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TRANS 
FORMING 
CITIES 
THROUGH TRANSIT 
ANTONIO GÓMEZ-PALACIO @aurbanist 
RailVolution CONFERENCE 
Minneapolis, September...
OUR GRAND 
DISCONNECT
PEDESTRIANS 
WORTH TEN 
POINTS
WHO, HAS ABSOLUTELY NO INTEREST 
IN EVER USING 
TRANSIT?
WHO, HAS NO OPTION 
TO MOVE 
AROUND 
EXCEPT 
TRANSIT?
WHO, CHOOSES TRANSIT 
EVER SO 
OFTEN?
3 % 
OF PEOPLE IN COPENHAGEN 
RIDE BIKES 
FOR MORAL 
REASONS 
97 % 
OF PEOPLE DO IT FOR 
QUALITY 
OF LIFE 
CYCLE STATISTIC...
presentation outline: 
4 WHYS? 
4 HOWS? 
3 EPIPHANIES
TRANSIT 
URBANISM 
DEFINITION: 
a recognition of the synergies between 
where we live and how we move, 
and their influenc...
epiphany 
# 1 
!
“INSANITY: DOING THE SAME THING 
OVER AND OVER AGAIN AND 
EXPECTING DIFFERENT RESULTS” 
Albert 
Einstein
PART: 
WHY?
TOD 
+ ROI 
BFFs 
TRANSIT ORIENTED 
DEVELOPMENT 
RETURN ON 
INVESTMENT 
BEST FRIENDS 
FOREVER
ROI = 
BENEFIT 
COST
BENEFIT 
ECONOMY 
ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY COST 
INDIVIDUALS
SOCIETY 
ECONOMY 
INDIVIDUALS 
BENEFIT 
ENVIRONMENT COST
SOCIETY 
ECONOMY 
INDIVIDUALS 
HYPOTHESIS: our travel 
choices have a direct 
(negative) impact on the 
sustenance of natu...
0.32 
average car, 
single occupant 
0.44 
GHG emissions 
by mode... 
large 4WD, 
single occupant 
0.0 
0.003 
walking + c...
ECONOMY 
ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY 
BENEFIT 
COST 
INDIVIDUALS
ECONOMY 
ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY 
HYPOTHESIS: our travel 
choices have a direct (often 
unaccounted) cost to 
individuals’ liv...
Average total expenditure, 2008 
average 
household 
spending 
food 
shelter 
clothing 
transpor-­‐ 
ta*on 
personal 
taxe...
GTA 
$10,152 
$1,077 
$11,229 
AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON TRANSPORTATION 
2011 
Source: 
Sta:s:cs 
Canada 
PRIVATE ...
AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON TRANSPORTATION 
HIGHEST IN NEIGHBOURHOODS 
POORLY SERVED BY TRANSIT 
$10,152 
$1,077 
$1...
CANADA 
RESIDENTIAL AVERAGE PRICE, March 2013 
$378,532 
Source: 
CREA 
Canadian 
Real 
Estate 
Associa:on
GTA 
$10,152 
$1,077 
$11,229 
AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON TRANSPORTATION 
2011 
PRIVATE 
TRANSPORTATION 
[cars, 
tr...
applied 
to 
MONTHLY 
MORTGAGE 
PAYMENTS 
monthly 
payments 
increased 
by 
$846 
$10,152
Mortgage 
amount: 
$523,975 
Mortgage 
amount: 
$378,532
$145,443 
difference 
38% 
more 
Mortgage 
amount: 
$523,975 
Mortgage 
amount: 
$378,532
$10,152 
applied 
to 
MORTGAGE’S 
TOTAL 
INTEREST 
COSTS 
$10,152 
X 
25 
years 
= 
$253,800
Mortgage 
amount: 
$719,288 
Mortgage 
amount: 
$378,532
$340,756 
difference 
90% 
more 
Mortgage 
amount: 
$719,288 
Mortgage 
amount: 
$378,532
ENVIRONMENT 
ECONOMY 
INDIVIDUALS 
BENEFIT 
SOCIETY COST
ENVIRONMENT 
ECONOMY 
INDIVIDUALS 
HYPOTHESIS: our travel 
choices are subsidized by 
us as a society, and have 
an impact...
$ COST PER 
PASSENGER TRIP 
Infrastructure (capital & operating, private operating) and 
social costs (congestion, acciden...
iTn nYeigPhbEou r2ho oDds cIoAnduBciveE toT waElkinSg a nRd cAycTlinEg 
SOURCE: INSTITUTE FOR CLINICAL EVALUATIVE SCIENCES
OBESITY 
pedestrian-­‐oriented 
neighbourhoods 
car-­‐oriented 
neighbourhoods 
RATE 
50% 10%
1O2B.2%E SloIwTeYr / each 25% increase in mixed use 
single 
use mixed 
use 
Source: Frank, et al. 2004
Source: Canadian Institute for Health Information 
40% 
of several Provincial budgets is health related
ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY 
INDIVIDUALS 
BENEFIT 
COST 
ECONOMY
ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY 
INDIVIDUALS 
HYPOTHESIS: access to 
travel choices increases the 
competitive advantage of 
cities an...
YOUTH RETENTION... 
agree disagree 16-34 year-olds
AVERAGE ANNUAL VEHICLE km TRAVELED 16-34 year-olds 
23% 
drop 
YOUTH RETENTION... 
12,700km 
16,500km 
2009 
2001 
SOURCE:...
YOUTH RETENTION... 16-34 year-olds 
16% walk more frequently 
24% bike more trips 
40% transit more passenger km 
2001-200...
PART: 
HOW?
TRANSIT 
SYSTEMS 
DENSITY 
OF USE 
MODAL 
INTEGRATION 
URBAN DESIGN
MODAL 
INTEGRATION 
URBAN DESIGN 
DENSITY 
OF USE 
TRANSIT 
SYSTEMS
TRANSIT 
SYSTEMS 
DENSITY 
OF USE 
MODAL 
INTEGRATION 
URBAN DESIGN
MOVING 
PEOPLE 
NOT CARS 
SOURCE: QUINO (JOAQUÍN SALVADOR LAVADO)
900 
900 
900 
900 
900 
900 
5,400 
PERSONS / HOUR 
per direction (PPHPD) 
PASSENGERS PER HOUR 
19,600 
PERSONS / HOUR 
9...
COMPLETE 
STREETS
TRANSIT 
SYSTEMS 
MODAL 
INTEGRATION 
URBAN DESIGN 
DENSITY 
OF USE
Port Credit, Mississauga
[PERSON / HA] AVERAGE TRACT DENSITY 
200 
180 
160 
140 
120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 
0 
0 
200 
400 
600 
800 
1000 
1200 
1...
[PERSON / HA] AVERAGE TRACT DENSITY 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
New York, Boston, Chicago, Pittsburgh, 
B...
POPULATION DENSITY 
OF THE 
TORONTO CMA 
0 
– 
793 
Persons/km2 
33,380 
– 
63,770
% OF PEOPLE 
WHO WALK 
TO WORK 
0 
– 
2% 
38 
-­‐ 
58%
% OF PEOPLE 
WHO DRIVE 
TO WORK 
0 
– 
27% 
85 
– 
95%
0 
– 
5% 
Persons/km2 
49 
– 
66% 
% OF PEOPLE 
WHO TAKE TRANSIT 
TO WORK
TRANSIT TRANSIT ORIENTED 
AUTO DEPENDANT AUTO RELIANT MULTI-MODAL SUPPORTIVE
TRANSIT 
SYSTEMS 
DENSITY 
OF USE 
MODAL 
INTEGRATION 
URBAN DESIGN
epiphany 
# 2 
!
“IF YOU SCREW UP THE URBAN 
DESIGN, YOU MIGHT AS WELL PACK 
YOUR BAGS AND GO HOME”
vehicle-oriented multi-modal 
(insert 
image) 
2/13/2012 
81
CRITICAL 
MASS of 
PEOPLE and 
ACTIVITIES 
BUILDINGS 
face the 
street with 
ACTIVE 
USES at 
GRADE 
LEVEL 
DISTINCT 
STRE...
CRITICAL 
MASS OF 
POPULATION 
SAFE, ACTIVE-TRANSPORTATION 
PLACES FOR 
SOCIAL 
GATHERING 
PEDESTRIANS 
PRIORATIZED 
INTEG...
1901, JASPER AVENUE, EDMONTON
10-­‐20 
metres
HERITAGE 
CONSERVATION 
PEDESTRIAN 
PRIORITY 
ZONES 
SAFE CYCLING 
FACILITIES 
PLACES FOR 
SOCIAL 
GATHERING 
ACCESS TO 
E...
epiphany 
# 3 
!
“CITIES ARE NOT THE PROBLEM, 
THEY ARE THE SOLUTION” 
Jaime 
Lerner 
Architect, 
Major 
for 
the 
City 
of 
Curi:ba, 
Braz...
thank you 
ANTONIO GÓMEZ-PALACIO 
@aurbanist
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio
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RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio

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Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture AICP CM 1.5

Transit can do more than move people and generate revenue. More and more, cities are investing in transit to transform their communities and deliver on more expansive city-building objectives. Traditional transit goals are expanding to address the promise of livable communities, environmental stewardship, economic development and improved public health. Hear how two cities -- Seattle and Portland -- are shaping development scale and character with transit investment. Both cities are using parcel-based, pro forma-based tools to quantify the potential impact of transit projects. Join us for an interactive discussion about the capabilities and limitations of these tools. Hear their stories and learn how to evaluate your own projects against a broader set of goals using technical and market-based analysis.

Moderator: Catherine Ciarlo, AICP, Senior Project Manager, CH2M Hill, Portland, Oregon
Katherine Idziorek, AICP, LEED AP ND, Urban Designer, VIA Architecture, Seattle, Washington
Antonio Gomez-Palacio, Principal, DIALOG, Toronto, Ontario
Eric Engstrom, Principal Planner, City of Portland, Bureau of Planning & Sustainability, Portland, Oregon

Published in: Economy & Finance
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RV 2014: Beyond Mobility: Corridor Planning for the Bigger Picture by Antonio Gomez-Palacio

  1. 1. TRANS FORMING CITIES THROUGH TRANSIT ANTONIO GÓMEZ-PALACIO @aurbanist RailVolution CONFERENCE Minneapolis, September 22, 2014
  2. 2. OUR GRAND DISCONNECT
  3. 3. PEDESTRIANS WORTH TEN POINTS
  4. 4. WHO, HAS ABSOLUTELY NO INTEREST IN EVER USING TRANSIT?
  5. 5. WHO, HAS NO OPTION TO MOVE AROUND EXCEPT TRANSIT?
  6. 6. WHO, CHOOSES TRANSIT EVER SO OFTEN?
  7. 7. 3 % OF PEOPLE IN COPENHAGEN RIDE BIKES FOR MORAL REASONS 97 % OF PEOPLE DO IT FOR QUALITY OF LIFE CYCLE STATISTICS, WWW.KK.DK 57% IT’S EASY AND FAST 22% IT’S GOOD EXERCISE 13% IT’S CHEAP 5% IT’S CONVENIENT
  8. 8. presentation outline: 4 WHYS? 4 HOWS? 3 EPIPHANIES
  9. 9. TRANSIT URBANISM DEFINITION: a recognition of the synergies between where we live and how we move, and their influence on delivering liveable communities, environmental and public health, economic and social development, and quality living.
  10. 10. epiphany # 1 !
  11. 11. “INSANITY: DOING THE SAME THING OVER AND OVER AGAIN AND EXPECTING DIFFERENT RESULTS” Albert Einstein
  12. 12. PART: WHY?
  13. 13. TOD + ROI BFFs TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT RETURN ON INVESTMENT BEST FRIENDS FOREVER
  14. 14. ROI = BENEFIT COST
  15. 15. BENEFIT ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY COST INDIVIDUALS
  16. 16. SOCIETY ECONOMY INDIVIDUALS BENEFIT ENVIRONMENT COST
  17. 17. SOCIETY ECONOMY INDIVIDUALS HYPOTHESIS: our travel choices have a direct (negative) impact on the sustenance of natural systems and to climate change ENVIRONMENT
  18. 18. 0.32 average car, single occupant 0.44 GHG emissions by mode... large 4WD, single occupant 0.0 0.003 walking + cycling for every extra passenger Kg of greenhouse gas per person per kilometer Source: h2p://sydney.edu.au/facili:es/sustainable_campus/transport/index.shtml
  19. 19. ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY BENEFIT COST INDIVIDUALS
  20. 20. ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY HYPOTHESIS: our travel choices have a direct (often unaccounted) cost to individuals’ livelihood and INDIVIDUALS quality of life
  21. 21. Average total expenditure, 2008 average household spending food shelter clothing transpor-­‐ ta*on personal taxes $ shares of spending (%) Canada 71,360 10.4 19.9 4.0 13.6 20.5 Newfoundland and Labrador 57,710 11.7 16.5 4.7 15.6 18.0 Prince Edward Island 58,710 11.5 19.0 3.6 15.2 16.2 Nova Sco:a 60,330 11.3 18.6 3.7 14.7 17.9 New Brunswick 58,440 11.2 17.2 3.5 17.0 17.8 Quebec 60,480 12.2 18.5 3.9 13.2 20.5 Ontario 77,310 9.7 21.2 4.2 13.1 21.2 Manitoba 63,510 10.2 18.2 3.9 14.3 18.8 Saskatchewan 68,280 9.2 17.2 3.8 16.0 19.1 Alberta 86,910 8.9 19.0 3.8 14.0 21.9 Bri:sh Columbia 73,120 10.9 20.8 4.0 13.8 18.7 Source: Sta:s:cs Canada AVERAGE TOTAL EXPENDITURE, 2008
  22. 22. GTA $10,152 $1,077 $11,229 AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON TRANSPORTATION 2011 Source: Sta:s:cs Canada PRIVATE [cars, trucks, vans + their opera:ng costs] PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION [public transit, taxis, air fares, inter-­‐city buses + trains]
  23. 23. AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON TRANSPORTATION HIGHEST IN NEIGHBOURHOODS POORLY SERVED BY TRANSIT $10,152 $1,077 $11,229 $15,005 $6,803 in: LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL, LOW TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY in: JOB DENSE AREAS, HIGH TRANSIT CONNECTIVITY + -­‐ SOURCE: TransForm, 2009
  24. 24. CANADA RESIDENTIAL AVERAGE PRICE, March 2013 $378,532 Source: CREA Canadian Real Estate Associa:on
  25. 25. GTA $10,152 $1,077 $11,229 AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON TRANSPORTATION 2011 PRIVATE TRANSPORTATION [cars, trucks, vans + their opera:ng costs] Source: Sta:s:cs Canada
  26. 26. applied to MONTHLY MORTGAGE PAYMENTS monthly payments increased by $846 $10,152
  27. 27. Mortgage amount: $523,975 Mortgage amount: $378,532
  28. 28. $145,443 difference 38% more Mortgage amount: $523,975 Mortgage amount: $378,532
  29. 29. $10,152 applied to MORTGAGE’S TOTAL INTEREST COSTS $10,152 X 25 years = $253,800
  30. 30. Mortgage amount: $719,288 Mortgage amount: $378,532
  31. 31. $340,756 difference 90% more Mortgage amount: $719,288 Mortgage amount: $378,532
  32. 32. ENVIRONMENT ECONOMY INDIVIDUALS BENEFIT SOCIETY COST
  33. 33. ENVIRONMENT ECONOMY INDIVIDUALS HYPOTHESIS: our travel choices are subsidized by us as a society, and have an impact on our municipal finances SOCIETY and public health
  34. 34. $ COST PER PASSENGER TRIP Infrastructure (capital & operating, private operating) and social costs (congestion, accidents, and environmental) $ 6.64 $ 3.33 SOURCE: TRANSPORT CANADA, 2010
  35. 35. iTn nYeigPhbEou r2ho oDds cIoAnduBciveE toT waElkinSg a nRd cAycTlinEg SOURCE: INSTITUTE FOR CLINICAL EVALUATIVE SCIENCES
  36. 36. OBESITY pedestrian-­‐oriented neighbourhoods car-­‐oriented neighbourhoods RATE 50% 10%
  37. 37. 1O2B.2%E SloIwTeYr / each 25% increase in mixed use single use mixed use Source: Frank, et al. 2004
  38. 38. Source: Canadian Institute for Health Information 40% of several Provincial budgets is health related
  39. 39. ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY INDIVIDUALS BENEFIT COST ECONOMY
  40. 40. ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY INDIVIDUALS HYPOTHESIS: access to travel choices increases the competitive advantage of cities and neighbourhoods and has an impact on economic development ECONOMY
  41. 41. YOUTH RETENTION... agree disagree 16-34 year-olds
  42. 42. AVERAGE ANNUAL VEHICLE km TRAVELED 16-34 year-olds 23% drop YOUTH RETENTION... 12,700km 16,500km 2009 2001 SOURCE: FRONTIER GROUP, 2012
  43. 43. YOUTH RETENTION... 16-34 year-olds 16% walk more frequently 24% bike more trips 40% transit more passenger km 2001-2009 SOURCE: FRONTIER GROUP, 2012
  44. 44. PART: HOW?
  45. 45. TRANSIT SYSTEMS DENSITY OF USE MODAL INTEGRATION URBAN DESIGN
  46. 46. MODAL INTEGRATION URBAN DESIGN DENSITY OF USE TRANSIT SYSTEMS
  47. 47. TRANSIT SYSTEMS DENSITY OF USE MODAL INTEGRATION URBAN DESIGN
  48. 48. MOVING PEOPLE NOT CARS SOURCE: QUINO (JOAQUÍN SALVADOR LAVADO)
  49. 49. 900 900 900 900 900 900 5,400 PERSONS / HOUR per direction (PPHPD) PASSENGERS PER HOUR 19,600 PERSONS / HOUR 900 900 8,000 STREETCAR 8,000 900 900
  50. 50. COMPLETE STREETS
  51. 51. TRANSIT SYSTEMS MODAL INTEGRATION URBAN DESIGN DENSITY OF USE
  52. 52. Port Credit, Mississauga
  53. 53. [PERSON / HA] AVERAGE TRACT DENSITY 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 source: A Study of Population Density of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Cities (Ilano, 1961)
  54. 54. [PERSON / HA] AVERAGE TRACT DENSITY 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 New York, Boston, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, St. Louis, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Washington, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit, Buffalo, Columbus, Minneapolis, Syracuse, Cincinnati, St. Paul, Nashville, Indianapolis 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 source: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy : https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/dl/1834_1085_Angel%20Final%201.pdf
  55. 55. POPULATION DENSITY OF THE TORONTO CMA 0 – 793 Persons/km2 33,380 – 63,770
  56. 56. % OF PEOPLE WHO WALK TO WORK 0 – 2% 38 -­‐ 58%
  57. 57. % OF PEOPLE WHO DRIVE TO WORK 0 – 27% 85 – 95%
  58. 58. 0 – 5% Persons/km2 49 – 66% % OF PEOPLE WHO TAKE TRANSIT TO WORK
  59. 59. TRANSIT TRANSIT ORIENTED AUTO DEPENDANT AUTO RELIANT MULTI-MODAL SUPPORTIVE
  60. 60. TRANSIT SYSTEMS DENSITY OF USE MODAL INTEGRATION URBAN DESIGN
  61. 61. epiphany # 2 !
  62. 62. “IF YOU SCREW UP THE URBAN DESIGN, YOU MIGHT AS WELL PACK YOUR BAGS AND GO HOME”
  63. 63. vehicle-oriented multi-modal (insert image) 2/13/2012 81
  64. 64. CRITICAL MASS of PEOPLE and ACTIVITIES BUILDINGS face the street with ACTIVE USES at GRADE LEVEL DISTINCT STREET-SCAPING PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS at REGULAR INTERVALS INTEGRATED TRANSIT SYSTEM DIVERSITY IN HOUSING TYPOLOGIES CONSISTENT BUILDING MIXED-USE PODIUM ANIMATED + MIXED-USE GROUND LEVEL URBAN TREE CANOPY and INTEGRATED STORMWATER SYSTEMS SUNLIGHT ACCESS and SKYVIEWS DIVERSITY IN RETAIL and EMPLOYMENT TYPOLOGIES
  65. 65. CRITICAL MASS OF POPULATION SAFE, ACTIVE-TRANSPORTATION PLACES FOR SOCIAL GATHERING PEDESTRIANS PRIORATIZED INTEGRATED TRANSIT FACILITIES INTEGRATED NATURAL SYSTEMS ROOFTOP GARDENING + AMENITIES MODAL OPTIONS ADAPTABLE ARCHITECTURE MIXED-USE POLICIES ON-SITE STORMWATER TREATMENT INTEGRATED TREE CANOPY SUNLIGHT PENETRATION DIVERSITY of HOUSING TYPES
  66. 66. 1901, JASPER AVENUE, EDMONTON
  67. 67. 10-­‐20 metres
  68. 68. HERITAGE CONSERVATION PEDESTRIAN PRIORITY ZONES SAFE CYCLING FACILITIES PLACES FOR SOCIAL GATHERING ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT QUALITY, DURABLE MATERIALS CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH DESIGN UNCLUTTERED URBAN DESIGN INTEGRATED TRANSIT SYSTEMS
  69. 69. epiphany # 3 !
  70. 70. “CITIES ARE NOT THE PROBLEM, THEY ARE THE SOLUTION” Jaime Lerner Architect, Major for the City of Curi:ba, Brazil
  71. 71. thank you ANTONIO GÓMEZ-PALACIO @aurbanist

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