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Getting Parking Right 
Presented by Lisa Jacobson 
Rail~Volution | Minneapolis | September 2014
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,000 
$20,0...
Parking Wastes Land 
 
If you require more than 3 spaces per 1,000 sq ft, you’re requiring more parking than land use 
3
Parking Space 
10’ x 20’ = 200 ft2 
Bedroom 9’ x 11’ = 99 ft2 
Office Cubicle 
8’ x 9’ = 72 ft2 
Restaurant Table 
5’ x 5’...
Sources: “A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Burdens of Working Families,” Center for Neighborhood Tech...
7 
Stop competing with parking 
Montgomery County Planning Department
8 
Start competing with place
Parking will Drive you Crazy
So what do we do? 10 Key Principles for Smarter Parking
1. Focus on Availability 
Methodological approach: 
 
Not turnover. Turnover Availability 
11
2. Pricing not Time Limits 
Put your customers first. 
12
3. Set the Right Price 
On-Street: 
$0.50/hr. 
Harbor Garage: 
$1.50/hr.
… and the Right Time Span
4. Smart Technology
- 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 
5. Use Resources Efficiently 
Time of Day 
Spaces Used
- 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 
Office (150k SF): 
Real Demand 
Unshared Supply 
2pm
- 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 
Restaurant (150k SF): Real Demand 
12pm 
Unshared Supply
- 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 
Residential (150k SF/1000 units): Real Demand 
2 am 
Unshared Supply
- 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 
Unshared Supply 
31% Less 
Mixed Use  Shared Parking 
Shared
6. Invest Revenue 21
Impact on Sales Tax Revenue 25 
Pasadena Retail Sales Tax Revenue$0$500,000$1,000,000$1,500,000$2,000,000$2,500,0001989199...
7. Parking for People
27
8. Eliminate Minimum Parking Requirements 
Adam Millard-Ball, NelsonNygaard
Tailor Parking Requirements 
 
Parking demand varies with geographic factors: 
– 
Density 
– 
Transit Access 
– 
Income 
...
9. Create Great Places to Walk 30
Medford Garage | Chevalier Access: High/Forest Streetfront 
Source: Utile, Inc., 
Medford, MA
Medford Garage | Existing Site 
Source: Utile, Inc. 
73 
spaces
Medford Garage | Garage View: Full Site Source: Utile, Inc. 
238 
spaces
LOCATION BASED PARKING OCCUPANCY
West Square 
570 Parking Spaces 
East Square 750 Parking Spaces
Medford Garage | Chevalier Access: High/Forest Streetfront Source: Utile, Inc., 
Medford, MA 
West Square 
East Square
PEDESTRIAN LEVEL-OF-SERVICE 
MAXIMUM Pedestrian Delay 
A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
Seconds 
Likelihood of Noncompliance 
<10 
Low 
1...
Melrose, MA 
Medford, MA
Melrose, MA 
Medford, MA
PROPOSED DESIGN 
NEW DELAY 
5-MINUTE WALKING AREA
 
$7.5 M for 165 spaces 
or 
$1.5 M for 90 spaces and improved public space 
Medford, MA
Source: WMATA May 2002 weekday Metrorail ridership and access data 
Arlington’s 5 Stations: 
39,500 daily boardings 
12.9%...
6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 
5000 
4500 
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0 
Parking lot...
0 
200 
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Boardings 
Occupied 
MBTA Commuter Rail: Park & Ride Stations 
...
0 
200 
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Boardings 
Occupied 
MBTA Commuter Rail: Village Settings 
Aver...
0 
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Boardings 
Occupied 
MBTA Commuter Rail: Downtowns 
Average of ...
CHANGE?! NO WAY! 47
NELSONNYGAARD CONSULTING ASSOCIATES © 2013 
Lisa Jacobson 
77 Franklin St, 10th Floor 
Boston, MA 02110 
(617) 521-9404 
l...
RV 2014: Parking De-Mystified
RV 2014: Parking De-Mystified
RV 2014: Parking De-Mystified
RV 2014: Parking De-Mystified
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RV 2014: Parking De-Mystified

Parking De-mystified

What is one of the most overlooked obstacles to transit-oriented development? Parking! Join us as we de-mystify the science of parking and turn traditional theories on their heads. Explore the fundamental topics of shared parking, parking demand estimation, parking code impacts, in-lieu fees, parking management, parking technologies and safe parking design. Hear best practices from the parking management toolbox developed for the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Learn how other communities benefit from implementing a comprehensive parking management system -- from new revenue streams to the creation of business improvement districts.

Moderator: Jean Sanson, AICP, Principal Consultant, Steer Davies Gleave, Denver, Colorado
Craig Blakely, Strategic Planner, Department of Planning and Economic Development, City of St. Paul, St. Paul, Minnesota
Lisa Jacobson, Senior Associate, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts
Brett Wood, PE, CAPP, Parking and Transportation Consultant, Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona

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RV 2014: Parking De-Mystified

  1. 1. Getting Parking Right Presented by Lisa Jacobson Rail~Volution | Minneapolis | September 2014
  2. 2. $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 Parking Wastes Money Thank you, Don Shoup!
  3. 3. Parking Wastes Land  If you require more than 3 spaces per 1,000 sq ft, you’re requiring more parking than land use 3
  4. 4. Parking Space 10’ x 20’ = 200 ft2 Bedroom 9’ x 11’ = 99 ft2 Office Cubicle 8’ x 9’ = 72 ft2 Restaurant Table 5’ x 5’ = 25 ft2 Tensions
  5. 5. Sources: “A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Burdens of Working Families,” Center for Neighborhood Technology, 2006. “The Affordability Index: A New Tool for Measuring the True Affordability of a Housing Choice,” Center for Neighborhood Technology, 2008. Sedway Cook studies of parking and housing costs in San Francisco and Oakland. Parking Worsens Housing Affordability • For each parking space required in a residential unit: – Price of unit increases 15- 30% – Number of units that can be built on typical parcel decreases 15-25% • Fannie Mae: Getting rid of a car = extra $100,000 in mortgage • At >300 sq ft, each parking space consumes more space than an efficiency apartment 6
  6. 6. 7 Stop competing with parking Montgomery County Planning Department
  7. 7. 8 Start competing with place
  8. 8. Parking will Drive you Crazy
  9. 9. So what do we do? 10 Key Principles for Smarter Parking
  10. 10. 1. Focus on Availability Methodological approach:  Not turnover. Turnover Availability 11
  11. 11. 2. Pricing not Time Limits Put your customers first. 12
  12. 12. 3. Set the Right Price On-Street: $0.50/hr. Harbor Garage: $1.50/hr.
  13. 13. … and the Right Time Span
  14. 14. 4. Smart Technology
  15. 15. - 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 5. Use Resources Efficiently Time of Day Spaces Used
  16. 16. - 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Office (150k SF): Real Demand Unshared Supply 2pm
  17. 17. - 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Restaurant (150k SF): Real Demand 12pm Unshared Supply
  18. 18. - 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Residential (150k SF/1000 units): Real Demand 2 am Unshared Supply
  19. 19. - 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Unshared Supply 31% Less Mixed Use  Shared Parking Shared
  20. 20. 6. Invest Revenue 21
  21. 21. Impact on Sales Tax Revenue 25 Pasadena Retail Sales Tax Revenue$0$500,000$1,000,000$1,500,000$2,000,000$2,500,000198919911993199519971999Year Sales Tax Revenue Old PasadenaPlayhouse DistrictPlaza PasadenaSouth Lake
  22. 22. 7. Parking for People
  23. 23. 27
  24. 24. 8. Eliminate Minimum Parking Requirements Adam Millard-Ball, NelsonNygaard
  25. 25. Tailor Parking Requirements  Parking demand varies with geographic factors: – Density – Transit Access – Income – Household size  Cities can tailor parking requirements to meet demand, based on these factors  Does not seek to constrain demand
  26. 26. 9. Create Great Places to Walk 30
  27. 27. Medford Garage | Chevalier Access: High/Forest Streetfront Source: Utile, Inc., Medford, MA
  28. 28. Medford Garage | Existing Site Source: Utile, Inc. 73 spaces
  29. 29. Medford Garage | Garage View: Full Site Source: Utile, Inc. 238 spaces
  30. 30. LOCATION BASED PARKING OCCUPANCY
  31. 31. West Square 570 Parking Spaces East Square 750 Parking Spaces
  32. 32. Medford Garage | Chevalier Access: High/Forest Streetfront Source: Utile, Inc., Medford, MA West Square East Square
  33. 33. PEDESTRIAN LEVEL-OF-SERVICE MAXIMUM Pedestrian Delay A B C D E F Seconds Likelihood of Noncompliance <10 Low 10-20 21-30 Moderate 31-40 41-60 High >60 Very High
  34. 34. Melrose, MA Medford, MA
  35. 35. Melrose, MA Medford, MA
  36. 36. PROPOSED DESIGN NEW DELAY 5-MINUTE WALKING AREA
  37. 37.  $7.5 M for 165 spaces or $1.5 M for 90 spaces and improved public space Medford, MA
  38. 38. Source: WMATA May 2002 weekday Metrorail ridership and access data Arlington’s 5 Stations: 39,500 daily boardings 12.9% Auto (incl. Drop- off) 73.0% 2.0% 7.5% 3.6% 1.0% Walk Metrobus Bus/Vanpool Other Fairfax’s 5 Stations: 29,250 daily boardings Auto 14.6% 9.3% 4.8% 57.6% 12.0% 1.7% Walk Metrobus Other Bus/Vanpool Auto (incl. drop-off) Other No Response/Unknown 10. More Parking ≠ More Ridership
  39. 39. 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Parking lot fills Unmanaged parking Managed parking TOD Station Smart Rail Station Parking: Efficiency
  40. 40. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Boardings Occupied MBTA Commuter Rail: Park & Ride Stations Average of 1.9 boardings per parked car
  41. 41. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Boardings Occupied MBTA Commuter Rail: Village Settings Average of 4.7 boardings per parked car
  42. 42. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Boardings Occupied MBTA Commuter Rail: Downtowns Average of 6.6 boardings per parked car
  43. 43. CHANGE?! NO WAY! 47
  44. 44. NELSONNYGAARD CONSULTING ASSOCIATES © 2013 Lisa Jacobson 77 Franklin St, 10th Floor Boston, MA 02110 (617) 521-9404 ljacobson@nelsonnygaard.com

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