, among which: juniper berries, cloves, mace, nutmeg, gengiuo , zedoaria, aristolochia long and rounded, gentian, tormentil, ditamo white root, helenio, Been red and white, ghiaggiuolo, doronici and rue, mint, cuddling laurel, basil and cedar seeds, incense, Armenian bole, sealed earth, filing ivory, Alicorno horn,
  47. 47. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 53 pearls, coral red and white, rubies, topazes, sapphires, hyacinths, roses preserves, tamarind, etc.(44) . Do not miss the lines prophylaxis with lifestyle(45) : the air must be ‘dried’ and, according to Avicenna, treated with the fumes of sandalwood, camphor, bark of pomegranate, myrtle, quince apples, herbeno, tamarisk, currant; the sick refresh with the tops of the plants fresh, fragrant fruits, camphor, rose water, sandalwood; the house is ‘wet’ a few times a day especially with rose water, willows and waterlily. It avoids the ‘putrefaction’ using aloe, frankincense, carnations, turpentine, laudanum, apple liqueur crocus, bitter almonds, etc. An important fragrance is the oxirodinum: rose oil with vinegar(46) . Day 2: treatment of plague with purgatives (evening): powderof holy thistle seed, cedar, tormentil beards and roses crushed and mixed “with a little rose water & a drop of good wine”. Day 3: syrups or giulebbi long with sorrel, alleluia grass , sow-thistle , clover smell, cicorea , etc. (referred to in chap. VI). Often take a ‘spoon’ of syrup of ‘cedar vinegarand’ and in the evening 2 or 3 ounces of calendula juice or verbena supine or bettonica and sweat. Day 4: syrups and 1 dr . Pills of Ruffo to take all of the following days even. There are, then, means lack of appetite of sick of the plague(47) . Moreover, in case of syncope or fainting of sick of the plague is recommended to take often, in addition to water of roses, a giulebbo along with: rose water, flowers of borage and bugloss, violets, sorrel, lemon sauce, lime, orange and apples cakes, wine and sugar until; all flavored with powdered coral heads, hyacinths, emeralds, daisies, valerian root, unicorn
  48. 48. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century54
  49. 49. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 55 horn, amber, vinegar, water (of: rose, bugloss, balm, source, cinnamom), aloe wood, etc. We recommend, then, that the sheets of the patient are soaked in rose water and anise, wet face, hands and legs of the patient with rose water and temples, nose and ears with rosewater and camphor. It cites, again, a ‘useful liniment’ (for use on the patient’s heart for ‘friction’ and, then, spread on a silk cloth placed over his heart as a patch) obtained by mixing: theriac (ou. i), gravy cedar and lemon (ou. half), and seeds of red coral roses (ana dr. middle), camphor and crocus (ana gr. iii). The bubbles are rubbing with simple warm water (or, better, with hot fennel, anise, chamomile and a bit of evil) using a red cloth that wraps around the patient. To extract the tumors using a cockerel live not yet coupled with chickens, “it plucks everything behind the tail” and keep it until it dies over the empyema; others open in half, length-wise, and before it cools, place it empyema; others use the razor, or bloodsuckers, or quicklime and soap, or plasters of egg yolk with much salt(48) . For liver care of the sick, then, it takes a epithima based on: rose water, absinthe, liver, endiuia, cicorea, solatro ( ana ou. v ), wicked and vinegar (ana ou. iii) and fresh hepatic spices. With the above ointment and epithima you make the patient’s testicles care. Against the plague are also considered various useful antidotes that “weaken the acrimony of poisons, and hardening the pores, preventing a rapid flow of poison in the body(49) ”. In addition to the theriac, theriac of the sealed earth and mitridatum include: oil of vitriol with wine (2 or 3 drops); altea or nettle cooked with dung cockerel; old wine drinking plenty; applications of powder of emerald under the foot
  50. 50. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century56 stripped, plasters to the soles of the feet with onions cooked under the ashes; among the drugs resistant to poisons there is, again: cedar seed potion; white dittany root juice; juice angelica root; several components cooked, including: tormentil , wood aloes, agrimony with wine, thyme. There are still: garlic juice with wine (ou. I); coconut Indies drink with wine powerful; shaving of Alicorn horn with wine; shaving rhino horn with wine; milk seeds of cucumbers, milk seeds of gourds. Finally, there are also many compounds for sweat: anise oil, oil of scorpions (captured in August at number 100, with olive oil very old: it puts the oil in the glass bowl on boiler full of boiling water and will bring you the live scorpions for 4 hours, until they become red (closing nose and mouth with a cloth so as not to inhale the poisonous fumes), are added to fine powder of dittany and of leafs of rue capraia (ana ou. i); cooled is preserved in glass vases and is also useful as a preventive and antidote to poisoning. It is used by anointing the thoracic area of the winged pest around the heart and wrists. 10. Insights on the treaty “Contro alla peste” by Marsilio Ficino In this work, for the buboes are recommended break up elements compounds and plasters strong: 1st prescription = “Recipe figs & ireos, that beard gichero, & corn ground, for equal parts”; Colombina with vinegar; opoponaco with leaven; sparrow dung with pork lard; glass ground in turpentine; human dung “to break and after the break above adding breadcrumbs soaked in boiling oil”; oil boiled with ashes(50) . There are, then,
  51. 51. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 57 plasters strong: orpiment and pepper (dr. 2 ), dried figs (ten) with apples (q.b.); cantarelle with oil of soap; ash oak used by dyers (4 parts), slaked lime (p. 6) mixed with plaster obtained by boiling oil hot of black olives with ash and addition of 5 herbs: comfrey, scabiosa, agrimony, bretonica and aristolochia. There is the poultice of Galen: plantain, lenses, bran bread boiled in water(51) . The shock therapy with plasters and break up elements strong, in order to avoid severe inflammation, is then replaced by a maintenance therapy with plasters temperate(52) to be used “where there is not much color green, or red, or black & corrosion”: Durum bran (two handpieces) cooked in vinegar; assa, nitro and apples (with or without the addition of theriac: according to some authors better without it “sends the poison inside”). There are, then, plasters very temperate(53) to be used “when the bubble is very black, & very hot, & very quickly eroding, & swells”: “Recipe: acres pomegranates cut into pieces and cooked in vinegar and pounded; acacia, dredging, opium, bark of pomegranates (dr. 1), verdigris, white henbane and wine”. For reduction of burn and pain of the abscess(54) is recommended: “not on the wound, but around” often put “bread crumbs fresh, & hot as it comes out of the oven, dipped in vinegary wine, or juice of plantain (...) & so that the plaster does not dry immediately, above you bring plantain leaves. When you take the plaster washes with strong wine, or vinegary, then put barley flour with honey”. “To drop the dead flesh from abscess(55) ”, “when you see the plague already mortified, order now, that the dead flesh to fall: branca orfina, malvavisco beard, win herba, mallow leaf ( ou. i) pounded and
  52. 52. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century58 mixed well with pork lard and bitumen old and after 3 days storage is poured and adds to casting a bit of wax and mastic”. Up to Chapter XXI are dealt treatments “according to the intention of doctors Greeks, Latins, and the Barbarians, maximum according to use of the Italians”. In Chapter XXI treat “things according to the use of Spanish & Catalani Doctors”. For maturation of skin very ‘dense’ are recommended: malvavisco beards, lilies, ellecampana, alpinino watermelon and onion (half pound), fats dried figs (20), hay seed greek and linseed (ou. I), leaves mauve and malvavisco, branca orfina, violaria herbs (handful I) cooked for long time in the water and, after being pounded, add fresh pork lard melted and cast (li. I, q.b.). Some people add snails with the ‘peel’ pounded. While, if you want a more delicate, adding fresh fat of hen. If the bubble is green or black or corrosive “washed with warm salt water, because the blood does not clot” and, then, using a break up element: egg yolk with a little salt and lard with salt pork old. A break up element strong, not to be used on the bubbles but around, is: well pulverized glass powder (ou. half) mixed with corn pounded (ou. I) and place on clean cloth if you want even more violent action you add lime soap and clothes. There are, then, many instructions for prophylaxis environmental and personnel assistance to the sick(56) : use of turpentine to sanitize environments; use of vinegar to wash; use of scents and smells good fumes emitted “carrying in his hand a great candle, or a candlestick” and many fires in the home(57) . You must change the bedding often, especially of the bust, and perfume it with incense, turpentine, juniper, laurel; it is good to have in hand
  53. 53. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 59
  54. 54. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century60 apples to oranges and a bunch of rue or querciola and mint, melissa with myrtle; it is good to have fresh flowers ahead. Another prescription for ‘healthy fragrance’ is: rose water, rose vinegar, malvagia and citron peel. To the nose takes a wet sponge tied to ash wood which has “so much power against poison, no poisonous animal comes near to his shadow, & its odor, & before you throw in the fire, rather than approach this”. For the rich, in addition, it is recommended to drink or hold in mouth or touch or wear around the neck an emerald “whose virtue is huge against poisons”. For the poor, however, it is recommended the horseradish root wild and, in this regard, Dioscorides says even to wash your hands with its seeds crushed with vinegar and touching, then, the snakes without harm. Then is cited the stone of Bezahar(58) , another powerful antidote that second Serapione and Rafis “resist to all poisons hot & cold, & bites & poisonous wounds, & it should be taking inside, & putting off, & bringing to the neck, & putting in mouth (...) its intake is of grains twelve”, from mines Syrian, Oriental, Indian, which can be 3 colors and the best color is light white wine. Do not miss one of the recommendations of prophylaxis “run soon, & away, & returns very late(59) ”. Are listed, again, various pills(60) “ excellent to preserve the man from the plague, & are tested, and very recommended”, including glorious pills of John Damasceno ( panacea for many diseases) composed of various ingredients, including: burnet, querciuola, myrrh, aloe, saffron and Armenian bole. Among the secreted remedies tested against the plague “by many great
  55. 55. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 61 men, & illustrious” places “for the universal benefit(61) ” include: arsenic crystal put in a piece of particular tissues and place over your shirt at heart; powder of Physician Master Mingo from Faenza based white dittany, deer horn blown, Armenian bole, red sandals , tormentil and camphor; lattovaro of Bologna containing boiled egg whites with saffron, mustard, tormentil, dittany, nux vomica and theriac. Manardo from Ferrara, then, recommended after a bloodletting to expel bad humours mainly by the subjects sanguine and only if in winter, a preparation of oxy-apples (or vinegary simple syrup mixed with water or decoction of chicory) and water bettonica to be taken for 3 days at dawn(62) . Among the purgative (from the 4th day of treatment) Manardo prescribes aggregative pills composed of aloes, agaric, rhubarb, diagridi, be taken with bettonica water. The 5th day is administered theriac, but if good, because in this era it is not always considered reliable quality. In place of a drama theriac poor, Manardo prescribes twice the amount of an antidote lattovario obtained by mixing a electuary of apples to a powder composed mainly of: dried blood of goose, duck and goat male and female, rue, fennel seeds, cumin , anise and turnips, gentian root, red clover, incense, dried roses, pepper, lettuce, cinnamon , myrrh, assaro, marjoram, agaric, saffron and mastic. This antidote should be stored in silver vases or, in makeshift, glass vases. The 6th day Manandro prescribes a powder mixed with wine based tormentil, five
  56. 56. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century62 leaf root and cedar seeds and holy thistle; prescribes, in addition, to eat two walnuts, two figs, twenty leaves of rue with little salt. The 7th day prescribes verbena. The 8th prescribe hypericum powder mixed with wine. The 9th day four scruples of Ruffo pills ‘authentic’ obtained from aromatic white wine mixed to aloe powdered ammonia and myrrh. The last two days prescribes chewing of rhubarb swallowing slowly. Finally, at the end of the treatment cycle the therapy is repeated in the same order and by setting yourself according to the climatic period.
  57. 57. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 63 Notes (1) Holy Bible, Exodus, IX. (2) Ovidio, Metamorphosis, IX. (3) M. G. Levi, Dictionary of Medicine and Surgery, 1833. (4) Pascale Bindio, “Naples in 1656: namely, Documents of the plague that desolated Naples in 1656”, 1867. (5) Up to 1537 epidemics have cyclical recurrence. (6) Giorgio Cosmacini, The Art of Long, Laterza, 1999, p. 211. (7) Alessandro Manzoni, I promessi sposi, 1827. (8) Salvatore Argenziano-Aniello Langella, The plague of 1656 in Naples. Clipboard history, health, religious and curiosity, Vesuvioweb, 2012. (9) Rif.: Claudio Rendina, Here comes the plague. Horror in the Urbe of ‘600, La Repubblica, June 9, 2013; (10) Michele da Piazza, Historia Siculorum. (11) Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron, 1351. (12) Giorgio Cosmacini, Ibid.. (13) Marsilio Ficino Fiorentino, Board of Marsilio Ficino Fiorentino against the pestilence, What is pestilentia, Chapter I, p. 1, Florence, 1576. (14) Petrus Michael Gagna, De peste tractatus historico-medicus Latino, ac Italico idiomate descriptus, 1715. (15) Resulting from the Poll-tax. (16) Giorgio Cosmacini, Ibid., p. 206. (17) Armando Sapori, Tools, The medieval mercantile, 1972. (18) Lopez. (19) Pietro Giannone, Civil History of the Kingdom of Naples, Book XXXVII, Chapter. 6. (20) “If we are to believe the Tadino. Which states that for accuracies made, after the plague, the population of Milan found himself reduced to little more than sixty thousand souls, and before that he had two hundred and fifty thousand”. (21) Carlo Celano (1625–1693), News of the beautiful, ancient and curious of the city of Naples for the gentlemen strangers given by the canonical split in ten days: "(...) Naples is one of the most populose cities in Europe. Suffice it to say that in the year 1656 were killed by the plague four hundred and fifty thousand people ... In the year 1656 it was then very inauspicious our poor city (deceived by their confidence) murdered by a fierce plague, which kills in just six months, with indescribable horror if not by those who saw it (like me), four hundred fifty-four thousand people, for the count at that time you could do roughly”. (22) “It did not sound bells, and not crying person, for whatever reason, that almost every person waiting for death, and it was going on, because people believed that no one would survive, and many people believed, and said this is the end of World” (Agnolo di Tura).
  58. 58. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century64 (23) “And immediately I saw what appeared a pale horse, and he that was over there had a name, Death, and Hell followed her. And they were given authority over one-fourth of the earth to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death” (Apocalypse, 6, 8). (24) Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron, 1351. (25) Matteo Villani, Nova Cronica, 1348-63. (26) Canon Giovanni of Parma. (27) Marchionne di Coppo Stefani, Florentine chronicler. (28) Ensure the cleanliness of the city, on food, on hotels, cemeteries, Lazarets health of prostitutes, hospitals (only for the strictly medical and non-administrative, pertaining to the judiciary of the Superintendents of Hospitals and Holy Places), freshness and healthiness of the water contained in the public cisterns; count births and deaths; guard ships and goods in transit. (29) Recommendation of Tommaso del Garbo Fiorentino against the plague: When & how much in place you must escape; Order to escape. In: Marsilio Ficino, Against the plague, 1576, p. 77 and the following. (30) Giovan Agostino Contardo, The way to preserve and heal from the plague, 1576. (31) Jean Manget, Treatise on the Plague, Journal of a Doctor - written during the plague of Nijmegen (1637), published in 1721. (32) This concept will disappear only in the nineteenth century with the discovery of microbes. (33) www.veneziamuseo.it, Most Serene Republic, Judiciary sottopregadi second Locho, the supervisors over health care, 2013. (34) Re: Claudio Rendina, Here comes the plague. Horror in the Urbe of ‘600, La Repubblica, June 9, 2013; (35) Prammatica number 12 article 15 of Viceroy Don Garcia de Avellaneda y Haro (1649). (36) Jean Manget, Ibid. (37) Jean Manget, Ibid. (38) M. Michele Mercati, Education above the plague, The plague preserve mode with the evacuation of the humors, and before the blood, Chapter VI, p. 28; (39) Ibid, p. 28 e segg. (40) Ibid., How and when to take the emerald, p. 55. (41) Ibid., Instruttione, p. 56. (42) Ibid, pp. 33-34. (43) Ibid, p. 34. (44) Ibid, pp. 37-38. (45) Ibid, cap. VIII. (46) Ibid, Above the plague, Smells, p.63. (47) Ibid, p. 60. (48) Ibid, p. 64.
  59. 59. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 65 (49) Ibid., Instruction on poisons, p. 90 e segg. (50) Marsilio Ficino, Against the plague, the most Learned Manardo Letter from Ferrara, where he teaches good order with the real way to preserve, & heal from the plague, with many brave drugs he tried; translated from the Latin language in Tuscan, by M. Niccolò Lorenzini Medical Politiano, p. 97. (51) Ibid, Against the plague, p. 67. (52) Ibid., Chapt. XIIII, p. 56. (53) Ibid., Chapt. XIV, p. 57. (54) Ibid., Chapt. XVI, p. 58. (55) Ibid., Chapt. XVII. (56) Ibid., Della conservazione di chi governa gli infermi, Chapter XXII, pp. and the following. (57) Ibid., p. 69. (58) Ibid., Bezahar stone, & his virtues, & what is the best, p. 72. (59) Ibid., Chapt. XXIII. (60) Ibid., Infinite virtues of the pills, which are appropriate to the time of pestilence, Chapt. XXVIII. (61) Ibid., Recommendation of Garbo, Chapt. XXVIII., p. 95. (62) Ibid., Letter of Manardo from Ferrara, p. 99. Apparatus fontium Mercati, Michele - Instruttione sopra la peste, di M. Michele Mercati medico e filosofo nella quale si contengono i piu eletti & approuati rimedij, con molti nuoui e potenti secreti cosi da preseruarsi come da curarsi. Aggiunteui tre altre instruttioni sopra i veleni occultamente ministrati podagra & paratifi ... - In Rome: appresso Vincentio Accolto. Rome, pp. 168, 1576; Rome, Lancisiana Academy, Library, Cinquecentine, N. progressive Catalogue: 56 Location: II d 10; “All’illustriss. & Eccellentiss. Sig. Iacopo Buoncompagno Governator Generale di Santa Chiesa, Signor & patrone osservandissimo. Con Privilegij e Licenza de Superiori. Roma, Appresso Vincenzo Accolto MDLXXVI”. (p. 2); “RA le molte gratie, e favori, che da la Santità di N. Sig. ho ricevuto, mi fu di somma contentezza quando S.B. mi confermò la cura della conservatione & accrescimento dell’horto de semplici, per il gran desiderio, che è stato in me sempre, di pervenire col mezo delle fatiche, e di tale commodità all’acquisto della vera cognitione delle qualità &
  60. 60. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century66 virtù di molte herbe. Hora conoscendomi in obligo di dar qualche saggio di corrispondenza al giudicio che si è fatto di me in questa professione, incitato ancora dalla qualità del tempo, che porta seco remori e pericoli di peste in diverse parti, & stimolato dal beneficio universale, al quale è sopra tutti altri intenta la Santità sua” (p. 3); (note: main) “Nomi delli autori che si citano nella presente opera: Abenzohar, Aegessipus, Aimon Monachus, Albucasis, Aristoteles, Arnaldus de Villa nova, Avicenna, Averroes, Dioscorides, Eusebius, Eutropius, Galeno, San Gregorio Papa, Hieronymus Fracastorius, Hippocrates, Homerus, Ioannes de Concorregio, Menardus Ferrariensis, Matthiolus Senensis, Mesue, Paolus Diaconus, Plato, Platearius, Plinius, Procopius, Serapio”, ecc. (p. 4); “Tavola per alfabeto da trovar facilmente quello che nella presente opera si tratta” (p. 5); “Istituttione sopra peste di M. Michele Mercati medico e filosofo. Ricercato dalla S.V. Illustriss. Di instruzione, da preservarsi dalla peste, & da curarsi quando occorresse il bisogno, mi son sforzato di soddisfare con quella più accurata diligentia & studio, che ha permesso la prestezza, che mi è stata imposta da lei. La quale istuttione sarà distinta per maggiore chiarezza in tredici capi più principali”. “Nel primo si conterrà la definitione della peste. Nel secondo le considerazioni delle cagioni che la producono. Nel terzo li segni che modificano la peste futura. Nel quarto, li segni della già presente. Nel quinto, la cura preservativa da essa. Nel sesto il modo di preservarli con la evacuazioni de gli umori, & in prima del sangue. Nel settimo, il modo di preservarli con li rimedij resistenti alla pelle, & alla sua cagione, nell’ottavo (…)”. Ficino, Marsilio - Contro alla peste. / Marsilio Ficino fiorentino. Insieme con Tommaso del Garbo, Mengo da Faenza, & altri autori, e ricette sopra la medesima materia. Aggiuntoui di nuouo vna Epistola dell'eccellente Giouanni Manardi da Ferrara, & vno Consiglio di Niccolo de' Rainaldi da Sulmona, non piu stampati. Con due Tavole, una de i capitoli, l'altra delle cose notabili. - Florence, pp. 144, 1576; Rome, Lancisiana Academy, Library, Cinquecentine, N. progressive Catalog: 51, Location: XI d 27; “Tavola de’ capitoli contenuti nel consiglio di Marsilio Ficino, e Maestro Tommaso del Garbo in materia della peste. Che cosa è pestilentia, Capitolo I, fa. I; Onde nasce la pestilentia, & oue regna, II, 3; Come si distende la peste, & in quali persone, III, 5; De segni della peste, IIII, 7; Come si conserva dalla peste per regola di vita, V, 9; Come si
  61. 61. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 67 conserva dalla peste per modo medicinale, VI, 16; Della cura secondo la fisica, VII, 28; Del cibare, & governo dell’infermo, VIII, 42; Della cura per cerusia, IX, 50; (…) Impiastri temperati, XIIII, 56; Impiastri temperatissimi, XV, 57; Per mitigare il dolore circa la postema, XVI, 58; Per far cadere la carne trista della postema, XVII, 59; Per modificare la piaga, XVIII 60; Per rigenerare la carne buona, XIX, 60; (…) Della cura secondo gli spagnuoli, & Catelani, XXI, 62; (…) Fuggi presto, & lungi, & torna tardi, XXIII, 73; Chi sono quelli a cui bisogni piu di fuggire, che agli altri, & che piu pericolo portino, I, 78; Che fuochi si dee fare, II, 78; (…) Di che si debbe annaffiare, & sboffar la casa, & l’uomo lavarsi, IIII, 90; (…) Come si dee fare la fuffumigatione, VI, 81; Che l’uomo si dee guardare da conversazione di troppa gente, VII, 81; Rimedio a chi usa, & visita gli ammorbati, VIII, 82; (…) Che frutti si debbono usare, XII, 85; (…) Delle spetierie, XVII, 86; (…) Di purgarsi il corpo e di trarre sangue, & rimedi contro alla replezione; XXI, 83; (…) Del pomo, o vero palla che si debbe portare in mano per odorarla, XXVI, 92; Giulebbo che è da usare quando è gran caldo, XXVII, 93; Virtù infinite delle pillule che sono appropriate al tempo della pesti lentia, XXVIII, 93; Ricetta delle pillole, 94; Ricetta di Maestro Menga da Faenza, 95; Ricetta di un lattouaro fatto nello Studio di Bologna, 96; (…) Tre nuovi rimedij contro la peste, 120”. Table alphabetical order. Select Bibliography Holy Bible; G. Boccaccio (1313-1375), Decameron; M. Villani, Nova Cronica, 1348-63; M. da Piazza, Historia Siculorum, XIII century; M. A. Gratiolo di Salò, Speech on the plague, G. Polo,Venice 1576; M. Mercati - Education above the plague, Vincentio Accolto, Rome 1576; M. Ficino - Contro alla peste, Florance, 1576; A. Dr Scobbis, Nuovo et universale theatro farmaceutico, Venice 1667; B. F. Castiglione, Antidotario milanese, M. Maddius, Milan, 1698; E. Chambers, Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, G. B. Pasquali, Venice, 1749;
  62. 62. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century68 Didenot - D’Alambert, Encyclopédie des Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers, Paris 1751; J. De Gorter, Medicinae compendium, J. Manfré, Pavia 1757; A. Zulatti, Compendium of practical medicine, D. Deregni, Venice 1764; A. Manzoni, I promessi sposi, 1827; M. G. Levi, Dictionary of Medicine and Surgery, G. Antonelli, Venice 1833; A. Corradi, Annals of epidemics from early memories to 1850, Bologna 1865; A. Bertarelli, Three centuries of life in Milan, U. Hoepli, Milano 1927; A. Benedicenti, Patients, doctors and pharmacists, U. Hoepli, Milan 1951 G. Cosmacini The Art of Long, Laterza, 1999; R. Villano, Arte e Storia della Farmacia, 1^ Ed. Selecta Medica, Pavia 2005; 2^ Ed. Cea Zanichelli, Milan 2012. Synthetic profile of the author Born in 1960. Roles: Manager Villano International Business Team; CEO Chiron Editor, Honorary member (2013) and Associate Professor in History of Healt Administration Pharmaceutical Department of Ruggero II University - Studiorum Universitas (BR, Miami, Florida, USA, 2014), Diplomatic Advisor Aerec,Trader since 1976, Knight SMO of Malta, President humanitarian Foundation Chiron since 1985, member Internat. Group of Study ISHP History Pharmacopoeias-Bern. Academy: History Art of Health-Ministery B.C., already Pontifical Tiberina, Studies Melitensi, Medical Tradition Smithsonian Institution-USA, International Society History Pharmacy, Italian Pharmacy History, Neapolitan Society History Homeland, honorary of Noble Chemical Pharmaceutical College. Over 100 conferences and chairman in dozens of congress. Collaborates with important nationals and internationals Journals. Is Advisory Board Member for american Editor DPC, which publishes in more than 150 Nations. Study: classic; degree and enabling: Pharmacy (1985); certified courses of: Officinalsplants, Cosmetics technical, Corporate security, Haccp, History, Social Doctrine of the Church, Theology. Degrees h.c.: Human and Social Sciences (2009); History and Philosofy (2010); Sciences of the Communication (2013). Master h.c.: Science Medical Ethics (2010). It was: author, organizer and chairman Safety course for managers, getting High Patronages by Chief of State and ONU (2000), Secretary International Committee BiothecnologiesWabt-Unesco 2008-13, member of World Academy Biomedical Technology (Unesco 2007-12), 11 years in Scientific Board for safety of health of IBD (responsible company of safety of Tribunals Appeals Court
  63. 63. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century 69 Naples), Board member of Beaumont Onlus Foundation for cancer researh with Prefect of Naples (2011-12). 32 year partner and owner of pharmacy.Member since 1990, Secretary at age 29 1990-95 and President 2000 Rotary Club Pompei-Oplonti-Vesuvio; in Commettees of Italy: Professional Etic, Mondial Action, Informatic; among the many international roles: Pompeii.Carthagearcheology; Committee Prize Magna Grecia.President in Napoli, national coordinator and founder Youngs Pharmacists Federation; national Representative Federative Pact of Pharmacists. Assistant role Pharmacy Phaculty of Naples (1985-90, professorship Lembo - Superior Institut of Health). Internationals awards: Diploma of Honor for exceptional Services on an individual basis in the 5 Avenues of Action by Rotary International President (Evanston 2001: only 100/year/1,5 milion member); Reward Anti Crime-Task Force Rotary Italy, Albany, former Yugoslavia, S. Marine (Zurich 2001); Sapientia Mundi-Etic (Rm 2008); Legion Union of Gold-Work (Rm 2010); Veritas in Charitate-Religion (2011); Boniface-Culture and Society (2011); Nationals awards: Aesculapius-Health Patron. Council of Ministers (Rm 1987); LXVIII Piccinini-Research (Rm 2006); LXV Stramezzi-Health (Rm 2007); Capitolino- Humanitarian activity (Rm 2010); Tiberin-Science and Culture (Rm 2012); LXXIV Serono- History (Rm 2012), Aerec-Culture (Rm 2013); Reward by Certificate of merits public italian Health (DPR 2013). Author of over 630 publications sanitary, professionals, scientifics, historicals, religiosus; over 50 books with prestigious publishers as Zanichelli, with sponsorships from the Ministry of Cultural Heritage,Unesco, Rotary, University, etc., present in Libraries italians (including: Quirinale, National Science Accademy, Ministries) and of over 40 Nations (including: National Institute Health-USA, Nationale de France, Congress UK), in Istituts of Culture, university, museums;a your book debuted to the Fair of Frankfurt. Catalogs: 2000 Outstanding Intellectuals IBC-Cambridge since 2010; Opac Sbn with over 130 works; Card of Authority by Ministry BAC. Various books are appreciated from authorities, including more times the Head of State and the Holy Father. * * * Some books: Gobal society of information, 1996; Rotary for Men, 2001; Management safety in Pharmacy (pres. Dr. Renzulli, already Safety Advisor of ONU, 2004); Pharmacy art and history (pres. PhD Ledermann, Presid. International Society History Pharmacy, 2 edit., 2006); History and activity of SMOM (4 edit., 2007); Pharmaceutical meridians between secular ethics and catholic moral (pres. PhD Tarro, Bioethic National Commettee, 3 edit., 2008); Thesaurus Pharmacologicus (pres. Presid. Italians Pharmacist Dr. Mandelli 2009); Time carved in the silence of eternity. Diacronic reflections on investigation for the memory of homo faber (pres. eminent historian Fra’ von Lobstein and critic PhD Carosella, 6 repr., 2010); Pharmaceutical Activities Kingdom of Naples (pres.: Presid. It. Ac. Pharmacy History Dr. Corvi, 2010); Logos and theophany in digital times (pres. Mons. Trafny, Presid. Dpt Science-Faith Pontifical Culture Council, 2012). Among the 40 multimedia: Perfume of times. Art and pharmacy history (patron. AISF, 2002); Influence A/H1N1 (patron. Unesco, 2009).
  64. 64. R. Villano - Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects against the plague in some States of Italy from XIV to the XVII century70
  65. 65. CDD 945 VIL pro 2014 en LCC R131-687

×