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RV 2015: If You Build It, Will it Flood? Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Strategies by Eric Fang

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Extreme weather events, flooding and rising sea levels devastate communities, destroy or severely damage costly infrastructure, and introduce a strong element of uncertainty in current and future planning. This new normal spotlights how and where we build new -- or strengthen existing -- infrastructure and communities and the governance systems that manage and regulate these decisions and investments. Hear experts tackle these issues, from Hurricane Sandy to sea level rise in the Bay Area. What are the weak links in terms of existing infrastructure, cross-jurisdictional government response systems and disaster preparedness? Learn about state guidelines and legislation. Discuss how transportation agencies deal with major transit infrastructure challenges. Discover the role of natural systems in protecting critical transit infrastructure

Moderator: Allison Brooks, Executive Director, Bay Area Regional Collaborative, Oakland, California
Eric Fang, AIA, AICP, LEED AP, Associate Principal, EE&K, a Perkins Eastman Company, New York, New York
Projjal Dutta, AIA, LEED AP, Director, Sustainability Initiatives, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New York, New York
James Allison, Manager of Planning, Capitol Corridor Joint Powers Authority, Oakland, California
JR DeLaRosa, Special Assistant for Climate Change, California Natural Resources Agency, Sacramento, California

Published in: Design
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RV 2015: If You Build It, Will it Flood? Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Strategies by Eric Fang

  1. 1. HOBOKEN GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE STRATEGIC PLAN Railvolution 2015 Eric C.Y. Fang, AIA, AICP, LEED AP
  2. 2. 1.  The Problems 2.  Identifying What to Protect 3.  “BMP Bang for the Buck” 4.  City-wide strategy 5.  Implementation Strategies
  3. 3. •  Increasing intensity and frequency of severe weather and flooding occurrences has created significant challenges to Hoboken’s antiquated stormwater management infrastructure •  Between July 2002 and July 2012 the City recorded 26 dates with greater than 2 inches of precipitation and tides of 4 feet or higher T H E P R O B L E M S
  4. 4. •  During storm events, Hoboken’s sewer infrastructure is overtaxed resulting in system backups that produce flooding in the lowest-lying areas T H E P R O B L E M S
  5. 5. •  In the aftermath of Hurricane Irene and Superstorm Sandy unprecedented flood levels crippled Hoboken’s heavily-trafficked transportation infrastructure •  Residents were stranded in their homes for extended periods of time, personal and public property were destroyed •  Public health hazards were intensified •  The storms also brought commercial activity to an abrupt halt, collectively costing business owners millions of dollars in revenue.   T H E P R O B L E M S
  6. 6. •  Hoboken is almost 80% (77.79%) impervious coverage •  Lack of pervious coverage creates higher demand on the storm sewer system. 76% 97% 83% 78% 70% 94% 82% Percent Impervious by Sewershed N T H E P R O B L E M S
  7. 7. T H E P R O B L E M S : T H E S E W E R S Y S T E M D U R I N G W E T W E A T H E R ( C S O ) E V E N T S Regulator Pump/Pumping Station Trunk Line Interceptor •  Currently, the Hoboken waste water treatment plant is overtaxed by storm flows an average of five times per month leading to combined sewer overflows. •  Future federal regulations may require the North Hudson Sewerage Authority to reduce this number to four per year
  8. 8. BMP “BANG FOR THE BUCK” Constructed Wetlands Permeable Pavements Stormwater Trees Swales Rainwater Harvest & Reuse Basins or Ponds Rain Gardens Stormwater Infiltration Planters Subsurface Storage Green Roofs •  Where should they be deployed? •  How should they be implemented?
  9. 9. Defining the Problems: Hoboken’s Seven Main Sewersheds 1.86 S T O R M W A T E R V O L U M E G E N E R A T E D D U R I N G 1 - Y E A R R A I N F A L L E V E N T (Millions of Cubic Feet) 0.22 0.41 0.61 0.85 0.17 0.61 •  Hoboken's combined sewer system service area is organized into seven main sewersheds •  Of these, H1 handles almost 40% of the total volume in the City •  Total: 4.74 Million Cubic Feet
  10. 10. •  Interrelationships between the system’s sewersheds may aggravate flooding. •  H1, which handles almost 40% of the total storm-water volume in the City. T H E P R O B L E M S
  11. 11. Hoboken Terminal 2nd Street Station 9th Street Station WWTP 9th Street Light Rail Station I D E N T I F Y I N G W H A T W E N E E E D T O P R O T E C T : Transit Transit Station Bus Depot Ferry Emergency Routes Transit Routes ¼ Mile Walk Radius
  12. 12. Jubilee Center and Hoboken Housing Authority I D E N T I F Y I N G W H A T W E N E E E D T O P R O T E C T : Vulnerable communities
  13. 13. A R E A S M O S T A F F E C T E D B Y F L O O D I N G No Respondents Some Respondents Many Respondents Flooding Intersection Flooding Street
  14. 14. Shallow Bedrock B M P S I T I N G C O N S T R A I N T S Park Flood-prone Area Poorly-Infiltrating Soils
  15. 15. Strategic BMP Implementation Catch Basin Flood Point Flood-prone area Potential North End Rehabilitation Area City-Identified Flood Areas Shallow Bedrock O P P O R T U N I T E S Pervious surfaceGray Zone: Shallow bedrock   Catch Basin Flood Points
  16. 16. $1 $3 $6 $10 $11 $15 $28 $30 $35 $41 6 3 8 6 5 12 8 5 12 2 $0 $5 $10 $15 $20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 Constructed Wetlands Permeable Pavements Stormwater Trees Swales Rainwater Harvest & Reuse Basins or Ponds Rain Gardens Stormwater Infiltration Planters Subsurface Storage Green Roofs Average Capital Cost ($/ cu.ft) Average O&M Cost (percentage of capital) BMP COST-EFFECTIVENESS
  17. 17. BMP H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 Basins or Ponds 574,096      297,338  218,041 Constructed Wetlands 172,229      89,201  65,412 Swales 114,819 5,179  28,681 59,468  43,608 Stormwater Tree Pits 57,410 1,726 6,871 9,560 29,734 1,926 21,804 Rain Gardens 229,639 10,359  76,482 118,935  87,216 Subsurface Storage 172,229 12,949 154,586 57,361 89,201 43,337 65,412 Stormwater Planters 344,458 10,359  57,361 89,201  65,412 Permeable Pavements   2,762  15,296 23,787  17,443 Rainwater Harvest & Reuse 12,968 634 3,547 5,006 9,984 1,810 4,780 Green Roofs 25,936 2,535 14,189 20,024 19,968 7,240 9,561 TOTAL 1,703,784 46,504 179,193 269,771 826,817 54,313 598,690 Gray signifies that a BMP is not recommended in a given Sewershed POTENTIAL STORMWATER THAT CAN BE CAPTURED USING GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE •  H1, H4, H5 and H7 present the biggest potential opportunities to capture stormwater using Green Infrastructure BMPs Potential Amount of Stormwater captured by BMPs by sewershed (cu. ft) during a 1-inch storm event
  18. 18. Detention Detain stormwater through above-ground BMPs (rainwater harvesting and green/blue roofs) and subsurface storage) Smaller-scale BMPs for long term incremental benefit: •  Daylighting areas •  Commercial Property Retrofits •  Public property including parks and schools Jersey City G R A Y Z O N E : D E T E N T I O N GRAY ZONE
  19. 19. Infiltration Infiltrate stormwater using vegetated BMPs, eg. rain gardens, swales, stormwater trees, infiltration planters and permeable pavements Large-Scale BMPs for more immediate Impact: •  Subsurface Storage under the Pino Site Park; •  Constructed wetlands or basin in the Northwest, Western Edge and Potential North End Rehabilitation Areas G R E E N Z O N E : I N F I L T R A T I O N GREEN ZONE
  20. 20. Retention Retain stormwater focusing on the Western Edge and Potential North End Rehabilitation Areas (basins or ponds, constructed wetlands, subsurface storage) Jersey City B L U E Z O N E : R E T E N T I O N BLUE ZONE
  21. 21. GRAY ZONE GREEN ZONE BLUE ZONE
  22. 22. N T T T Study Area Flood-prone area OPPORTUNITIES Redevelopment and Rehabilitation Areas Publicly-Owned Land and Critical Transit Infrastructure
  23. 23. IMPLEMENTATION Homeowners and Business Owners Development Community Public Sector Incorporate BMP’s into ordinances - Redevelopment Plans Performance Based Zoning Stormwater Infrastructure Trust Fund - Zoning Ordinance Impervious Coverage Stormwater Regulations Develop compatible standards in coordination with the County and Sewerage Authority •  Create a guidance document for City/County public improvements •  Coordination with County (Streets) •  City: Parks Dept, Housing Authority, Board of Education, Road Dept. •  Coordination with Regional and State Entities (NJT) •  Pursue Funding: NJDEP Infrastructure Trust, HUD   •  Guidebook •  Economic Incentives –  Stormwater Management Tax Credit: Currently proposed –  FAR, Height, Density incentives, especially in areas with highest contribution to flooding –  Research alternative funding mechanisms for implementation of BMPs  
  24. 24. Opportunities •  Realize significant rainfall retention/treatment •  Ripe for immediate action •  Reduced cost to the public •  Incremental development supported •  Integrated Green Infrastructure Challenges •  BMP Cost •  BMP Site Suitability •  BMP Implementation •  BMP Effectiveness R E D E V E L O P M E N T A R E A O P P O R T U N I T I E S A N D C H A L L E N G E S Investigation Designated Designated (Plan)
  25. 25. Performance/Incentive Zoning •  Regulate: On-Site Rainfall Retained •  Incentives: FAR, Height, Density •  Factors: % of Pervious Coverage % of Impervious Surface treated by BMP Stormwater Trust Fund •  District Wide Approach •  Site constraints/cost limit BMP •  Contribution of funds •  Funds used for BMP in public realm Regulation Rainfall Retained 1-25% 25-50% 51%+ FAR 1.0 3.2 4.0 Height 2 story 8 story 12 story Density 28 DU/ Acre 55 DU/ Acre 90 DU/ Acre R E C O M M E N D E D R E G U L A T I O N O P T I O N S
  26. 26. R E D E V E L O P M E N T A R E A C A S E S T U D Y : Western Edge Upper Monroe Street •  H5 Sewershed: generates the second-highest volume of stormwater • Identified as high flood risk area •  Protection of public infrastructure: 9th Street NJ Transit Station •  Designated with a Redevelopment Plan • Capacity to retain rainfall based upon soils and depth to bedrock • Connectivity to open space network
  27. 27. D I S T R I C T A P P R O A C H / S T O R M W A T E R T R U S T F U N D : BASF  SITE  
  28. 28. D I S T R I C T A P P R O A C H / S T O R M W A T E R T R U S T F U N D
  29. 29. HOBOKEN GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE STRATEGIC PLAN Railvolution 2015 Eric C.Y. Fang, AIA, AICP

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