Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

922 12 pollack_lunch learn equity

527 views

Published on

Lunch + Learn: Equity + Tool Boxes AICP CM 1.5

Sharing massive amounts of information. That's what the Information Station does. The Boston-based Metropolitan Area Planning Council and the Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern University created two station area planning tools: a station area typology to characterize the conditions and opportunities for TOD; and a rating system to measure the capacity for equitable TOD within a transit station area. Realizing the value of the demographic, land use, transportation and economic data collected for 300+ rapid transit, commuter rail, ferry and key bus route stations, the two organizations made the underlying data available through a user-friendly web portal funded from a HUD Sustainable Communities grant. Lunch and learn how the data's being put to use.

Stephanie Pollack, Associate Director, Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy, Boston, Massachusetts

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

922 12 pollack_lunch learn equity

  1. 1. HOW CAN EQUITY IN TOD BE DEFINED AND MEASURED?
  2. 2. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter • No consensus definition of equitable TOD, therefore there is no way to distinguish “good” from “not as good” equitable TOD • Metrics needed in order to shape both approvals and subsidy decisions • Rating systems exist at project level (e.g. Transform’s GreenTrip) but not at level of the station area • The “best” type of project varies depending on what is and isn’t available in the station area Developing a TOD rating system
  3. 3. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Why in Massachusetts? VMT data!!
  4. 4. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter The Dukakis Center’s TOD framework: Focus on people, as well as place
  5. 5. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter OPTION ONE: TOD & equity sub-scores Mixed-income housing Enhanced access Neighborhood amenities Higher ridership Lower VMT Catalytic TOD Higher Ridership/ Lower VMT Greater Equity Outcomes Equitable TOD TOD Rating Equity Rating
  6. 6. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter • For “transit orientation” we know the desired outcome – less driving, more transit use • Analyze factors using daily household Vehicle Miles Travelled as the “dependent variable” • For “equity orientation” it is more difficult to define a single desired outcome • One option would be to construct an equity “scale” • Or, use a less quantitative approach and focus on factors relevant to equity But what is the equity “outcome”?
  7. 7. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter OPTION TWO: One integrated rating system • Higher ridership • Lower VMT • Catalytic TOD • Mixed-income housing • Enhanced access • Neighborhood amenities TOD Rating Equity Rating Equitable TOD
  8. 8. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter • The Dukakis Center’s research supports the conclusion that TOD should be oriented toward people most likely to use transit, a group the Center calls “core riders” • For TOD to succeed, transit needs “transit oriented neighbors” • If both Transit and Development are “oriented” toward core riders, the resulting TOD should be both high performing and equitable Equitable TOD = Orienting Transit and Development Toward Core Riders
  9. 9. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Who are the “core” users of transit? • Immigrants • People of color • Zero Vehicle Households • Renters • Low and Lower Middle Income Households Chu, 2012. An Assessment of Public Transportation Markets Using NHTS Data. 10.6% 15.1% 12.1% 67.5% 30.4% 29.0% 32.2% 31.3% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Immigrants Hispanics Blacks (non- Hispanic) Whites (non- Hispanic) Percent of US Population Percent of Transit Market
  10. 10. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Core riders: Zero vehicle households American Community Survey 2005-2009 5-year data, Table S0802 36.0% 26.0% 22.4% 21.0% 31.1% 36.6% 30.3% 33.7% 32.8% 37.4% 47.2% 45.3% 4.3% 6.7% 2.8% 6.6% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% National Boston Minneapolis SF/ Oakland Public Transportation Users Distribution by Vehicle Ownership 2+ vehicles available 1 vehicle available No vehicle available MSA No vehicle available
  11. 11. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Core riders: Renters American Community Survey 2005-2009 5-year data, Table S0802 29.8% 30.8% 21.7% 41.1% 58.6% 54.9% 45.7% 58.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% National Boston Minneapolis SF/ Oakland Percent Renters MSA Average Public Transportation Average
  12. 12. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Residential density and average daily VMT have a very strong curvilinear relationship. At a certain threshold (approximately 10 households per acre), driving drops dramatically. There is very little variation along the curve, suggesting that density is one of the strongest predictors of VMT that we analyzed. Relationship of residential density and VMT
  13. 13. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter The relationship between percentage or renters and average daily VMT is generally strongly negative: the higher the proportion of renters, the lower the average daily household VMT. Relationship of proportion of renters and VMT Average Daily VMTper Household Percentage of renters
  14. 14. The eTOD Score rating system
  15. 15. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Transit Availability, quality, connectivity, and use of public transit Orientation Demographic and socioeconomic orientation toward transit usage Development Presence of existing transit- oriented development with higher densities and mix of uses Components of eTOD Score
  16. 16. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter First Dimension: Transit Metric Measure Transit Transit Accessibility Transit Access Shed Index (TAS) Transit Connectivity Transit Connectivity Index (TCI) Transit Use Percentage of workers who use transit, bike, or walk to work
  17. 17. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Second Dimension: Oriented Metric Measure Orientation Transit Dependency Percentage of 0-car households Lower Income Percent households with income <$25,000 Rental Housing Percentage renters Affordability Percent of income spent on transportation
  18. 18. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Third Dimension: Development Metric Measure Development Walkability WalkScore® Residential Density Households per residential acre Employment Gravity Employment gravity measure
  19. 19. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Final list of eTOD Score attributes
  20. 20. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter eTOD Score Ranges eTOD Score Range Mean VMT per day per household Description 41+ 21.3 Transit-Oriented 31-40 27.6 Transit-Supportive 21-30 36.5 Transit-Related 0-20 58.5 Transit-Adjacent
  21. 21. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter eTOD Score examples
  22. 22. Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Using eTOD Score
  23. 23. As a “think and do” tank, the Kitty and Michael Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy is equally committed to producing state-of-the-art applied research and implementing effective policies and practices based on that research. The Center’s collaborative research and problem- solving model uses powerful data analysis, multidisciplinary research and evaluation techniques and a policy-driven perspective to address critical challenges facing urban areas. A region’s economy and livability depend on the ability of the transportation system to provide access to opportunity, support economic growth and anchor sustainable development patterns. The Dukakis Center's work on Researching Equitable and Sustainable Transportation (ReSET) focuses on transportation equity, sustainable transportation, equitable transit-oriented development and transportation finance. Policy Focus Areas: • Transportation • Economic Development • Housing • Labor/Workforce Northeastern University Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy Northeastern University 310 Renaissance Park 360 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115 (617) 373-7870 www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter A “Think and Do” Tank Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy  www.northeastern.edu/dukakiscenter

×