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RV 2014: HSR for Midsize Cities: TOD Lessons from Near and Far by Eric Eidlin

HSR for Midsize Cities: TOD Lessons from Near and Far

High-speed rail is here. California and the Midwest are both planning HSR corridors to serve large and midsize cities within the next decade or two. Cities are working closely with agencies to carefully plan TOD to serve both statewide and local needs. Explore lessons, both pragmatic and visionary, from around the world. Start in Germany and France, then turn to more local experiences in Wisconsin and California. Hear from high-level state agency representatives, researchers and professionals experienced in HSR station area planning. Learn how they are working with federal, state and local agencies on TOD to address economic development; respond to climate change legislation; integrate public transit networks; and create dense activity centers within walking distance to future HSR stations.

Moderator: Monica Villalobos, Senior Project Manager, AECOM, Los Angeles, California
Eric Eidlin, Urban and Regional Policy Fellow, German Marshall Fund of the US/Federal Transit Administration, US Department of Transportation, San Francisco, California
Katherine Perez-Estolano, Board Member, California High Speed Rail Authority, Los Angeles, California
Barry Gore, Planner-Urban Designer, BGore Design/Campaign for Yahara Station, Madison, Wisconsin
Vaughan Davies, Principal, Director of Urban Design, AECOM, Los Angeles, California

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RV 2014: HSR for Midsize Cities: TOD Lessons from Near and Far by Eric Eidlin

  1. 1. BEYOND THE PARK-AND-RIDE LOT Lessons for California on High Speed Rail from France and Germany Eric Eidlin, AICP | Federal Transit Administration 2013 – 2014 German Marshall Fund Urban and Regional Policy Fellow Rail~volution 2014 | Minneapolis, MN | September 23, 2014
  2. 2. • Project objectives • Cities visited and rationale • Rationale for California High Speed Rail (HSR) • HSR in France and Germany • Main themes raised in interviews • Lessons for California Overview
  3. 3. Learn about: • Different approaches to station siting • Best practices in promoting non-auto access to HSR stations • Station design and the multiple roles of stations • HSR-specific land uses • Parking Project Objectives
  4. 4. Interviewed 60 individuals in Europe: • National railways • Government officials: – Federal – Local (transit agencies, city planning offices) • Researchers (think tanks, universities) • Private consultants • Lay people Interviewees
  5. 5. FRANCE Limburg Lyon(home base) Hannover Berlin (home base) GERMANY Le Creusot Strasbourg Paris Avignon Aix-en-Provence Marseille Haute-Picardie Important French locations not visited Lille Kassel Münster Leipzig Dresden Erfurt Important German locations not visited Freiburg Cologne Montabaur
  6. 6. BERLIN – STUTTGART HSR CORRIDOR Stuttgart, 1.5 Mannheim, 0.6 PARIS – MARSEILLE HSR CORRIDOR 31 million riders/year (2008) (POPULATION IN MILLIONS) 74 million riders/year, all lines (2009) Frankfurt, 2.3 Berlin, 3.4 million 39 million riders/year (2030) PROPOSED CALIFORNIA HSR Paris Region 12.0 million 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 MILES
  7. 7. • Six cities to receive funds for land use planning in station areas • Cities: Fresno, San Jose, Merced, San Jose, Gilroy, Bakersfield, Palmdale • Plans range from $800k to $1.4 million, 50% federal (FRA stimulus funds) CAHSR Station Area Planning
  8. 8. FRANCE 66 million inhab. 260,558 sq. mi. 302 people/ sq. mi. GERMANY 82 million inhab. 137,846 sq. mi. 608 people / sq. mi. CALIFORNIA 38 million inhab. 163,696 sq mi. 232 people / sq. mi.
  9. 9. Network: 1265 mi. 114m riders/yr Initiation: 1981 • Country highly centralized politically and economically • Paris by far largest urban area (12m); Lyon next (2m) • Primary goal of HSR is to speed travel between Paris Gar de Lyon Paris and second tier cities • Mostly dedicated HSR track FRANCE • Network: 1265 mi. • 114m riders/yr • Initiation: 1981
  10. 10. Paris Transit and HSR
  11. 11. Paris Gare de Lyon Marseille St. Charles • HSR quicker and more popular than air between many cities Paris-Lyon: virtually no more air travel
  12. 12. Source: • Federal country with more even distribution of population • Berlin largest urban area at 3.5m, next largest Hamburg at 1.7m • Many cities with 400k- 1m inhabitants, so trains stop frequently • Mostly blended HSR system Network: 798mi. 235 under construction 75 million HSR riders/yr Initiation: 1991 GERMANY
  13. 13. Source: Cologne Main Station • HSR trains serve historic city center stations • Little HSR-specific land use planning GERMANY
  14. 14. Source: • HSR not a fundamentally new thing, but rather the next evolution in an existing technology • First rate highway system and well-developed network of airports compete with HSR • Heavy focus on intermodality • DB operates own carshare and bikeshare services GERMANY
  15. 15. Speed Versus Connectivity
  16. 16. PARIS – STRASBOURG 474 KM / 295 MI 2:20 / 0 STOPS 126 MPH AVG OFFENBURG - BERLIN 750 KM / 466 MI 5:55 / 13 STOPS 78 MPH AVG
  17. 17. HOME SÜDKREUZ STATION 30 minutes travel time savings in southbound direction Berlin Transit and HSR
  18. 18. Station Types
  19. 19. Central City - Erfurt
  20. 20. Central City - Erfurt City population: 204,000 Station renovation completed 2006 34,000 passengers/day 10 tracks 390 parking spaces (underground garage) Mid point along future Berlin – Munich HSR
  21. 21. Exurban - Le Creusot “Gare Betterave”
  22. 22. Exurban - Aix-en-Provence TGV
  23. 23. Opened: 2001 10 miles from downtown Aix, pop. 143,000 7,000 passengers/day 2860 parking spaces 4 tracks (2 pass-through) Exurban - Aix-en-Provence TGV
  24. 24. Peripheral -- Avignon TGV
  25. 25. Peripheral - Avignon TGV Opened: 2001 2.5 miles from downtown Avignon pop. 95,000 7,300 passengers/day 1,890 parking spaces 4 tracks (2 pass-through) New rail transit link
  26. 26. 2.5 miles Avignon “Virgule”
  27. 27. New Center City – Lyon Part Dieu
  28. 28. Lyon Perrache Lyon Part-Dieu 2 miles New Center City - Lyon Part Dieu
  29. 29. • Opened for service in 1983 • Station built for 35,000 people/day • Station now sees 120,000/day • Busiest rail station in France for connections New Center City - Lyon Part Dieu
  30. 30. How intercity rail travelers get to Lyon Part-Dieu Walk 35% New Center City - Lyon Part Dieu Bike 3% Transit 40% Taxi 5% Car 17% Opened: 1983 Lyon pop. 2 million (in region) Center of new downtown district Central node in local transit and national rail networks 120,000 people/day 2,060 parking spaces 11 tracks 20,000 people use station as pedestrian tunnel daily
  31. 31. KEY NUMBERS - Second office district in France - 6.5 million sf new office space - 1.6 million sf new residential space - 2.2 million sf retail, event, and hotel space KEY CONCEPTS “Gare ouverte” “Gare connectrice” “Socles actifs” “Sol difficile” and “sol facile” La Defense, Paris New Center City - Lyon Part Dieu
  32. 32. Lyon Part Dieu
  33. 33. Station Design and Land Use
  34. 34. Downtown Station / Mall - Leipzig
  35. 35. Downtown Station / Mall - Hannover
  36. 36. Hannover Main Station
  37. 37. Station / Mall – Paris St. Lazare
  38. 38. Source: Thomas Wolf Convention Center Station – Cologne Deutz
  39. 39. Lyon Part-Dieu HSR Lyon St. Exupéry Airport 26 million passengers (2011) 8 million passengers in 2011 5,000 parking spaces 10,000 parking spaces HSR Station vs. Airport 11,000 sf office 5,500 jobs 245 hotel rooms 11 million sf office 45,000 jobs 2,000 hotel rooms
  40. 40. Permeable Station – Berlin Stadtbahn
  41. 41. Intermodal Connections and Payment Systems
  42. 42. Blended Stations
  43. 43. Blended Stations ½-mile
  44. 44. LYON PART-DIEU SAN JOSE DIRIDON LA UNION 150 HSTs/day + 400 other trains 64 HSTs/day (2029) #? other trains
  45. 45. VBB = “Transportation alliance” for Berlin / Brandenburg Integrated Fares and Ticketing
  46. 46. Mobility Services
  47. 47. Integrated Fares and Ticketing
  48. 48. Includes: • Annual public transit pass • Carshare membership • Car rental discounts • 20 % discount on taxis, cashless payment • German Rail discount card • Integrated mobility bill for all basic costs, carshare and taxi trips Mobility Services
  49. 49. Integrated Navigation and Ticketing
  50. 50. Ticketless Travel
  51. 51. The Bicycle: A Space-Efficient Access Mode
  52. 52. “The promotion of cycling benefits everyone, including pedestrians and motorists. Cycling is an environmentally friendly means of transport that does not produce noise or harmful emissions. It requires little space. In combination with local public transport and walking, it makes it possible to reduce [vehicle] traffic, especially in city centres, thereby tackling congestion and lowering pollutant and noise emissions.” National Cycling Plan - Germany
  53. 53. Münster
  54. 54. • 3,300 bike parking spaces (largest garage in Germany) • Importance of intermodalism Münster Bike Station
  55. 55. Münster
  56. 56. Münster
  57. 57. Lessons Learned
  58. 58. HSR has distinct advantages over other modes of travel. We must be clear about these advantages and design to take full advantage of them. Stations should be sited in dense urban districts that are preeminent destinations and central nodes of urban transit networks. Extensive planning work may make other locations feasible, but existing infrastructure and/or development are usually preconditions for success. Lessons Learned
  59. 59. There are tradeoffs between maximizing travel speeds and connections. Secondary stations in large cities can bring HSR closer to many without significantly slowing service. Lessons Learned
  60. 60. Station buildings need to be well-designed and large enough to serve multiple public purposes. Financing such structures is challenging. It is essential to articulate vision for project first and figure out how to realize vision within constraints. Lessons Learned
  61. 61. Innovations in payment systems can blur the divide between public transit and the private car and enhance the competitiveness of non-auto modes. Fragmented governance in transit leads not simply to poorly coordinated schedules among providers, but also to intermodal facilities that are inefficient and difficult to navigate. Bicycles can be a cost-effective and space-efficient access mode to HSR, but supportive policies and infrastructure must be provided. Lessons Learned
  62. 62. HSR can be transformational in terms of development. Most of California’s planned HSR stations are in places that are centrally located, have significant development potential, and are anticipating rapid population growth. California’s HSR system will not mature for many decades. We must be careful not to make decisions that we will regret in 50 years. Lessons Learned
  63. 63. BEYOND THE PARK-AND-RIDE LOT Lessons for California on High Speed Rail from France and Germany Eric Eidlin, AICP | Federal Transit Administration 2013 – 2014 German Marshall Fund Urban and Regional Policy Fellow Rail~volution 2014 | Minneapolis, MN | September 23, 2014