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Rail~Volu6on 
-­‐ 
October 
23, 
2013 
Dan 
Bertolet 
– 
VIA 
Architecture 
and 
Planning 
TOOLS 
TO 
BALANCE 
SUPPLY
• Best 
prac6ces 
research 
• Parking 
u6liza6on 
surveys 
• Online 
demand 
calculator 
• Stakeholder 
engagement 
• Mode...
WHAT 
IS 
RIGHT-­‐SIZE 
PARKING? 
Right-­‐sizing 
parking 
means 
striking 
a 
balance 
between 
parking 
supply 
and 
dem...
WHY 
DOES 
RSP 
MATTER? 
• Parking 
is 
expensive 
to 
build 
• The 
cost 
of 
parking 
raises 
housing 
prices 
• Excess ...
WHAT’S 
THE 
PROBLEM? 
??? 
• Exis6ng 
tools 
and 
data 
are 
general 
and 
outdated 
• Dysfunc6onal 
market 
for 
parking
UTILIZATION 
SURVEY 
FINDINGS 
• Surveyed 
parking 
u6liza6on 
at 
220 
mul6family 
buildings 
across 
King 
County 
• On ...
PREDICTIVE 
MODEL 
Geographic 
Variables 
• transit 
service 
• popula6on 
+ 
job 
density 
Building 
Variables 
• bedroom...
www.rightsizeparking.org 
THE 
RSP 
WEB 
CALCULATOR 
Map-­‐based 
Parcel-­‐level 
es*mates 
Customized 
scenario-­‐buildin...
CODE 
GAP 
ANALYSIS 
Outside 
Seaale, 
82% 
of 
parcels 
require 
parking 
greater 
than 
model 
predic6on
MODEL 
CODE 
• Market-­‐based 
Approach 
Ø Remove 
parking 
minimums 
• Context-­‐based 
Approach 
Ø Op*mize 
minimums 
...
PARKING 
PRICING 
• 62% 
of 
proper6es 
surveyed 
unbundled 
parking 
price 
from 
the 
price 
of 
rent 
• Residents 
char...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS 
Policy 
and 
Model 
Code 
Pricing 
and 
TDM 
Shared 
Parking 
Four 
ci*es: 
Seaale, 
Kirkland, 
T...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
CODE 
Kirkland, 
WA 
(pop. 
84,000) 
• Assess 
minimums 
for 
mul6family 
citywide 
• Gap 
analy...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
CODE 
Kent, 
WA 
(pop. 
124,000) 
• Assess 
MF 
minimums 
and 
on-­‐street 
management 
for 
his...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
CODE 
Tukwila, 
WA 
(pop. 
19,000) 
• Evaluate 
parking 
issues 
in 
light 
rail 
sta6on 
area 
...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
CODE 
Sea^le, 
WA 
(pop. 
620,000) 
• Residen*al 
Permit 
Zones 
Ø Research 
found 
li^le 
inno...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
TDM 
El 
Centro 
de 
la 
Raza 
and 
Beacon 
Development 
• Planned 
112-­‐unit 
affordable 
hous...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
SHARED 
PARKNG 
District 
Shared 
Parking 
Pilot 
• Partnered 
with 
Capitol 
Hill 
Housing, 
a ...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS: 
TRANSIT 
PASS 
ORCA 
Mul*family 
Development 
Passport 
• Comprehensive, 
annual 
transporta6on ...
WHAT’S 
NEXT: 
PARK 
& 
RIDE 
IN 
MULTIFAMILY
RESOURCES 
Right 
Size 
Parking 
Calculator 
www.rightsizeparking.org 
Metro 
Transit’s 
Right 
Size 
Parking 
Website 
ki...
Search 
Instruc*ons 
Map 
Based 
and 
Video 
View 
Regional 
Technical 
Background 
Parking 
Use
Select 
a 
Parcel 
or 
Area 
View 
Parking 
Ra*o 
Build 
a 
Scenario
Adjust 
Building 
and 
Parking 
Specifica*ons 
View 
Change 
in 
Update 
Parking 
Ra*o
Adjust 
Loca*on 
Characteris*cs 
View 
Change 
in 
Update 
Parking 
Ra*o
Research 
Objec6ves 
1. Iden6fy 
independent 
variables, 
both 
from 
a 
theore6cal 
framework 
and 
a 
prac6cal 
developm...
Demonstra6on 
Project: 
Pricing/TDM 
Project 
Revenue: 
Parking 
Price 
Elas*city 
Project Description 
Residential Units ...
PARKING 
PRICING 
ELASTICITY 
1.00 
0.90 
0.80 
0.70 
0.60 
0.50 
0.40 
0.30 
0.20 
0.10 
0.00 
Elas6city 
at 
$130 
Count...
STATISTICAL 
MODEL 
Independent Variable Transformation Coefficient Individual R Square Stepwise R Square 
Constant NA 1.9...
CODE 
GAP 
ANALYSIS 
• 61% 
of 
King 
County 
parcels 
have 
requirements 
> 
RSP 
predic6on 
• Outside 
Seaale: 
82% 
of ...
DEMONSTRATION 
PROJECTS 
• Assess 
the 
market 
for 
pricing 
and 
financing 
parking 
• Develop 
TDM 
strategies 
to 
sup...
View 
Impacts
RV 2014: Space Exploration: Innovative Parking Tools + Strategies
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RV 2014: Space Exploration: Innovative Parking Tools + Strategies

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Space Exploration: Innovative Parking Tools + Strategies AICP CM 1.5
Explore the latest parking tools, policies and implementation steps for public and private sector parking applications. Discover online tools and right-size parking principles to turn around the parking situation in your community. Discuss ways to help your community adjust to the changing nature of parking and mobility. Learn from national organizations and agencies that are paving the way for a future of parking in support of TOD and sustainable development.
Moderator: Lucy F. Galbraith, AICP, Director, Transit Oriented Development, Metro Transit, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Jennifer West, GreenTRIP Policy Analyst, TransForm, Oakland, California
Dan Bertolet, Urban Planner, VIA Architecture, Seattle, Washington
Mark Gander, AICP, Director of Urban Mobility and Development, AECOM, New York, New York

Published in: Engineering
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RV 2014: Space Exploration: Innovative Parking Tools + Strategies

  1. 1. Rail~Volu6on -­‐ October 23, 2013 Dan Bertolet – VIA Architecture and Planning TOOLS TO BALANCE SUPPLY
  2. 2. • Best prac6ces research • Parking u6liza6on surveys • Online demand calculator • Stakeholder engagement • Model code • Parking management • TDM and pricing • Demonstra*on projects OUR PROJECT OUR PARTNERS Op*mize parking in mul*family buildings
  3. 3. WHAT IS RIGHT-­‐SIZE PARKING? Right-­‐sizing parking means striking a balance between parking supply and demand. • Oversupply can be an impediment to achieving a wide range of community goals • Undersupply can create the risk of neighborhood impacts and loss of real estate marketability
  4. 4. WHY DOES RSP MATTER? • Parking is expensive to build • The cost of parking raises housing prices • Excess parking compromises ac6ve transporta6on modes, transit efficiency, and urban design • Parking encourages driving, which congests roadways and increases greenhouse gases emissions
  5. 5. WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? ??? • Exis6ng tools and data are general and outdated • Dysfunc6onal market for parking
  6. 6. UTILIZATION SURVEY FINDINGS • Surveyed parking u6liza6on at 220 mul6family buildings across King County • On average, parking is supplied at 1.4 spaces per dwelling unit, but is only used at 1.0 spaces per unit
  7. 7. PREDICTIVE MODEL Geographic Variables • transit service • popula6on + job density Building Variables • bedroom count • parking price • affordable units • residen6al density • average rent R2 = .80
  8. 8. www.rightsizeparking.org THE RSP WEB CALCULATOR Map-­‐based Parcel-­‐level es*mates Customized scenario-­‐building Impact of unbundling rent and parking price
  9. 9. CODE GAP ANALYSIS Outside Seaale, 82% of parcels require parking greater than model predic6on
  10. 10. MODEL CODE • Market-­‐based Approach Ø Remove parking minimums • Context-­‐based Approach Ø Op*mize minimums with context-­‐based adjustments hap://metro.kingcounty.gov/up/projects/right-­‐size-­‐parking/pdf/140110-­‐rsp-­‐model-­‐code.pdf
  11. 11. PARKING PRICING • 62% of proper6es surveyed unbundled parking price from the price of rent • Residents charged > 10% of monthly rent for parking used only half as many spaces as residents charged < 5% • Elas6city is stronger in urban areas where there are beaer alterna6ves to driving
  12. 12. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS Policy and Model Code Pricing and TDM Shared Parking Four ci*es: Seaale, Kirkland, Tukwila, Kent Two affordable housing providers: Beacon Development and Hopelink CDC partner: District shared parking for Capitol Hill neighborhood
  13. 13. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: CODE Kirkland, WA (pop. 84,000) • Assess minimums for mul6family citywide • Gap analysis and u6liza6on surveys showed minimums significantly above demand in several MF zones • City has ini6ated process to update code: Ø MF minimums will be standardized across zones and set approximately in line with the RSP calculator Ø Adding context-­‐based adjustments for unit bedrooms
  14. 14. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: CODE Kent, WA (pop. 124,000) • Assess MF minimums and on-­‐street management for historic downtown with commuter rail sta6on • Code review and gap analysis indicate MF minimums could be reduced modestly to reflect transit access • U6liza6on surveys found excess supply of both public on-­‐ street parking and commercial off-­‐street parking Ø In near-­‐term, city will focus on op*mizing the on-­‐ street system, e.g. signage, striping, refined *me limits, enforcement Ø Longer-­‐term intent to encourage shared parking
  15. 15. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: CODE Tukwila, WA (pop. 19,000) • Evaluate parking issues in light rail sta6on area • Is Hide & Ride an issue? Ø Sound Transit parking surveys showed 25% u*liza*on on surrounding streets; confirmed by recent observa*on • Is the RSP calculator valid for immigrant popula6ons? Ø U*liza*on surveys of 24 mul*family sites showed no significant differences in demand • Web survey showed 61% of residents pay for parking at home
  16. 16. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: CODE Sea^le, WA (pop. 620,000) • Residen*al Permit Zones Ø Research found li^le innova*on in other ci*es Ø Pricing refinements could improve management • Shared parking Ø Rules on sharing are unclear and limit op*ons Ø Code should explicitly define a “share list,” as in Portland Ø Code should explicitly allow sharing below the minimum • Parking Maximums Ø Tie maximums to mode split goals
  17. 17. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: TDM El Centro de la Raza and Beacon Development • Planned 112-­‐unit affordable housing project Ø Developing a comprehensive TDM Plan for the project to support a balanced parking supply and minimize neighborhood impacts Hopelink • Exploring mul6ple TDM strategies at several of their exis6ng low-­‐income housing proper6es Ø Bike parking, Car2Go memberships, subsidized transit passes, resident “travel training”, on-­‐street management
  18. 18. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: SHARED PARKNG District Shared Parking Pilot • Partnered with Capitol Hill Housing, a Seaale CDC • Rapidly growing n’hood with a goal to reduce need for new parking Ø Assess poten*al for district shared parking to provide be^er access to currently underu*lized supply Ø Develop tools and incen*ves to create a system of priced parking that will connect customers with providers
  19. 19. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: TRANSIT PASS ORCA Mul*family Development Passport • Comprehensive, annual transporta6on pass program available to mul6family property owners or managers • Reduced price -­‐ amenity for residents • Reduces demand for on-­‐site parking • May qualify projects for credit in green building cer6fica6on programs such as LEED
  20. 20. WHAT’S NEXT: PARK & RIDE IN MULTIFAMILY
  21. 21. RESOURCES Right Size Parking Calculator www.rightsizeparking.org Metro Transit’s Right Size Parking Website kingcounty.gov/RightSizeParking Dan Bertolet VIA Architecture and Planning dbertolet@via-­‐architecture.com 206-­‐284-­‐5624 Daniel Rowe King County Metro Project Manager Daniel.Rowe@kingcounty.gov 206-­‐263-­‐3586
  22. 22. Search Instruc*ons Map Based and Video View Regional Technical Background Parking Use
  23. 23. Select a Parcel or Area View Parking Ra*o Build a Scenario
  24. 24. Adjust Building and Parking Specifica*ons View Change in Update Parking Ra*o
  25. 25. Adjust Loca*on Characteris*cs View Change in Update Parking Ra*o
  26. 26. Research Objec6ves 1. Iden6fy independent variables, both from a theore6cal framework and a prac6cal development and planning standpoint, to be tested in regression analysis 2. Conduct variables’ significance in predic6ng parking use 3. Develop a model using regression analysis, maintaining that all variables be significant and highly correlated. 4. Develop a website tool enabling interac6ve use of the model by interested stakeholders
  27. 27. Demonstra6on Project: Pricing/TDM Project Revenue: Parking Price Elas*city Project Description Residential Units 150 150 150 Parking Spaces 75 150 300 Parking Ratio 0.5 1.0 1.5 Levels of Parking 1.3 2.6 3.9 Cost/ Profit Stall Margin $150 23% 19% 15% $100 21% 15% 9% $50 19% 11% 3% Urban Project Pro Forma • 25,000 sf site • 6 story building • 640 sf/unit • Underground parking • Land at $100/sf • Unit rent at $2.2/sf • Cap rate at 5%
  28. 28. PARKING PRICING ELASTICITY 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 Elas6city at $130 Countywide: -­‐9% Urban : -­‐47% $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 Parking U*liza*on per Unit Monthly Parking Price per Stall Countywide Urban
  29. 29. STATISTICAL MODEL Independent Variable Transformation Coefficient Individual R Square Stepwise R Square Constant NA 1.980910 NA NA Gravity measure of Transit Frequency Natural log -0.066639 55.5% 55.5% Percent of Units designated Affordable Square root -0.022966 27.6% 67.1% Average Occupied Bedroom Count Inverse -0.360291 34.3% 73.7% Gravity measure of Intensity (population + jobs) Inverse 35,353.047567 53.3% 76.2% Units per Residential Square Feet Inverse 0.000139 17.1% 78.7% Average Rent Inverse -154.420722 6.7% 80.0% Parking Price as a fraction of Average Rent Square root -0.334655 18.1% 81.0%
  30. 30. CODE GAP ANALYSIS • 61% of King County parcels have requirements > RSP predic6on • Outside Seaale: 82% of parcels have requirements > RSP predic6on • Outside Seaale: ci6es require 43% more parking than is predicted by the RSP model
  31. 31. DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS • Assess the market for pricing and financing parking • Develop TDM strategies to support a balanced parking supply Policy and Model Code Pricing and TDM District Shared Parking • Develop model code, parking management, and neighborhood mi6ga6on strategies designed to promote RSP outcomes • Assess poten6al for district shared parking based on supply • Develop tools to price parking and connect customers
  32. 32. View Impacts

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