Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
COMPLETE 
STREETS: 
FROM 
POLICY 
TO 
IMPLEMENTATION 
How 
the 
French 
Blend 
Light 
Rail 
and 
Complete 
Streets 
for 
T...
Total 
accessibility
Implementing 
Green 
Transit/ 
Complete 
Streets 
on 
an 
Unprecedented 
Scale
Defining 
the 
French 
Approach: 
the 
Macro 
View 
§ MACRO 
Design 
Principle 
1: 
Develop 
a 
a 
concept 
of 
how 
publ...
The 
Micro 
Design 
Side 
of 
the 
French 
Approach: 
the 
Art 
of 
Insertion 
§ Almost 
100% 
use 
of 
public 
rights-­‐...
MACRO 
Design 
Principle 
1: 
A 
Regional 
Core 
of 
Light 
Rail 
Lines 
Big 
box 
district 
Mall 
University 
Center 
Cit...
Macro 
Design 
Principle 
2: 
Long 
vehicles 
with 
lots 
of 
doors 
and 
a 
fare 
system 
that 
allows 
passengers 
to 
u...
Macro 
Design 
Principle 
3: 
Fully 
accessible 
stops 
spaced 
widely 
to 
enable 
faster 
service
Macro 
Design 
Principle 
4: 
Stops 
adjacent 
to 
major 
destinations; 
many 
in 
suburbs
Macro 
Design 
Principle 
5: 
Bus 
system 
reconfigured 
around 
light 
rail 
stops
Center 
City 
insertion 
where 
two 
lines 
cross
Insertion 
into 
an 
alley
Insertion 
of 
station 
into 
alley
Center 
city 
insertion
Insertion: 
Edge 
of 
center 
city
Insertion: 
Edge 
of 
historic 
center
Insertion: 
Stop 
shoe-­‐horned 
into 
tight 
spot 
12 
Oct 
2012 
-­‐ 
GLT 
17
Insertion: 
Stopping 
trains 
delay 
autos; 
not 
vice 
versa 
12 
Oct 
2012 
-­‐ 
GLT 
18
Insertion: 
Inner 
suburb
Insertion: 
Outer 
suburb 
of 
single 
family 
homes
Insertion: 
Suburban 
university 
campus 
(Nantes)
Insertion: 
Suburban 
university 
campus 
(Orleans)
Insertion 
in 
Plaza: 
1
Insertion 
in 
Plaza: 
2
Insertion 
in 
Plaza: 
3
Insertion 
of 
high 
quality 
transit 
into 
urban 
and 
suburban 
fabric: 
an 
art 
combining: 
• Transit 
planning 
and ...
Thank 
you 
— 
Merci! 
Waiting 
for 
the 
tram, 
Strasbourg 
2011 
TP 
27 
of 
14
Growth 
of 
French 
Tramways—kilometres 
of 
route 
Prior 
French 
practice 
was 
rubber-­‐tired 
metro 
for 
large 
citie...
Despite 
the 
economies 
of 
scale 
from 
city 
to 
city: 
joint 
orders 
for 
vehicles, 
use 
of 
public 
land 
and 
ease...
Some 
results 
Nice 
Bordeaux 
Montpellier 
Grenoble 
Strasbourg 
Average 
Rouen 
Le Mans 
. 
30 
of 
14 
Rides per day pe...
LRT 
Farebox 
Recovery 
as 
percent 
of 
Direct 
Operating 
costs 
Strasbourg 
St.Etienne 
Lille 
Lyon 
Grenoble 
Average ...
US 
light 
rail 
vs 
bus 
performance 
2011
Circulator 
Streetcar 
vs 
bus 
performance 
2011
France 
like 
U.S. 
in 
auto 
ownership 
and 
big 
box 
retailing 
34 
. 
The 
following 
table 
is 
copied 
from 
David 
...
SUMMARY 
OF 
FRENCH 
TRAMWAYS Lines 
in 
service/under 
construction– 
all 
modes¹ Tom 
Parkinson 
Dec 
2013, 
modif 
STRM...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

RV 2014: Complete Streets- From Policy to Implementation by Gregory Thompson

644 views

Published on

Complete Streets: From Policy to Implementation (Completely) AICP CM 2

2 HOUR SESSION

How can you make your complete streets policy a success? How do you translate complete streets into real benefits for the people who are walking, biking and taking public transportation? How do you promote accessibility and connectivity for all -- including people with disabilities -- through design and planning? Hear regional, city and international perspectives from policy to implementation during this complete complete streets workshop.

Moderator: Richard Weaver, AICP, Director of Planning, Policy and Sustainability, American Public Transportation Association; Chair, National Complete Streets Coalition, Washington, DC
Joseph Iacobucci, Sam Schwartz Engineering, DPC, Chicago, Illinois
Stefanie Seskin, Deputy Director, National Complete Streets Coalition, Smart Growth America, Washington, DC
Dan Gallagher, AICP, Transportation Planning Manager, Charlotte Department of Transportation, Charlotte, North Carolina
James Cromar, Director of Planning, Broward Metropolitan Planning Organization, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Tony Hull, Independent Transportation Consultant, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Gregory Thompson, Chair, Light Rail Transit Committee of TRB, Tallahassee, Florida
Roxana Ene, Project Manager, Broward Metropolitan Planning Organization, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

RV 2014: Complete Streets- From Policy to Implementation by Gregory Thompson

  1. 1. COMPLETE STREETS: FROM POLICY TO IMPLEMENTATION How the French Blend Light Rail and Complete Streets for Total Accessibility Greg Thompson . Tom Larwin . Tom Parkinson Transportation Research Board Subcommittee on International Light Rail Development
  2. 2. Total accessibility
  3. 3. Implementing Green Transit/ Complete Streets on an Unprecedented Scale
  4. 4. Defining the French Approach: the Macro View § MACRO Design Principle 1: Develop a a concept of how public transport should tie the urban agglomeration together: a small number of light rail (nouveau tram) lines is key § MACRO Design Principle 2: High-­‐performance and -­‐capacity vehicles designed to blend with the urban fabric and facilitate accessibility between lines and modes § MACRO Design Principle 3: Fully accessible stops widely spaced § MACRO Design Principle 4: Stops adjacent to ,and integrated with major destinations; including in suburbs § MACRO Design Principle 5: Bus lines reconfigured around nouveau tram stations
  5. 5. The Micro Design Side of the French Approach: the Art of Insertion § Almost 100% use of public rights-­‐of-­‐way ú At the expense of the auto, which are kept off tracks ú Examples: Roads, alleys, plazas, university campuses, hospital campuses § All rights-­‐of-­‐way rebuilt from building façade to building façade to facilitate transit performance, pedestrian and bicycle flow, safety, aesthetics § The Art of Insertion is a political process wherein stakeholder groups figure out how to design high performance transit that is compatible with their lifestyles
  6. 6. MACRO Design Principle 1: A Regional Core of Light Rail Lines Big box district Mall University Center City High rise offices Industrial district Malls and big box stores University hospital complex Intercity rail Medical complex
  7. 7. Macro Design Principle 2: Long vehicles with lots of doors and a fare system that allows passengers to use all doors, bright, cheery, airy
  8. 8. Macro Design Principle 3: Fully accessible stops spaced widely to enable faster service
  9. 9. Macro Design Principle 4: Stops adjacent to major destinations; many in suburbs
  10. 10. Macro Design Principle 5: Bus system reconfigured around light rail stops
  11. 11. Center City insertion where two lines cross
  12. 12. Insertion into an alley
  13. 13. Insertion of station into alley
  14. 14. Center city insertion
  15. 15. Insertion: Edge of center city
  16. 16. Insertion: Edge of historic center
  17. 17. Insertion: Stop shoe-­‐horned into tight spot 12 Oct 2012 -­‐ GLT 17
  18. 18. Insertion: Stopping trains delay autos; not vice versa 12 Oct 2012 -­‐ GLT 18
  19. 19. Insertion: Inner suburb
  20. 20. Insertion: Outer suburb of single family homes
  21. 21. Insertion: Suburban university campus (Nantes)
  22. 22. Insertion: Suburban university campus (Orleans)
  23. 23. Insertion in Plaza: 1
  24. 24. Insertion in Plaza: 2
  25. 25. Insertion in Plaza: 3
  26. 26. Insertion of high quality transit into urban and suburban fabric: an art combining: • Transit planning and engineering • Traffic engineering • Safety analysis • Aesthetics and urban design • Politics • To achieve the results you have seen 26 Summary: Macro concepts of quality transit combined with The Art of Insertion result in complete streets that truly change travel behavior
  27. 27. Thank you — Merci! Waiting for the tram, Strasbourg 2011 TP 27 of 14
  28. 28. Growth of French Tramways—kilometres of route Prior French practice was rubber-­‐tired metro for large cities: Paris, Lyon, Marseille. Rubber-­‐tired light metro (Siemens VAL) for medium cities: Lille, Rennes, Toulouse. Then the lower cost tramway appeared. Base chart from The Transport Politic, Yonah Freemark 2012 Remarkable growth, particularly from 2000; there is no distinction 1990 1995 between 2000 tramways 2005 (streetcars) 2010 and 2015 light rail in France, more a combination of features. Tram-­‐trains are not covered here but are gaining ground with dual-­‐system vehicles capable of over 100km/h— 750 volts plus 1.5V DC or 25kV AC or diesel 28 of 14
  29. 29. Despite the economies of scale from city to city: joint orders for vehicles, use of public land and easements, and minimising line poles (25% of spans in Brest are attached to buildings), French tramways are comparable or slightly more expensive than other European systems— although allowance should be made for the 15-­‐25% of project costs that are spent on the urban environment—and any APS. The average of eleven recent French systems is US$ 29m/km, range $20.4– $51.2 The average of seven recent US systems is US$ 35m/km, range $28.6– $43.5 Excludes systems, such as Seattle, with tunnels or other high infrastructure costs; 29 of 14 €=US$1.3 Bordeaux with APS Capital Costs
  30. 30. Some results Nice Bordeaux Montpellier Grenoble Strasbourg Average Rouen Le Mans . 30 of 14 Rides per day per kilometre of route FTA 2010 data—probable underestimate due to double count of some route miles 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 St-Etienne Angers Reims Orléans Valenciennes US average Buses and trams are closely integrated with free transfers. Ridership increase is typically 30–60%. Montpellier went from 28.8m/year on the all bus system in1999, to 62.2m in 2010 with 5 routes, an 150% increase.
  31. 31. LRT Farebox Recovery as percent of Direct Operating costs Strasbourg St.Etienne Lille Lyon Grenoble Average Toulouse Orleans Marseille Paris Nantes Despite moderate fares and frequent service with union (syndicat) drivers, average farebox recovery at 48% is good, particularly given that on some systems heavily discounted students make up over half the riders. Alignments may often seem convoluted but ensure that universities, schools and other major generators—hospitals and railway stations—are well connected. 31 of 14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 US Average
  32. 32. US light rail vs bus performance 2011
  33. 33. Circulator Streetcar vs bus performance 2011
  34. 34. France like U.S. in auto ownership and big box retailing 34 . The following table is copied from David W. Jones, Table 1.1 Mass Motorization + Mass Transit , Indiana University Press, 2008, p. 4. Intensity of motorization in G-­‐7 nations in 2000 Motor vehicles per 1000 population (a) Motor vehicles per worker (b) Vehicle km. per capita ( c ) Motor vehicle CO2 per capita (d) United States 784 1.58 15,618 5,202 Canada 676 1.43 10,831 3,741 Japan 651 1.30 5,976 1,762 Italy 626 1.73 6,274 1,917 Germany 576 1.29 7,126 2,067 France 574 1.44 8,778 2,153 United Kingdom 511 1.10 7,662 1,933 G-­‐7 average 625 1.41 8,895 2,682 Source: (a) Vehicle registrations: Ward's Motor Vehicles Facts and Figures, 2002; population data for all series: Maddison, World Economy: Historical Statistics; (b) Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2002, "Comparative Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, 1959-­‐2001"; (c) Highway Statistics 2002, table IN-­‐4, "Vehicle Travel for Selected Countries"; (d) International Energy Agency, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, 1971-­‐2000, country tables, II.143ff.
  35. 35. SUMMARY OF FRENCH TRAMWAYS Lines in service/under construction– all modes¹ Tom Parkinson Dec 2013, modif STRMTG-­‐Certu Jan 2014 City/Region Urban area Population Open Km Miles Cars Tram Pax/Day* Metro VAL Tram-­‐ way Tram-­‐ Train Tram w/ Tires Trolley-­‐ bus BRT NOTES Angers 216,000 2011 12.3 7.4 17 35,000 1²/1 Line B opens 2020 Aubagne 100,000 2014 9.0 5.4 8 new -­‐/2 Line 1 opens 2014, line 2 in 2019 Avignon 180,000 2016 12.6 7.6 24 new -­‐/2 line opens 2016 Besancon 140,000 2015 14.5 8.7 19 new -­‐/1 lowest capital cost/km Bordeaux 835,000 2003 43.4 26.0 74 192,000 3²/1 0/1 extensions and tram/train planned Brest 201,000 2012 14.3 8.6 20 33,000 1-­‐Jan Cross city line with two branches Caen 198,000 2002 15.7 9.4 24 45,000 0/3 2 Converting to steel wheel tramway + a new line Clermont-­‐Ferrand 260,000 2006 16.3 9.8 26 48,000 1 Translohr system Dijon 250,000 2012 20.0 12.0 33 70,000 2 Grenoble 530,000 1987 36.4 36.4 89 210,000 4/1 Le Havre 244,000 2012 13.0 7.8 22 new 2 Le Mans 208,000 2007 15.4 9.2 26 48,000 1/1 2nd line opens in 2015 Lille 1,100,000 1909 22.4 13.4 24 34,000 2 2 Retains original metre gauge Limoges 139,000 1942 32.5 19.5 40 n/a 5 Lyon 1,760,000 2000 72.1 43.3 103 250,000 4 4 2 8 TT = Rhônexpress tram-­‐train to airport + rapid tram (on same tracks) Marseille 1,530,000 2007 11.5 6.9 26 50,000 2 2 project : extension, not a new line Montpellier 384,000 2000 54.4 32.6 83 282,000 4/1 Mulhouse 250,000 2006 19.0 11.4 39 60,000 3 1 41km with TT Nancy 105,000 2001 11.4 6.8 25 n/a 1 Bombardier GLT with double wire overhead Nantes 585,000 1985 42.1 25.3 91 274,000 3 '0/1 1 TT opens 2014 Nice 350,000 2007 8.7 5.2 28 90,000 1²/1 2nd line to open in 2016 Nîmes 2012 6.0 3.6 7,000 0/1 1 line tramway opens 2018 Orléans 269,000 2000 29.2 17.5 43 67,000 2² Paris (region) 11,800,000 1992 71.0 42.6 205 450,000 14 1 5/1 1/1 41640 2 Lines 3a and 3b counted separately³ Reims 210,000 2011 11.2 6.7 18 45,000 2 Cross city line with two branches Rennes 220,000 2002 9.4 5.6 38 n/a 1/1 Rouen 530,000 1994 15.1 9.1 28 65,000 2 3 optically guided busway TEOR, 69 cars, 55,3 km St. Etienne 370,000 1981 18.9 11.3 35 82,000 3 1 Retains original metre gauge Strasbourg 450,000 1994 57.2 34.3 94 243,000 6 Toulouse 1,100,000 2010 10.9 6.5 24 20,000 2 1/1 Tram now feeder to VAL-­‐-­‐will extend to CBD Tours 300,000 2013 15.3 9.2 21 new 1 Valenciennes 334,000 2006 18.3 11.0 21 28,000 1/1 33 cities; 29 tramway systems; 57 tramway lines Totals 20 1/6 29/57 5/2 41644 14 7 ¹ Many lines cross through the city centre and could be categorised as two lines ²Has section(s) without overhead using APS 3rd rail alimentation par le sol (batteries in Nice) ³11.2 km Line T7 (Villejuif-­‐Loius Aragon) opened Nov 16, 2013; not included in totals *Patronage figures do not reflect line openings after 2011 Population and line length data from various sources is not always consistent Main reference-­‐-­‐Les tramways francais en 2012, Connaissance du rail

×