Writing In The Discipline boa

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  • My dear, How are you today? i will like to be your friend My name is Sheikha Ghunaim , am a 43 years old divorcee. Please write to me in my email ( sheikhaghunaim2@hotmail.com ). im honest and open mind single woman. im going to tell more when i see your response. Regards Sheikha.
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Writing In The Discipline boa

  1. 1. Prof. Jonathan Marquez 1
  2. 2. 2 As taken from the book “Writing in the Discipline “by Eleanor S. Jimenez
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4.  A Clear and Logical Sentence  Cause and Effect Relationship  Sweeping Statements  Use of Idiomatic and Figurative Language  Use of Context Clues 4
  5. 5.  A Unified Sentence  A Coherent Sentence  An Emphatic Sentence  An Accurate Sentence  An Appropriate Sentence 5
  6. 6.  An Acceptable Sentence  Important Ways to a Good Sentence  Guarding Against Being Fragmentary  Avoiding Run-on, Overloaded and Empty Sentences  Avoiding Shifting Into Different Perspectives 6
  7. 7.  Avoiding Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers  Observing Parallel and Uniform Construction  Observing Proper Coordination and Subordination 7
  8. 8.  The Paragraph  Writing a Paragraph  The Topic Sentence  Transitions Within a Paragraph  A Good Paragraph  Methods of Developing A Paragraph 8
  9. 9.  The Whole Composition  Writing A Whole Composition  Before Actual Writing  During Actual Writing  After Actual Writing 9
  10. 10.  What is Exposition  Types of Exposition  Definition  Explanation of A Process  Summary or Précis  Paraphrasing  The Essay 10
  11. 11.  Structuring The Essay  The Introductory Paragraph  The Body Paragraphs  The Concluding Paragraph  Revising Your Essay 11
  12. 12.  Descriptive Writing Defined  Types of Descriptive Writing  Informative or Objective Description  Evocative or Impressionistic Description  Writing a Descriptive Composition 12
  13. 13.  Selection of Details  Arrangement of Details  The Language of Description 13
  14. 14.  Definition of a Term Paper  Importance of a Term Paper  A Good Term Paper  Writing a Term Paper  Basic Research Methods 14
  15. 15.  Data Gathering Techniques  The Use of Note Cards  Types of Notes  The Format of a Term Paper  The Preliminaries 15
  16. 16.  The Text of a Term Paper  Other Parts  Typing Guidelines  Sample of a Term Paper Title Page  Sample of a Term Paper Preface 16
  17. 17.  Sample of a Term Paper Table of Contents  Sample of a Term Paper Introduction  Sample of Footnotes in a Term Paper  Sample of A Term Paper Bibliography Page 17
  18. 18. 18  The First Favorable Impression  Sincerity  Clarity  Conciseness  Completeness
  19. 19.  Correctness  Courtesy  Coherence  Promoting Goodwill  Business Writing Formats 19
  20. 20.  Indented Style “Extreme Format”  Modified Block Format  Semi-Block Format  Full Block Format 20
  21. 21.  NOMA Simplified Format  Hanging-Indented Format  Important Details To Keep In Mind 21
  22. 22. CHAPTER 1 22
  23. 23. A Clear and Logical Sentence A clear and correct sentence is easily understood. The statement that is inherent in every sentence conveys facts and ideas that usually answer certain essential questions posed by the five W’s and the one H. Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How? 23
  24. 24. 24 A. Thousands of people jam lotto outlets throughout Metro Manila every Wednesday and Saturday in a last minute rush to buy tickets for the day’s draw. Who jam the lotto outlets ? Where are these outlets? When does this happen? What do the people want to buy?
  25. 25. 25 B. Anybody can be a millionaire by winning the lotto jackpot. Who can be a millionaire? How can anybody be a millionaire? If the sentence gives confusing answers, it should be rewritten. The sentence must be clear, direct, logical. A sentence with mixed ideas not only confuses the reader but also blurs the main point. Therefore, you may have to spot what exactly is the main idea and delete the irrelevant details.
  26. 26. Cause and Effect Relationship Confusion may arise when two unrelated ideas are mixed together in one sentence. *It’s time to dust off those bathing suits or swimming trunks because summer is here and the terrorist are back. (There is no connection between the coming of summer and the return of the terrorist.) 26
  27. 27. 27 * If you see her, she is beautiful. (This implies that if you do not see her, she is not beautiful.)
  28. 28. Sweeping Statements These are statements that make use of faulty generalizations with the use of words as all, always, never. Example: Some Filipinos have become so ultra-modern today that they now favor living-in or trial marriage. 28
  29. 29. Corrected: Some Filipinos, especially the youth, have become so ultra-modern today that they now favor living-in or trial marriage. 29
  30. 30. Use of Idioms and Figurative Language The use of clinch in an effort to be colorful may lead to non-originality or a dead language. What is worse is when it results in confusion and creates utter misunderstanding between writer and reader. Confusing: He is a nut hard to crack and life is no bed of roses. Corrected: He is a strong-willed fellow who knows about life’s harsh realities. 30
  31. 31. Use of Context Clues The cardinal word is: never define a word by using the same word or its cognates. Certainly, you should avoid repetitions of the word being defined. Wrong: Democracy is a democratic government. Correct: Democracy is a form of government whose powers emanate from the people. 31
  32. 32. CHAPTER 2 32
  33. 33. A Unified Sentence This is a sentence which has only one particular purpose. Whatever component parts a sentence may have, everything results in only one particular intention or impression. With simple sentences achieving unity may not be so difficult. All that may be done are: 33
  34. 34. 1. Once a subject is used, see to it that the predicates talks about it. 2. Make the verb agree with the subject and the pronoun with its antecedent. 3. Put in parallel and uniform structures compounded subjects, verbs and objects. 34
  35. 35. A Coherent Sentence This means that a sentence should have all its component parts hold on to each other. From word to word, phrase to phrase, clause to clause, between or among them, proper relationships must always establish. Success in unity leads to coherence. But more than that, particularly in compound, complex and compound complex structures, tense and voice. This also requires proper coordination and subordination of clauses as well as proper positioning of modifiers to establish good relationship. 35
  36. 36. An Emphatic Sentence Emphasis here means only one focus. Whatever units of thought a sentence may contain, everything must be so properly tied to reflect only one developed thought. Whatever grammatical parts it may contain everything must be so positioned that the most important part comes out dominant and the least important one subordinated. 36
  37. 37. Again, in simple sentences, observance of this may not be as much of a problem as that in the compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences, because as it is generally gives one major thought. In compound sentences, in as much as both or all the clauses involved are equal of rank, parallel and uniform structuring is very important. 37
  38. 38. In complex sentences, there should be a proper play-up of the more important thought over the less important one through the use of effective sliding words. As defined, the above characteristics appear very much related to one another. The achievement of one appears to be the achievement of the other. 38
  39. 39. An Accurate Sentence Accuracy here refers to the sentence grammatical correctness according to standard English yardstick. This calls again for agreement of subject and verb, of the verb tense and the adverb of time, of pronoun and its antecedent and other pertinent considerations. 39
  40. 40. An Appropriate Sentence A good speech requires appropriateness. So does a good sentence. This means speaking or writing in sentences which consider well status, age, sex, of the person talked to, and the occasion, connection with appropriacy is that what may be taken as appropriate in one given communication situation may not be so in another. Some typical examples are the following: 40
  41. 41. 1. While in a Laboratory Room Jenny can say: “Alice, look at the worms. They all enjoy nipping the flesh of the durian. Let us scoop a couple of them and examine them through the microscope.” In a dining room before the dining table during mealtime. Jenny must not say anything like that. That would be inappropriate. 41
  42. 42. 2. While Terry can say: “Fely, come join me,” because Fely is his friend, of his age, and a fellow student., he cannot just say so the same to Miss Vasquez because she is his teacher. The appropriate approach would be: “Would you care to join me, Miss Vasquez?” 42
  43. 43. An Acceptable Sentence It can be safely said that an appropriate sentence is likewise an acceptable sentence. Between and among bosom friends, anything said, wise or otherwise, may just be acceptable but in many instances, it may not be so. Example of this may be as follows: 43
  44. 44. 1. While Wilson can say, “You’re really crazy,” to Rene and Rene may not mind it at all, because they are old friends, definitely Wilson cannot say that to Lawrence, a new officemate. 2. To say “You look younger in short skirts,” is acceptable than to say, “You look older in long skirts.” 44
  45. 45. IMPORTANT WAYS TO A GOOD SENTENCE This sentence, being rated here as good, is that which is not only complete in thought but also in part. Excluded here are those words, phrases, and clause sentences can just be accepted as appropriate, acceptable, and accurate, depending on time, place, occasion, and other communication circumstances. 45
  46. 46.  Recommendations to make a good sentence are following:  Guard the sentence against being fragmentary.  Guard against run-on, over loaded or empty.  Do not shift into different perspectives.  Avoid misplaced and dangling modifiers.  Observe parallel and uniform construction.  Observe proper coordination and subordination. 46
  47. 47. Guarding against being Fragmentary The ability to recognize sentence fragments will help you write good sentences. As sentence fragments not only break, grammatical rules but also raise barriers to clear communication, one’s ability to recognize said fragments can prevent his falling into this communication barriers. A sentence fragment is a part of the sentence that is punctuated as if it were a complete sentence. 47
  48. 48. Often these fragments sneak into your speech or writing and act as confusing breaks to the smooth flow of your sentence. Sentence fragments may be one of the following types: a. The statement that results from the dependent clause is punctuated as though it were a complete sentence. Sentence: Changed is a way of life. Sentence: Because change is a way of life. 48
  49. 49. This may be corrected in two ways: by eliminating the dependency word or by adding an independent clause to make a complete sentence. Possible corrections: Change is a way of life. Because change is a way of life, let us learn how to adapt to it. 49
  50. 50. b. a group of words that has no subject or predicate or both. Incorrect : The office where my father works. Correct : The office where my father works is spacious and beautifully furnished. Incorrect :Hoping that you’re enjoying your vacation. Correct :Hoping that you are enjoying your vacation, here’s some extra money for more souvenirs, Or, I hope you are enjoying your vacation. 50
  51. 51. Incorrect: To see you looking happy. Correct: To see you looking happy is enough to make me happy too. Or, My one wish in life is to see you looking happy. c. A long infinitive phrase may sometimes be mistaken for a complete sentence. Incorrect : This is my dream. To see your prosper. Correct : My dream is to see you prosper. 51
  52. 52. d. An appositive phrase may sometimes be written incorrectly as a complete sentence. Fragment :My health, the only precious possession I have in this world. Sentence My health is the only precious possession I have in this world. Fragment : Jocelyn, my very optimistic friend. Sentence Jocelyn is my very optimistic friend. 52
  53. 53. Fragments with “…ing” “…ed”, verb forms but with no predicate verbs are the trickiest kinds of fragments to identify, in place of a verb a participle is used. Fragment: Raffy dribbling the ball in the hardcourt. Sentence Raffy is dribbling the ball in the hardcourt. 53
  54. 54. Avoiding being Run-On, Overloaded, Empty A run-on sentence is a sentence with two or more sentences written as one sentence. If a sentence fragment is less than a sentence, a run-on sentence is more. There are two kinds of run-on sentence. The fused sentence in which two sentences are run together without any punctuation, and the comma splice in which two sentences are linked with a comma. 54
  55. 55. a. Two simple sentences may make up a run-on sentence. Fused Sentence: The laughter drowned out the speaker we could hardly hear him. Comma Splice: The laughter drowned out the speaker, we could hardly hear him. 55
  56. 56. b. A compound sentence can be run into a simple sentence. Fused Sentence: She teaches literature and he teaches humanities, they seldom see eye to eye. Comma Sentence: She teaches literature and he teaches humanities, they seldom see eye to eye. 56
  57. 57. A complex sentence can also be incorrectly combined with a simple or compound sentence. Fused Sentence: When insurgency first started in this country, people were not keen on the havoc it would bring they simply ignored it. Comma Sentence: When insurgency first started in this country, people were not keen on the havoc it would bring, they simply ignored it 57
  58. 58. Here are some ways to correct each of these three errors: 1.Divide the run-on into separate sentences. a)The laughter drowned out the speaker. We could hardly hear him. b)She teaches literature and he teaches humanities. They seldom see eye to eye. c)When insurgency first started in the country, people were not keen on the havoc it could bring; they simply ignored it. 58
  59. 59. 2. You could use a semi-colon instead of a period if the sentences are closely related. a) The laughter drowned out the speaker; we could hardly hear him. b) She teaches literature and he teaches humanities; they seldom see eye to eye. c) When insurgency first started in the country, people were not keen on the havoc it could bring; they simply ignored it. 59
  60. 60. 3. You could also correct a run-on sentence by adding a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or,) between clauses. a) The laughter drowned out the speaker and we could hardly hear him. b) She teaches literature and he teaches humanities but they seldom see eye to eye. c) When insurgency first started in the country, people were not keen on the havoc it could bring and they simply ignored it. 60
  61. 61. Words like “however,” “also,” “therefore,” and “thus,” are conjunctive adverbs. Use a semi-colon before a conjunctive adverb and a comma after it when it comes between two independent clauses. The laughter drowned out the speaker; therefore, we could hardly hear him. 4. In some cases you add a dependency word and make one of the sentences a dependent clause. a)Because the laughter drowned out the speaker, and we could hardly hear him. 61
  62. 62. An Overload Sentence When you try to cram too much information into one sentence, the result is an overloaded sentence. Overloaded sentences are so crowded that too often important thoughts are almost lost. The reader’s attention is pulled in all directions and he becomes distracted by the many ideas presented to him. 62
  63. 63. To fix such sentences, study the following suggestions: a)Decide on the main ideas. b)Decide which of them can be combined into one sentence. c)Write these ideas in one sentence. d)Write a separate sentence for the other ideas. e)Write simply and clearly, avoiding wordiness. 63
  64. 64. The following sentences try to say too much. Notice the revisions and be sure you understand the reason for the changes. Overload : To me sleeping is fascinating because I consider it as a time of sweet dreams that can come in a very special place or it may be a place I am thinking of, it may be a place that does not exist at all. 64
  65. 65. Revised : To me sleeping is fascinating because I consider it as time of sweet dreams. These dreams can come in a very special place or I happen to be thinking of. They may even be a place that does not exist at all. Overloaded: I love all kinds of books, and it makes no difference to me whether other people consider a book. I may choose a drab, as long as I like it. Revised : I love all kinds of books. It makes no difference to me whether other people consider my choices as drab. 65
  66. 66. Wordiness We should eliminate words that add only weight to our sentences and make them redundant and boring. Look at these examples. at eight P.M in the evening return again next week in my opinion, I think green in color a former ex-soldier three-sided triangle 66
  67. 67. the surrounding environment school drop-outs now of school unmarried single girl ancient antiques for sale  Some common phrases may also be eliminated because they are considered burdensome and need some substitutions. Study this list taken from the McGraw-Hill Handbook: at the present time in the present circumstances use now, today 67
  68. 68. at this point or nowadays in this day and age at that point in time in those days use then in that period in many cases use often in some cases sometimes in exceptional cases rarely, usually in most cases 68
  69. 69. consider as/consider as being use: I consider a I consider a college degree college degree as being necessary to necessary to success success. Despite the fact that use: although Regardless of the fact that Due to the fact that For the purpose of use: because By virtue of the fact that The reason is because 69
  70. 70. In a position to/in order to use: can In the area of use: near or in In the event that In the event of use: if with a verb In case of In the final analysis use: finally In no uncertain terms use: firmly or clearly 70
  71. 71. In the nature of use: like or Things of that nature things like that Refer back use: refer She is of a generous nature she is generous The car is of green color the car is green The weather condition is bad the weather is bad Traffic conditions are congested traffic is congested 71
  72. 72. An Empty Sentence This is a sentence that says too little. Grammatically, it is complete but it is lacking in ideas, in substance. It contains words that repeat the idea found elsewhere in the sentence. Here the writer apparently does not take the trouble to think about what he wants to say; therefore he actually ends where he has started. Empty: The Filipino teenager prefers rock music to the kundiman because he really enjoys modern music. 72
  73. 73. Revised: The Filipino teenager prefers rock music to the kundiman because he likes rock beat and its lyrics express his feelings. Clear sentences are a result of clear thinking. Successful writers are people who have made efforts to write sentences with sense. Their thoughts and ideas are expressed in sentences that are neither overloaded nor empty. 73
  74. 74. The facts and ideas that are conveyed are logically arranged in compact statements which are just right because the relationships of words are beyond questions. Empty sentences are a result of haste or careless thinking. If you intend to be effective in your sentences, fill in the empty ideas with logic and reason. 74
  75. 75. C. AVOIDING SHIFTING IN PERSPECTIVES This refers to a shift in voice, tense, person, and number. It creates an imbalance that is clearly related to faulty parallelism. An abrupt shift can cause confusion and should, therefore, be avoided. 1. Shift from Active to Passive If a sentence begins with the active voice, it should finish in the active. 75
  76. 76. Confusing: I asked an intelligent question but no answer was received. Clear: I asked an intelligent question but received no answer. Confusing: She went up the stage and a song was sung. Clear: She went up the stage and sang. 76
  77. 77. 2. Shift From Past to Present Tense For clearness and consistency, a sentence that starts in the present tense should continue in the present. A sentence that uses the past tense in the beginning should end with the past. Confusing: I was reading my book quietly when the stranger sits down next to me and starts whistling. Clear: I was reading my book quietly when the stranger sat down next to me and started whistling. 77
  78. 78. Confusing: Dodong was a strong farm boy who falls in love and got married when he is only seventeen. Clear: Dodong is a strong farm boy who falls in love and gets married when he is only seventeen. 78
  79. 79. 3. Shift From Singular To Plural You should also observe consistency in number. Confusing: When a person is in trouble, they are usually uncommunicative. Clear: When a person is in trouble, he is usually uncommunicative. Confusing: If the ladies do not come on time, she will be left behind. Clear: If the ladies do not come in time, they will be left behind. 79
  80. 80. 4. Shift From One Person To Another You should not shift needlessly from one person to another. Confusing: We love freedom but one does not always cooperate to attain it. Clear: We love freedom but we do not always cooperate to attain it. 80
  81. 81. 5. Shift From Statement to Question Confusing: In the story “Footnote to Youth,” Dodong had to decide whether he should give Blas permission to marry or should he stop him. Clear: In the story “Footnote to Youth,” Dodong had to decide whether he should give Blas permission to marry or whether he should stop him. 81
  82. 82. These shifts tend to occur most often in narrative writing when you are asked to write a piece of fiction, an autobiographical account, a précis or summary of someone else’s ideas, or a plot summary. 82
  83. 83. D. Avoiding Misplaced And Dangling Modifiers These weaknesses in sentence building arise from defective ordering of grammatical structures in a sentence, particularly the ordering of the objectives and adverbs in their word, phrase or clause forms. Carelessness in positioning any of the modifiers results in confusing and sometimes funny unintended meanings. 83
  84. 84. Misplaced Modifiers Adjective Modifiers – these are words, phrases or clauses that modify a noun or pronoun. The general rule here is that the word adjectives are placed immediately before the noun or the pronoun being modified while the phrase or the close adjective is placed immediately before the noun or the pronoun being modified while the phrase or the clause adjective is placed immediately after. 84
  85. 85. Examples: Television stations reported the good news. Radio stations in the provinces broadcast the news that may did not like. The house which Joker built was sold to the Japanese businessman. A case of a misplaced modifier therefore comes out when any of these words, phrases or clauses are placed distant from the noun or pronoun meant to be modified. 85
  86. 86. Consider this example: “Radio and television stations reported the news that the hijackers had freed their prisoners all over the world.” Because the student who wrote this sentence separated the modifier “all over the world” from the noun (stations) it is supposed to modify, this sentence implies that the hijackers had freed prisoners all over the world. 86
  87. 87. The corrected sentence would look like this: “Radio and television all over the world reported the news that the hijackers had freed their prisoners.” If you read your sentence carefully, you can spot most of the misplaced word, phrase, or clause errors. It is very important that you make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. 87
  88. 88. Adverb Modifiers – these are also words, phrases, or clauses that modify the verb, the adjective, or another adverb. Adverb modifiers of adjective and another adverb also stand close or immediately before said adjective and adverb. But adverb modifiers of a verb find themselves in several junctions in the sentence either after the object of the verb or between the subject and the verb. Look at the following examples: 88
  89. 89. Examples: I read an amazingly interesting book. The terribly difficult question in the test caused a headache. The guest arrived early. We met in the Conference room. They often clash about principles. 89
  90. 90. I always feel the pressure of my major examination. Surprisingly, he showed up at the party. Eventually, the moment of truth will come. Cindy buys her stockings in Tokyo. She sips her morning juice by the poolside of Manila Fiesta Pavillion. 90
  91. 91. Clause adverbs are actually subordinate clauses in the sentence; they may be placed before or after the main clause. Examples: When the shooting started, we stopped the car. We stopped the car when the shooting started. There is no difference in the basic meaning between these two sentences. The important difference between the two is the creation of suspense in the first sentence. 91
  92. 92. When several clauses are used in one sentence, place them one after another or one clause within another. The reader, though, must store in his memory, the beginning of the clause so that he can integrate the whole concept. 92
  93. 93. Dangling Modifiers When a part of the sentence is left hanging in the air, we have a dangler. A dangler modifier is a participle, an infinitive, or an elliptical clause that does not refer clearly to any word or phrase in the sentence. The dangling construction which relates to words it cannot logically modify not only embarrasses the writer but also misleads the reader. 93
  94. 94. Observe these sentences: Dangling Participle  Reading the newspaper, the telephone rang.  (This sentence says that the telephone was reading the newspaper) Dangling Infinitive  To understand the subject the book must be studies carefully.  (This sentence says that the book must understand the subject.) 94
  95. 95. Dangling Elliptical Clause While waiting for a ride, the rain poured. (This sentence says that the rain was waiting for a ride.) To correct a dangling infinitive, supply a noun or pronoun for the infinitive to modify by rewriting the clause that follows: Wrong: To understand the subject, the book must be studied carefully. Correct: To understand the subject, you must study the book carefully. 95
  96. 96. To correct a dangling elliptical clause, supply the missing words that made the clause elliptical. Wrong: While waiting for a ride, the rain poured. Correct: While Jimmy was waiting for a ride, the rain poured. 96
  97. 97. E.Observing Parallel And Uniform Construction. Parallelism In any context, it suggests similarity of angle, direction, and form. When the parts of a sentence match grammatically and uniform structures can be identified as a repetition of words, phrases, or clauses, it can be appropriately pointed out here that not all repetitious writing is bad. It is not the monotonous or needless repetitions that you should avoid. Repetition of grammatical patterns to express sameness of ideas so that parallel ideas appear in parallel form is desirable. It makes your writing effective. 97
  98. 98. Observe the parallel and uniform construction in the following illustrations: In Word: Filipinos love freedom and democracy. If we wish to succeed, we should be diligent, conscientious, patient, and persevering. 98
  99. 99. In Phrase:  I learned three things this semester: how to organize a research, how to write a term paper, and how to type a manuscript.  Beth is a popular with her friends, with her teachers, and with her relatives. 99
  100. 100. In Subordinate Clause :  Because you have been a good athlete, and because you have done your best, you deserve a medal at the end of the tournament.  If I finish my work early, if you promise to pick me up, and if it does not rain, I will come to your concert. 100
  101. 101.  In Predicates:  She ran upstairs, turned on the radio, gathered her favorite magazine and settled on the sofa.  The man entered the bar, demanded a glass of whiskey, drank it hurriedly, and left without paying the bartender. 101
  102. 102.  In Independent Clause :  I came, I saw, I conquered.  When we get sick, we want an uncommon doctor.  When we go to war, we yearn for an uncommon general or admiral.  When we choose the president of a great university, we want an uncommon educator. 102
  103. 103. Faulty Parallelism: The coordinating conjunctions and but and or join structures of equal grammatical value: that is noun and noun, verb and verb, phrase and phrase, clause and clause and so forth. When the elements of a sentence are not grammatically balanced faulty parallelism results. 103
  104. 104.  Faulty: Cecile wants loyalty form her friends and to be appreciated for her efforts.  Correct Cecile wants loyalty from her friends and appreciation for her efforts.  Faulty: Everyone needs love and to be attended.  Correct Everyone needs love and affection. 104
  105. 105.  Faulty: Julie requested that I help her with her Math problems and another explanation to the procedure.  Correct: Julie requested that I help her with her Math problems and that I explain the procedure again. 105
  106. 106. Certain contexts, especially those that involve comparison or contrasts, call for parallel and uniform structures. A series of elements separated by commas within a sentence should be parallel. Faulty: The general was tall, intelligent, and he was respected by all. Correct: The general was tall, intelligent, and respectable. 106
  107. 107. The two halves of a compound sentence should be parallel. Faulty: Stevan Javellana wrote Without Seeing the Dawn and Tree is by F. Sionil Jose. Correct: Stevan Javellana wrote Without Seeing the Dawn and F. Sionil Jose wrote Tree. Without Seeing the Dawn is by Stevan Javellana and Tree is by F. Sionil Jose. 107
  108. 108. Certain sets of words or phrases signal a series of related statements and call for parallel and uniform structure.  not only … but also  first … second  both … and  either … or  neither … nor 108
  109. 109.  Faulty: The President not only vetoed the bill but also he was against too much government spending.  Correct: The President not only vetoed the bill but also warned against too much government spending. 109
  110. 110. To achieve parallelism and uniformity, you need to match verbs, nouns, prepositions, phrases or other elements of your sentence. See this work in examination questions and classified ads. Example of an examination question:  Discuss each character’s emotional problems,  describe his or her attempts to cope with them,  and evaluate the success of those attempts. 110
  111. 111. Example of classified ad: Wanted: College students with desire to learn sales technique in cosmetics industry, ability to make phone contacts, and interest to travel some key cities. 111
  112. 112. F. Observing Proper Coordination And Subordination  Sentences are composed of a series of words, phrases or clauses. The relationships between these elements should be made clear to reader. When these words, phrases, or clauses come in equal rank or importance, they should be coordinated. Coordination therefore, is the process used when structures of the same kind are joined in a sentence. The joiner word is called a coordinating conjunction. 112
  113. 113. To link the coordinate elements of your sentence, you may use the coordinating conjunctions and, or, but, nor, yet; the correlative conjunctions both, and, either…or, neither…nor, so, not only…but also, weather…or; the conjunctive adverbs accordingly, also, besides, consequently, nevertheless, namely, indeed, therefore. 113
  114. 114.  Coordinating Conjunctions  Words: Their business is buy and sell. She loves ice cream and chocolates.  Phrases: He came running down the corridor and into the Conference Room.  All she wanted was to go home and to brush her teeth. 114
  115. 115.  Clauses:  Although the exam was difficult and although I was feeling sick, I got a passing grade.  Since we are good friends and since she has no one to turn to, I invited her to stay with me.  Correlative Conjunctions  Either you sell your land or you give it free.  Not only is he intelligent but also good looking. 115
  116. 116. Conjunctive Adverbs The boy is sick; therefore, he must rest. I think you are right; nevertheless; I will not do as you say. Coordinating Subordinate Clauses Coordinating conjunctions may also link two or more subordinate clauses. They work the same way for subordinate clauses as they do for phrases or for independent clauses. 116
  117. 117.  Observe the following examples:  Although I believe you are right and although everyone also thinks so, I don’t think I will follow your suggestions.  Not only the way you speak but also the way you walk make your appear very sexy.  After you finish college or after you become financially independent, you may do as you please. 117
  118. 118.  In front of our house but behind the school building is the children’s playground.  Coordinating conjunctions connect similar sentence parts:  and but or for nor yet  Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs:  not only…but also either…or both…and whether…or 118
  119. 119.  Conjunctive adverbs are used to join main clauses. They are preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma.  Accordingly consequently furthermore  Hence however moreover  Nevertheless otherwise than  Therefore yet also 119
  120. 120.  Subordination  Subordinate Conjunctions – are used to introduce adverb clauses and link them to the main clauses. They make clear what exactly the relation between the two clauses. The chief relation they show are time, place, cause, result, exception, condition and alternative.  after although as as long as  as though because if  in order that provided as if 120
  121. 121. so that than though till before unless until whatever when since whenever where wherever Materials of less importance are subordinated (or put in their proper place) by the use of clauses, participial phrases and appositives. Subordinating conjunctions introduce the adverbial clauses. Writing the correct subordinating conjunction as a substitute for the meaningless makes effective and meaningful sentences. 121
  122. 122. Weak: Bert knew all the answers and he recited confidently. Better: Knowing all the answers, Bert recited confidently.(participle) Weak: Rita was the prettiest and the most intelligent and she easily won the Binibining Pilipinas title. Better: Since Rita was the prettiest and the most intelligent, she easily won the Binibining Pilipinas title.(adverb clause) 122
  123. 123.  Subordination may also be used to join related sentences:  Fair: The computer machine is a big office aid. It makes an ordinary job exciting.  Improved: The computer machine, which is a big office aid, makes an ordinary job exciting. (appositive)  Fair: Erick wants to become a soldier. He studies at the Philippine Military Academy.  Improved: Erick, who wants to become a soldier studies at the Philippine Military Academy. (adjective clauses) 123
  124. 124.  Instead of writing short, choppy sentences, choose one idea for the sentence of independent clause, and subordinate the other ideas.  Choppy: The Philippines, discovered in 1521, is a series of islands, the three biggest of which are Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.  Subordination: The Philippines, discovered in 1521, is a series of islands, the three biggest of which are Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. 124
  125. 125.  Choppy: Joey dela Cruz is the union president. Joey dela Cruz is furious. He will lead a protest.  Subordination: The furious union president, Joey dela Cruz, will lead a protest. 125
  126. 126.  Faulty subordination results when an important idea placed in the subordination clause.  Faulty: Dick suffered a big disappointment, flunking his exams.  Improved: Flunking his exams, Dick suffered a big disappointment. 126
  127. 127. CHAPTER 3 127
  128. 128. THE PARAGRAPH A paragraph is a sentence or a group of sentences developing a single idea or unit of thought. A sentence is also a unit of thought but while a sentence expresses an idea, a paragraph develops an idea. Although it is possible to have one paragraph functioning as a whole composition, an exhaustive composition usually has several logically organized paragraphs, explaining or giving details to support the controlling idea or thesis of the composition. 128
  129. 129. WRITING A PARAGRAPH Composing a paragraph is one communication activity which can prove very exciting and fulfilling for a student to whom any educational undertaking is always a most welcome task. This kind of activity often proves difficult as it demands of the composer a great deal of mental discipline coupled with a considerable degree of creativity and know-how in putting down thoughts together. However, as soon as one wholly sets himself to it, the pen will write and having written, will move on and having moved on, one gets the 129
  130. 130. Doing this may depend on the writer’s personal skill in it. However, if help is needed, the following steps are offered. These are proven very helpful in achieving a well-organized and meaningful paragraph. 130
  131. 131. 1. Pitch your point This means figure out very well what you want to drive home to your reader or listener and lay it down. Example of a point: Market Day was usually a Bargain Day Sale Day in Santa Barbara. 131
  132. 132. 2. Support Your Point This means that you need to back up your point with explanations, proofs or reasons that will help bring home a desired message. Example of supporting sentences: All prime commodities get sold at relatively low prices. The same was true with the prices of luxury items. Generally, customers is able to buy every items cheaper by as much as twenty five percent. 132
  133. 133. 3. Write Your Paragraph In Style. To do this, you should need to use effective word and expressions. Thus, the need to use action words, specific names, coloring words, radiant or glowing expressions and other language devices every time needed and possible. 133
  134. 134. Example of styling: Market Day was usually a Bargain Sale Day in Santa Barbara. Rice, fish, meat, vegetables, sugar and oil gets sold at relatively low prices. The same was true with the prices of trinkets, handbags, fans, headbands, ribbons and flowers. Generally, customers is able to buy every items cheaper by as much as twenty five percent. 134
  135. 135. In styling, the general expression “All prime commodities” was reduced into specifics--“Rice, fish, meat, vegetables, sugar and oil” while “luxury items” a likewise general term, is reduced to specific trinkets, handbags, fans, headbands, ribbons and flowers._ If further desired, the above specifics can still be reduced so that “rice” may be “fish”, milkfish; “meat”, beef; “vegetables”, eggplants; and so forth. 135
  136. 136. 4. Make It Grammatically Correct. This means that you guard your paragraph against grammatical errors or weed it out of grammatical flaws. Example of Grammatical Correction: Market Day is usually a Bargain sale Day in Santa Barbara. Rice, fish, meat, vegetables, sugar and oil get sold at relatively low prices. The same is true with the prices of trinkets, handbags, fans, headbands, ribbons and flowers. Generally, customers are able to buy every item cheaper by as much as twenty five percent. 136
  137. 137. In grammatical polishing, the verb “was” in the first and third sentences is replaced with is because the sentences which carry them clearly aim to state a fact or general statement. Then “gets” in the second sentence is replaced with “get”, its subject being plural “All prime commodities”. The “is” of the fourth sentence is changed to are because its subject “customers” is plural and then the word “items” because it is modified by “every” which is singular should always be followed by a singular name. Thus, “item”. 137
  138. 138. THE TOPIC SENTENCE OF A PARAGRAPH The topic sentence which is either expressed or implied, is the statement which points out the central thought or the gist of the paragraph. An implied topic sentence can be drawn from a well known; paragraph when the reader, after reflecting upon what he has read, can sum up, the main point conveyed. 138
  139. 139. An expressed topic sentence may be the first sentence in the paragraph which affirms what is to follow; the last sentence which sums up what have been said; and illustrative topic sentence, explanation or expansion of which constitutes the paragraph; or an interrogative topic sentence wherein the answer constitutes the paragraph itself. From the above discussion of composing the paragraph, the point driven home is the topic sentence. 139
  140. 140. Example: Ours is a paradoxical world. The achievements which are its glory threaten to destroy it. The nations with the highest standard of living, the greatest capacity to take care of their people economically, the broadest education, and the most enlightened morality and religion, exhibit the least capacity to avoid mutual destruction in war. It would seem that the more civilized we become, the more incapable we are of maintaining civilization. 140
  141. 141. Transitions Within a Paragraph Transition has to do with the way you tie with your sentences together. To enable the reader to follow your thoughts easily, you must link your sentences within a paragraph with the use of transitional devices. Only with this manner will your sentences hang together. Some transitional devices are as follows: 141
  142. 142. 1. Pronouns Use a pronoun that refers to a person, place, thing or idea in the preceding sentence. Study how the underlined words help to link the sentences in the following paragraph. I saw Sylvia at the Rizal Park. As she walked towards me, I realized that there was something wrong. I noticed that she was using crutches. These were preventing her from walking briskly. She smiled but I know it was rather forced since the pain was all over her face. 142
  143. 143. 2. Transitional Devices These may be used for the following reasons: Time Contrast Cause and Effect then however therefore now nevertheless thus next yet hence first even though consequently second despite so 143
  144. 144. General to Specific Addition Reference in fact also the former especially too the latter for instance furthermore in conclusion for example moreover besides Summary Attitude in summary fortunately to sum up unfortunately naturally finally 144
  145. 145. Take note of the transition that happened in this paragraph: Now that mosquitoes happily abound in my neighborhood, I feel I should at least derive come pleasure out of their abundance. The mosquito must have a high and hidden purpose, as yet unrevealed to our finite mind. Indeed I am inclined to believe that she has, (I used the feminine pronoun advisedly, as a mosquito which draws a bit precious blood from us a matter of necessity is a female vampire, the male being better bred.) 145
  146. 146. But man can never discover that purpose as long as he depreciatingly attributes to the dull of wit among us “mosquito mind”. Wisdom has been said to begin with the realization of one’s ignorance. I think it can only begin when humans realize that we know a trifle less than a mosquito does. (Francisco B. Icasiano-“Mosquito and Literature”) 146
  147. 147. 3. Repetition of Key Words Observe how the underlined words in the following paragraph acts as bridges between ideas. I read an article “Psychology Today”. In this article it is said that people’s names can influence their personalities. If this is true, then it would be worthwhile to recommend the article to friends so they would discover how their names can possibly influence their personalities. 147
  148. 148. 4. Parallel Structure This means putting your words phrases or clauses in the same form whenever best to do so or whenever called for by the situation. Example: Man is the highest creation of all creations. Woman is the most sublime of all ideals. God made for man a throne; for a woman, the altar; the throne exalts, the altar sanctifies. Man is the cerebrum, woman is the heart; the cerebrum fabricates light; the heart produces love; light fecund, love resuscitates. 148
  149. 149. Man is the code, woman is the gospel; the code corrects, the gospel perfects. Man is the genius, woman is an angel; genius is indefinable, angel is immeasurable. Man is strong in reason, woman is invincible in her tears; reason convinces the most stubborn, tears soften the hardest of mortals. Man is the temple, woman is the sanctuary; before the temple we revere, before the sanctuary we kneel. Man is the ocean, woman is the lake; the ocean has its pearl that adorns, the lake has its poem that dazzles. At least the man is placed where the earth ends and the woman where heaven begins. (Victor Hugo “The Man and The Woman”) 149
  150. 150. A GOOD PARAGRAPH A good paragraph is so organized that it moves smoothly and progresses inevitably towards an end. Every sentence has a reason or purpose for being there. To attain this, the paragraph should have unity, coherence and emphasis, the same qualities desired in a good sentence. Unity In A Paragraph The principle of unity involves the choice of a basic idea built along a single design and producing oneness of effect or impression. To obtain unity, the paragraph should be built around a topic 150
  151. 151. Since the topic sentence summarizes the idea developed in a paragraph, it is imperative that all supporting details in the form of reason, explanation, or argument should be relevant to the main idea. Whatever does not belong to the development of this idea must be rigorously ruled out. In this way, readers are guided by concrete details, facts, or explanations. This enables them to understand more fully what the paragraph is trying to say. Study the unity achieved in the following paragraph: 151
  152. 152. The medium of literature is language. Language, as we know, is composed of words that are combined into sentences to express ideas, emotions, or desires. Words have both sound and meaning. The word “horse” for instance, stands for the sound horse and animal horse. These are usually associated and are separated only by an effort, yet they are distinct. To understand literature, we must know both sound and sense. We begin with sense, or meaning. 152
  153. 153. Coherence In A Paragraph Coherence refers to the orderly arrangement of ideas or materials needed in the progression or sequencing of thought. The ideal is for one sentence to lead naturally into the next, and go on until the end is reached. This may be achieved with an orderly arrangement of ideas and with the use of effective structural devices. 153
  154. 154. 1. Orderly Arrangement Of Ideas The orderly arrangement of ideas may be any of the following: 1.a. Chronological Order This means the time order of the sequence in which the events occurred. 154
  155. 155. Example: I boarded a jeepney whose signboard read “Blumentritt-Avenida”. All at once, a sweet fragrance assailed my nostrils. I looked around to find out if I could spot one particular perfumed person among the passengers. My eyes travelled from left to right but my nose was even more curious. I sniffed at the young coed next to me. No,not she. Then I shifted my seating position a little toward the matron at the other side, to my left. Not she either. I was about to give up when I happened to look at the direction of the driver and I saw that the fragrance was that of a sampaguita garland hanging from the jeepney’s stop, close the driver’s head. 155
  156. 156. 1.b. Space Order Here, the details are arranged such that they come either from near to far, or from inside to outside, or from top to bottom, or the reverse. Example: Virtue is one convention that rightfully belongs to the Filipino woman. Her spiritual power in the community rests largely on her virtue, and the men whose own virtue has much more comfortable 156
  157. 157. periphery, thanks to the double standard, respect their woman folk for it. The Filipino male is firmly convinced that his premarital and extramarital circumstances only enriches his experience, but he will, with a terrible sense of outrage, stab his wife or his sister and her seducer if he so much as begins to doubt her goodness. The newspaper sensationalizes such stories daily and print blown up pictures of the victims and culprits. Indeed human drama revolves dramatically in defense of the Filipino woman’s virtuous reputation. 157
  158. 158. 1.c. Logical Order This means that a paragraph can proceed either inductively or deductively in its presentation or development of ideas. Example: I cannot myself state positively that we should or should not borrow money from other people, but I am very definite that one should lend money to the needy. A friend of mine used to say that a man 158
  159. 159. not come to borrow unless he is so hard-up that he must part with his self-respect. Whoever has the heart to turn such a man down, he would add, hurts him as nothing else can. Such observations are necessarily made by men who are good at heart, not too well-off, and therefore, not frequently bothered by such unpleasant matters. 159
  160. 160. 2. The Use Of Effective Structural Devices Other means that help in achieving coherence on a paragraph are the structural devices. These are helpful in providing a continuity from one sentence to the next. This is synonymous with the use of devices to effect transition between sentences or between paragraphs. Two of these structural devices are the reference words and the well-organized sentence structures. 160
  161. 161. 2.a. Correct Use Of Reference Words Pronouns Students are enjoined to give their studies priority in their list of activities. They should realize that poor academic performance leads to loss of opportunity to succeed in their chosen career. In the end, they will be grateful for heeding a good advice. 161
  162. 162. Conjunctions, or conjunctional words , phrases Below is a list of conjunctions, conjunctional words, and phrases arranged according to their functions in a sentence. Time: then, now, next, first, second Contrast: however, nevertheless, yet even though, despite Cause and Effect: therefore, thus, hence, so, consequently 162
  163. 163. General to specific: in fact, especially, for instance, for example Addition: also, too, furthermore, moreover, besides Reference: the former, the latter, the following Attitude: fortunately, unfortunately, naturally, an a sense Summary: in summary, to sum up, in conclusion, finally 163
  164. 164. Example: Everyone knows that a good name is a great possession; hence, a person must strive to preserve an untarnished reputation. Fortunately, this is within the reach of every individual, therefore, he must know how to live within the bounds of decency and integrity. 164
  165. 165. 2.c. The Use Of Well-Organized Sentence Structures These structures refers to the words, phrases and clauses that are structured parallel and uniform when they express similar thoughts or ideas. This parallel and uniform structuring is very effective in creating a coherent paragraph. 165
  166. 166. Example: The chief source of humor is the incongruous, the unexpected. We expect one thing and we find another. If one man pulls a chair out from under another, the joke lies on the fact that the second sits on the floor instead on the chair. It is the unexpectedness that makes comedy. 166
  167. 167. Emphasis In A Paragraph Emphasis in paragraph means a focus on that aspect of the subject being taken up. This can be the logical result of a unified development of an idea in a paragraph. Or, this can result from the dominant play up of one aspect of a subject over another one. Or, from the balance treatment of all the aspects of the subject. 167
  168. 168. Example: Communication is a process whereby a party called a sender transmits a message to another party called a sendee in order for the said message to be understood. It may take place either verbally, meaning, when the sender uses words in conveying his message or non-verbally when the sender uses kinesics, paralanguage, object language, proxemics, chronemics and other similar signs of messages. Whether verbal or non-verbal, it makes use of different channels of transmission of message. For it to effectively take place it must consider the time place, audience, occasion and medium involved. 168
  169. 169. If you notice in this paragraph, all sentences focus on the subject communication. This is made possible by sustaining it from one sentence to another, of course, with the use of the substitute word It. 169
  170. 170. METHODS OF DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH For the development of an idea in a paragraph to be unified, coherent and emphatic, it is a good practice to go by certain methods like the following: Through Use Of Relevant Details/Deductive Here the topic sentence is expanded or developed by giving relevant supporting details. 170
  171. 171. Example: The Filipino short-story writer writes most of the time about life on the farm and in the province. His scenes are the nipa house, the rice field, the threshing floor, the village church. His characters are Mang Gorio and Aling Teria. Tancio, the young man, and Rosa, the dalaga. His mood is often as serene as a mountain lake. (An excerpt from “A Garland of Sampaguita” by Rodolfo Severino, Jr.) 171
  172. 172. By Examples The idea is best developed by giving illustrations or examples. Example: Psychoanalysis gives special emphasis to unconscious motivations. Even slips of the tongue, forgetting of appointment and other simple acts of everyday life are traced to motives of which the individual may not be aware of at the moment. Thus, the bored hostess, after an insufferable evening, said, not what she intended (but what she meant): “Well goodbye. I’m sorry you came.” 172
  173. 173. Likewise, the debutante at a dance, much interested in a young gentleman, intended to ask him when he was going to dance with her, but instead asked, “When are you going to marry me?” There is no good reason for supposing that all such lapses are unconsciously motivated; some may be purely accidental-but there is no doubt that many have such motivation. (An excerpt from “Psychology: The Fundamentals of Human Adjustment” by Norman Munn) 173
  174. 174. By Comparison Or Contrast You may explain a thing by comparing or contrasting it with another. For you to be able to use this method of development, you should therefore have at least two subjects to write about. You compare when you bring out their similarities and you contrast when you bring out their differences. 174
  175. 175. Example: Lee Harvey Oswald was the diametric opposite of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and he was aware of this. Significantly, he attributed the President’s success to family wealth; Kennedy had all the breaks. Like many delusions, this one had a kernel of truth. One man had almost everything and the other almost nothing. Kennedy was spectacularly handsome. Oswald was balding, and he had the physique of a ferret. The President had been a brave officer during the war; Oswald had been court-martialed. 175
  176. 176. As Chief Executive and Commander-in-Chief; Kennedy was all powerful; Oswald was impotent. Kennedy was cheered ; Oswald ignored. Kennedy was loved; Oswald despised. Kennedy was a hero; Oswald was a victim. (William Manchester) By Definition To be logical, a definition must have three parts: the first, the term or the word or phrase to be defined; second, the group or the class of object or concept to which the term belongs; and third, the 176
  177. 177. different characteristics which differentiate or distinguish it from all others of its class. Example: What is happiness? Happiness is a state of mind. Lincoln once said: “We are happy as we make up our minds to be.” Happiness grows out of harmonious relationships with others, based on attitudes and goodwill, tolerance, understanding, and love. Happiness if found in little things: a baby’s smile, a letter from a friend, the song of a bird, a light in the window. “Words To Live By: The Art of Happiness” 177
  178. 178. By Cause And Effect Here the idea is developed by looking into the whys and hows of things. This involves reasoning or explaining in terms of causal relationships. Example: Floods are expected in Metro Manila during rainy days. There are reasons why this happens all the time. One, Manila and its immediate suburbs are under sea level or just a bit above sea level. 178
  179. 179. Another reason is the drainage system is bad because the pipes and sewers are poorly constructed. Lastly, the residents wantonly throw their garbage almost anywhere except in the trash receptacles. This habit causes clogs in the pipes and sewers. The result? Flash floods. Series of question. The writer can arouse the reader’s interest by asking a series of questions. Statement. The writer gives a strong suggestion and gives details to arouse the reader’s interest and desire. 179
  180. 180. Definitions. The subject of the paragraph is defined and particulars are given. Origin. One way of giving the reader a clearer understanding of the subject is by showing the origin of the subject of the letter and then by tracing its development. Deductive. This paragraph begins with a general statement, then proceeds to giving supportive details 180
  181. 181. Narration. The incident which led to the situation or problems is narrated. The writer must see to it that the facts are accurate. Objective, factual reporting is necessary. Analogy. The likeness of two things is shown in terms of their attitudes, circumstances or effects. 181
  182. 182. CHAPTER 4 182
  183. 183. THE WHOLE COMPOSITION As a thinking social being, you will always need to express your thoughts, ideas, and feelings. At this point of your study, you are expected to have a considerably good grasp of the various idiosyncrasies of the English language. Having studied how to write effective sentences and paragraphs, you are now ready to write a whole composition. Although it is generally presumed that of all the language skills writing is the hardest you are bound, nevertheless to master the art of communication through effective writing. 183
  184. 184. Francis Bacon wrote that “Writing maketh an exact man”. Therefore, when you can put down your thoughts, ideas, and feelings on paper and make your readers understand what you are saying, you are on the road to being an exact man in communication. As a student in college, you should realize that relevant effective writing is the key to future professional success. 184
  185. 185. WRITING A WHOLE COMPOSITION Writing is a process. It moves from top to bottom of its organizational pattern: form its title to its beginning, body and ending with proper use of transitions. As such, it entails a step by step move towards a desired piece of composition, which, in this chapter, will be tracked down as follows: 185
  186. 186. BEFORE ACTUAL WRITING Choose a Subject. You may use three possible sources of a subject: imagination, observations, and experience. Your experiential background can cover three general areas of interest: your personal life, your college life and your social life in the outside world of local, national, and international affairs. 186
  187. 187. In doing this, choose a subject that is interesting to you and to your reader, and that you know much about. This will make the writing job easier for you to do. Or, a subject that if you do not know yet much about, you know that there are enough data that can be gathered about it. So that if you want first to study your subject before you write, you have enough resources to use. 187
  188. 188. Explore Your Subject 1.Before deciding on what to write think hard about your subject. Give this your honest consideration. Take your feelings and impulses seriously. Honesty is essential because readers hate insincerity. Thinking and scrutinizing ideas about a paper can help define, shape or clarify a topic. 2. To write about something, you must first know a lot about it. Spend time for research in the library. Read extensively on the subject. 188
  189. 189. Talk to friends and experts. Ask questions and get ideas form people who have enough information on the subject. 3. List down ideas about your subject. Then write freely ; unlock ideas in your mind. Your list of assorted ideas on the subject has a disorganized flow but it will provide you a chance to make specific, orderly ground for your writing. 189
  190. 190. EXAMPLE: Summer in Barrio Ticol Invigorating morning swim in the river Chirping crickets at night Suman and other delicacies Boating and night swimming Smell of jasmine, rosal and other May Lolo’s pigs and poultry Manila visitors enjoy the fresh unpolluted rural air Fruits and vegetables abound Mangoes and macopa in bloom 190
  191. 191. Slight evening drizzle a welcome treat After a sultry afternoon Rural hospitality unmatched Visit to the small chapel Simplicity and religiosity of country folks is very infectious Summer in the big city smacks of heat and dust City folks savor the refreshing delights of the countryside Peace of mind and heart Where’s the ideal place to go to during summer? 191
  192. 192. These fragmentary ideas about summer in a barrio called Ticol help a student who will do a personal experience of spending summer outside of his city residence. The list of course is very disorganized. You are expected to revise, delete, add or expand a lot of the ideas and final ways of limiting and defining the topic until you come up with an organized outline. 4. Ask Questions. Be reminded of the five W’s (who, what, when, where, why) and one H (how). Employing these journalistic questions will help you explore your subject extensively. As you ask as many versions of these questions you start uncovering a lot more to contribute to your paper. 192
  193. 193. Example: What is summer outside the metropolis? Who love to desert the big city during the hot season? Why do we jump at the chance of an out-of-town vacation? Where do we usually prefer to go? What different things do we observe in the countryside? Where is the perfect hideaway? What do we observe among the country folk? What effect do all these observations have on us? How do we compare summer in Manila with summer in Barrio Ticol? 193
  194. 194. Determine Your Purpose Your purpose will guide you in the further writing steps that you need to take. It will suggest you the type of composition you need to write and the limit of development you have about your topic. As there are several types of composition, namely: exposition, description, narration and argumentation, your clear purpose in mind will make you determine whether you have to write an expository, descriptive, narrative, or argumentative type of composition. And once you have determined this matter, you will also know the kind of composition development you have to use because 194
  195. 195. the very type of composition you will write gives you also a fitting method of development for it. Determine The Type Of Composition To Be Written As stated earlier, your purpose will hunch to you the type of composition you have to write for your topic. But, you can only get that if you know the nature of each type of composition. 195
  196. 196. 1. Exposition This is an explanatory type of writing. It is done in order to clarify or give further information on what a thing is, how it functions, and how its parts are related to one another or how they are related to other things. Thus, exposition addresses itself to people who knows nothing or only a little about the subject in question. That is why if your purpose is to explain your topic, then you have to engage in expository writing. 196
  197. 197. 2. Description This is a type of composition which projects an image by means of words. This makes description an oral or written activity aimed at making the listener or reader not only see but also feel, smell, taste, and hear the nature of things. Thus, if your purpose is to show or create a picture of your topic, then, you engage in descriptive writing. 197
  198. 198. 3. Narration This is a composition type which presents a story from beginning to end. It gives a complete story basically constituted by life-giving characters, the locale and the time of the event, conflicts and crises, and moral or truth of life that the story aims to deliver. Thus, if your purpose is to tell a series of events about characters in a given place at a certain time, then, you engage in narrative writing. 198
  199. 199. 4. Argumentation This means writing to oppose a contention of one in order to assert his own. This is done by presenting facts and pieces of evidence reasonably supportive of the assertion. Argumentation may be as simple and informal as pretty quarrel over the color of a basketball team’s banner as some would like it green while others would like it red. Or; as formal as contending for and against “Men are more intelligent than women.” 199
  200. 200. Whatever, good argumentation will always require intelligent reasoning. Thus, if your purpose happens to be like this, you engage in argumentative writing. In whatever way the composition may be expressed, it will make use of the language of prose or poetry. And the fact that one is expository and the other is descriptive or narrative or argumentative does not mean that each type is truly distinct from the other. In one’s seeming distinctness from the other, it is really not because it utilizes and combines with the other types in the achievement of its own form. 200
  201. 201. Take the composition of any of the narrative prose- fiction types. Be it a short-story, a novelette, a novel, or a drama, in its being narrative in nature, it utilizes a great deal of description, narration, and even argumentation. On the other hand, take an essay. In its being dominantly expository, it is also possible that it uses narration and description. In this edition, however, the expository and descriptive types are the only ones taken up lengthily because these are the ones needed in the kind of writing desired to be achieved. 201
  202. 202. Limit Your Subject How do you limit your subject so you can write about some aspect or angle that will interest your reader? Achieving this particular goal is not an easy task. But you have to try to succeed in breaking down a broad subject into its limited form, otherwise, you may not be able to win the interest of anyone. This writing step may be done by proceeding from a general subject, then narrowing it to become a little limited subject. From this limited subject, you narrow this further, this time, to become 202
  203. 203. a topic which can serve as your composition title. For instance, you may want to write in general about love, religion or politics. Most probably there are already thousands of books on these subjects. But suppose you write about how love can exist between legitimate and illegitimate children, or the Church meddles in the political exercise of the people? These angles of a subject are the kind that will make it easier for you to expand ideas about the subject. 203
  204. 204. Example: General Subject : Religion Limited Subject : Attitude Toward Marriage Angled Topic : Differences Between Catholics and Moslems When It Comes to Marriage General Subject : Sports Limited Subject : Basketball Angled Topic : Why Filipinos Are Crazy About Basketball 204
  205. 205. In doing this, you usually consider the timeframe you have or you are given for writing. Naturally, if you have only an hour or so, as what you may have in “on-the-spot writing” in the classroom, you have to narrow your subject only to as much as an extent that is feasible to cope with in an hour or so. However, if you have a semester time for writing, as in the case of required papers or term papers, then, you have to limit your subject to an extent that is workable within such time frame. 205
  206. 206. Of course, other things to consider are your purpose for writing, the type of composition you want to write and then rhetorical mode that is suited to your purpose in writing. You can use either for rhetorical modes; description, narration, exposition, and argument. These types of composition will be taken up in detail in a separate unit. 206
  207. 207. Engage in Free Writing Ask anyone, a student or a professional writer, and he will agree with you that the hardest part of writing is getting started. At one time or another, you have experienced holding a pen in hand staring helplessly at a blank sheet of paper. It is during such frustrating moment that you wish you knew how to make thoughts and words flow into the sheet of paper and manifest what it is you really want to say. 207
  208. 208. Since writing is a skill that improves with practice, the more you practice writing, the more the words you need to use come easy. Thus, a free, relaxed kind of exercise or limbering up should help you off to a good start. The following suggested exercises in free writing should help in unwinding potential writing abilities and breaking down on mental and emotional barriers to this important skill. In free writing you write about anything that comes to your mind with no concern for correctness, logic, or order. In this exercise, anything goes. 208
  209. 209. anything goes. Observe this example of free writing done by a student: Actually I have nothing to write about. This is crazy, being asked to write about anything. The room is hot. I’m uncomfortable. Why is my seat very far from the ceiling fan? Many of my classmates are still holding their pencils (or ball pens) and not touching their papers. Not a word is written yet. Our teacher is perhaps sleeping but with her eye open. How many minutes did she say? Ten? Fifteen? My mind is still blank. I’m getting bored. I hope the bell ring now so I can go to the 209
  210. 210. canteen. The prelims will soon come. I have no money yet for tuition fee. What a problem. Solution? Buy a lotto ticket. Maybe I’ll be a millionaire tomorrow. Yuck! Or, you can also free-write through word association. This means that you write with a word to focus on and what you write are generally any physical, emotional or psychological impact this word have on you. You write anything you associate with a word. Look at this example written by a female student who goes free writing about the word color. 210
  211. 211. My favorite color is green. Very refreshing to the eye. Mountains and trees are green. Nature in all her glory is green. I love strolling across green fields. I think red, white and blue are very patriotic. White is immaculate. But brown lipstick looks good on me. I owned if pink lipstick would go with a lavender dress. For romantic people the golden sky at sunset is most beautiful. For a perfect color blending, give me the rainbow anytime. 211
  212. 212. Outline Your Ideas About The Topic. This step will give your desired composition in a framework that can be your very useful guide in actual writing. It becomes important then to cast your outline in such a way that it shows you a skeletal structure that flows from a beginning to a body and to an ending that make up a composition. Outlining may be done in topical form or in sentence form. 212
  213. 213. Examples: Topical Outline I. Benefits Derived from Reading A. Intellectual 1. Discovery of new words 2. Skills to attach unfamiliar words 3. Access to various areas of knowledge 4. Keener judgment and sharpened analytical ability 213
  214. 214. B. Emotional 1. Refinement of feelings 2. Sharpened responses and sensibilities 3. Awareness of other people’s feelings 4. Cathartic and therapeutic effects. C. Social 1. Awareness of social influences 2. Better understanding of social situations and social problems. 214
  215. 215. II. Influence on Personal Life A. Improvement of Interpersonal Relationships B. Better understanding of human behavior C. Better understanding our own selves D. Better scholastic performance 215
  216. 216. III. Global Benefits A. Growing consciousness of people and events around the world B. Deeper interests in activities that involve humankind C. Realization of our human potential as contributors to history D. Vision and skills contributing to a viable future of humanity. 216
  217. 217. I. The cultural benefits derived from reading cannot be underestimated. A. The intellectual aspects offer these gifts: 1. Vocabulary enrichment results after the discovery of new words. 2. Skills are formed to attach unfamiliar words. 3. Books give us access to various areas of knowledge thus, making us well-informed individuals. 4. We develop keener judgment and sharper analytical ability. 5. We perform better in school. 217
  218. 218. B. Books offer emotional outputs. 1. We experience a refinement of feelings. 2. We develop sharpened a responses and sensibilities. 3. We develop awareness of other people’s feelings. 4. We imbibe their cathartic and therapeutic effects. C. Reading also reflects the influences on our personal life. 1. We become aware of the influences that society offers 2. We develop better understanding of social 218
  219. 219. II. Reading also reflects the influences on our personal life. A. We acquire tips on how to improve our relationship with others. 1. We learn to understand better human behavior 2. We learn to assess to understand ands better our own selves 3. We perform better in school 219
  220. 220. III. Reading benefits can also be felt in their global dimension A. We benefit from our growing consciousness of people and events around the world B. We take deeper interest in activities that involve mankind C. We realize our potential as contributors to history D. We acquire visions and skills that contribute to a viable future for humanity 220
  221. 221. DURING ACTUAL WRITING Create Your Title As stated earlier, this title can already be ready for you as early as the time when you have angled your limited subject for a topic. The title will serve as the writer’s first point of contact with the reader. Thus, extra effort must be exerted in constructing it. It must be constructed in such a way that it comes out winsome. It must have that “come on, read” effect to readers. 221
  222. 222. “The best titles indicate not a general subject but the actual theme of the composition. The term subject is broader and more inclusive than the word title. If the instructor asks for a composition on “My Reading Habits”, he has assigned a subject, not a title, and you should sharpen this subject to a more specific and more interesting title, “It’s fun to read in the Mall”. Write Your Beginning Even logically organized composition has a beginning. It generally introduces the subject of the composition and explains the purpose or point of 222
  223. 223. view of the writer. It is the part to which the title is luring a reader to read on. Thus, the need for it to be effectively written by a student of composition writing. Every student should bear in mind that an effective beginning must do two things. a. It must catch the reader’s interest and lure him into reading further; b. It must explain why the subject should interest the reader and how it touches his life 223
  224. 224. Example: Title : Image of Man in Contemporary Literature Beginning :It is not true that the sun is the center of the universe. No! It is man. The use of an effective beginning is helpful. Some of these effective beginning is helpful. Some of these effective beginnings are as follows: 224
  225. 225. An anecdote an analogy beginning A striking statement a general statement A question a quotation A descriptive opening a summary The choice of any one of the above generally depends on the kind of topic to be undertaken and on the personal preference of the writer. 225
  226. 226. 1. Anecdote The anecdote beginning is frequently used by after-dinner speakers. Its built-in humor proves very fascinating. Its sprightly little story is interesting. However, the writer who adopts this technique should be careful that his anecdote has a direct bearing on the sentiment of his composition, and that the anecdote has not been repeated too often. 226
  227. 227. Example: In the name of law, I arrest you!” The elderly man lying face down in the dust, for all the world like a sleeping tramp, got up and faced the village constable; mildly he asked the reason for this arrest. “I’ve been watching you. A suspicious character if ever I saw one! Come with me.” 227
  228. 228. Like a patient teacher the man explained that he was studying insects. “Flies!” scoffed the officer. “Do you expect me to believe that you lie here in the morning sun to watch flies?” The other shrugged, and the light caught a twist at the red ribbon in the buttonhole of his thread broad black coat. The Legion of Honor. Even a country constable knew enough to back out now. The old man imperturbably lay down to resume his studies. 228
  229. 229. Jean Henri Sasimir Fabre was used to humiliation. From childhood he had shielded a sensitive nature by outward indifference. He was born in south-central France in 1823, of a mother who could not read or write; more, she regarded her elder son’s love of the fields as wicked idleness; his collecting minerals, birds nests and bugs as a system of idiocy. (Donald Gurlose Peattie, “The Incomparable Observer” The Reader’s Digest, May 1950) 229
  230. 230. 2. Striking Statement Speakers are afraid to be dull, and so are writers. To be able to give a striking statement is a difficult task, but it can actually be achieved. It is done by being witty, brilliant, funny, outspoken, and even paradoxical. The essayist says something to excite the enthusiasm and curiosity of the reader, then goes ahead. 230
  231. 231. Example: The collapse of the Nazi Germany marked the end of the greatest myth on racial superiority ever imposed on a gullible world. Chances are that “pure Aryan will never again put an appearance in respectable society.” Yet, this tall, blond superman could never have got where he did except for the prejudice or race relations. The difference we think we see between races—and which we magnify are largely a matter 231
  232. 232. of differences in training and opportunity. There are no superior races, only superior individuals and they are members of all races. “As Fra Boss, the father of American Anthropology puts it: “If we were to select the most intelligent, imaginative, energetic, emotionally stable third of all mankind, all races would be represented. (Ethel J. Alpantels “Our Racial Superiority” The Reader’s Digest, September 1946.) 232
  233. 233. 3. Question One of the most striking ways to begin a composition is to pose a question at the outset – a query to which the reader is led to seek and answer. If the question is so asked as to arouse the curiosity of the reader, fifty percent of the battle is won. Questions may be implied or direct. 233
  234. 234. Example: What is this thing called Love, so indispensable to best sellers? What is it the myriad purchases desire so ardently to see portrayed? Plainly – as the books show it – it is the sole end of life, the obsession of every kind. The hero of the popular novel always gained the heroine’s hand, after an adventurous career. The offer awaited him the last chapter, but there was an interesting respite amid fire and flamed which is not granted to his successor. The modern hero is allowed a vocation to keep him occupied during the day, but it is 234
  235. 235. understood that this is merely an interlude in his service to, or serving of, the various ladies in the book. Love of power, pride in work the area of poverty, the lust for fear or vengeance, and all other impulses that actually move men are denied him. He is indeed love’s slave. (Bergen Evans, “This Thing Called Love” The Atlantic Monthly, February, 1984) 235
  236. 236. 4. Descriptive Opening The descriptive opening gives a mental picture – “ideals with images rather than ideas.” This is an effective beginning if cautiously handled and if given sufficient vividness and life. Otherwise, it can be dull. The essayist should try to awaken and thrill even a phlegmatic reader so that he may go out and see what is to come. 236
  237. 237. Example: Day had broken cold and gray, exceedingly cold and gray. When the man turned again from his Yukon trail and started up a little-traveled trail led through the fast spruce timberland. It was nine o’clock. There was no summer hint of sun. Though the day was clear, there was a gloom all over the fact of things. This did not worry the man. It had been days since he had seen the sun. (Jack London, “How To Build A Fire”) 237
  238. 238. 5. Analogy Beginning The analogy beginning is an extended figure of speech which may be a simile or a metaphor. While its value as proof is nil, it makes the subject vivid and illuminating, and take the reader directly into the heart of the discussion. Example: Music has often been compared with language itself, and the comparison is quite legitimate. 238
  239. 239. it combines easily with language, it also speaks a language of its own, which has become a platitude to call universal. To understand the significance of the organizing factors of rhythm, melody, harmony, tune, color, and meaning, the analogy of a familiar language is helpful. Music has its own alphabet, of only seven letters, as compared with the twenty six of the English Alphabet. Each of these letters represents a note, and just as certain letters are complete words in themselves, so are certain notes that they may stand alone, with the force of a whole word. Generally, however, a note of music implies a certain harmony, and in most modern music the notes take the form of actual chords. 239
  240. 240. So it may be said that a chord of music is analogous to a word in language. Several words form a phrase, and several phrases a complete sentence, and the same thing is true to music. Measured music corresponds to poetry while old measured plain song might be compared with prose. The relationship of modern music to free verse at once becomes apparent, and impressionism, cubism, and futurism can all be found in music as well as in the other arts. (Sigmund Spaath), “The Language of Music”) 240
  241. 241. 6. General Statement The broad observation that has a wide application is not an old way of opening an essay, but it is still usable. Example: For there is perennial nobleness, and even sacredness, in work. For he never so benighted, forgetful of high calling, there is always hope in a man that actually and earnestly works; in idleness 241
  242. 242. along thee is perpetual despair. Work never so Mammonish, mean, is communication with Nature; the real desire to get work done will itself lead one to more and more truth, to Nature appointments and regulations, which are truth. (Thomas Carlyle, “Labor”) 242
  243. 243. 7. Quotation A well chosen quotation can be very effective. Editors and readers however, have become tired of quotation openings, and such should be avoided. Use them sparingly. Example: “Live as if each moment were your last.” How often have I come across such advice in the books that I read. At least it seemed often to me – too often. 243
  244. 244. a while I accept it as being probably good advice if one could follow it, yet to follow it I could not. For one thing. I could never bring myself to feel this “lastness” of each moment. I tried and failed. I was good to make-believe, too, but this was out of all good reasons. (Elizabeth W. Morris, “The Embarrassment of Finality”) 244
  245. 245. 8. Summary The summary beginning presents the main conclusions, high spots, or gist of the article by way of opening. It is often used for beginning the “how-I-did-it” essay. Example: As a single man, I have spent a good deal of my time in noting down the infirmities of married people, to control myself for those superior pleasures, which they tell me I have lost by reminding me as I am. 245
  246. 246. I cannot say that the quarrels of men and their wives ever made any great impression upon me, or had such tendency to strengthen me in those anti- social resolutions which I took up long ago upon more substantial considerations. What often offends me at the house of married persons when I visit, is an error of quite different description; it is that they are too loving. (Charles Lamb, “A Bachelor’s Complaint of the Behavior of Married People”) 246
  247. 247. Compose Your Body The body of a composition contains all the discussions , arguments, or explanations that the writer wants to say about his subject. As such as it may be developed in three general ways. Each way can make the reader see immediately and clearly the relationship between and among the parts within. The development may be patterned in any of the following ways: 247
  248. 248. 1. In Chronological Order This type of development is especially useful in narration when one relates events in the order of occurrence. This device is also practical when the topic is about a process which is to explain something stage by stage. 2. In Logical Sequence This one calls for the presentation of details in any of the following patterns or vice-versa: 248
  249. 249. 1. From the known to the unknown 2.From the particular to the general 3. From the simple to the complicated 4. From the abstract to the concrete 249
  250. 250. 3. Climactic Order This means that the explanations of the least important material should precede the more important ones. Then the composition should gradually work up to a fitting climax. In the structure of the composition, the end is one of the two emphatic parts of the composition, just as it is in the paragraph and in the sentence. The other is the beginning. 250
  251. 251. Close With An Effective Ending. Ending a composition is just like saying goodbye after having said what are the desired to be said. This part summarizes or recapitulates the ideas developed in the body of the composition. As you have effective beginnings, you also have effective endings to help you do this part of the composition. These are as follows: 251
  252. 252. 1. Quotation Sometimes in order to make the ending of an essay truly impressive, the author chooses a well- known authority, a prominent author, or a poet who has expressed himself on the subject he has written about. A quotation thus chosen, must be pertinent to the subject and must reinforce the ideas presented by the writer. 252
  253. 253. Example: With saint Augustine they said: “Let us not leave them alone to make in the secret of this knowledge as thou didst before the creation of the firmament, the division of light from darkness, let the children of thy spirit, placed in their firmament, make their light shine upon the earth, mark the division of night and day, and announce the revolution of the times’ for the old order is passed, and the new crises; the night is spent, the day is come forth; and thou shalt crown the year with the blessing, when thou shalt send forth laborers into 253
  254. 254. thy harvest sown by other hands that theirs; when thou shalt send forth new laborers to new seedtimes, hereof, the harvest shall be not yet.” (Matthew Arnold, “Sweetness and Light”) 254
  255. 255. 2. Problem or Question As in the story, “The Lady or The Tiger,” it may be necessary for the writer to finish his work with a question or with a number of questions. If the purpose of the essay concluded is just to present facts and ideas to let the reader from his own conclusions, this type of ending will be most effective. 255
  256. 256. Example: Thus, a strange series of unrelated events conspired to place him in the White House. BUT WAS IT AN ACCIDENT? Was it merely political intrigue? … Or was it fate? Is it not just possible that on that momentous day the end of destiny rested upon the shoulder of Abraham Lincoln? ( G.I.. Summer, “How Chance Made Lincoln President”) 256
  257. 257. 3. Suggestion to Question If the composition has been written to present the validity of a certain idea over and above another which the essay criticizes, a suggestion to take action is often necessary at the end of the essay. Example: It is our urgent responsibility today to evaluate truly and generously the achievements of the various faces and nations of the world. The 257
  258. 258. billion people can live together on a globe grown suddenly small only if we bring our knowledge of human relations up to our knowledge of physical science. Let us take pride not in a false assumption of superiority to any other people but in our friendly knowledge of all the people of the world. (Ethel J. Alpental, “Our Racial Superiority”) 258
  259. 259. 4. Significant Incident Often, to wrap up the idea of the composition, it is necessary for the writer to cite a little significant incident to clinch his argument or to dramatize his main thought. Example: Then the gray-haired man appeared on the ice with the huge goal pads and gloves on. The galleries were silent a moment, then burst into 259
  260. 260. spontaneous applause at the gallant gesture. Les Patrick, out of the game since 1921 and even in his playing days, not a goalie was skating into the ranger nets. He was the ranger’s manager. But he was going in. The crown applauded the spirit and get back to await the massacre. It never came. Playing with a cold frenzy, Patrick turned back the attach of one of the greatest teams in the game and the rangers won 2 to 1. For the third time they got another goalie and went on to win the series. That stand of the gray-haired Patrick is one of the game’s legends now. 260
  261. 261. 5. Summary The summary is one of the most overused types of ending for the manuscript. In the summary ending, ideas are repeated, but a mechanical repetition of the points advanced must be avoided. It may be added that a short composition does not need a summary. Example: And so we shall continue to be ushered through luncheons and herded through cafeterias, until we 261
  262. 262. become chronic dyspeptics. We shall be besieged with telegrams, bombarded with extras, and bawled at by bell boys until we fall victims to nervous prostration. We shall be battle –geared in elevations, shuttle-cocked in subways, joggled in taxi-cabs, jostled in street cars, and jolted in Pullman’s until we succumb to apoplexy. And we shall be kept everlastingly on the go, we are shipped off in sixty horse power hearse to the only peaceful place we have ever known. For thus we shall have served the God of Time. (Percival White, “The Almighty Minute”) 262
  263. 263. Check Your Transitions This means your transition or slide in idea from one paragraph to another. Each paragraph deals with a central idea that is why in writing a series of paragraphs in a composition, it is important that you show the relationship among all central ideas by using transitional devices. Here are three types of these devices to help you make the paragraphs hang together. 263
  264. 264. 1. Transitional devices An example of this consequently As a result finally At this time incidentally In addition first Another for example Furthermore nevertheless However on the other hand In spite of soon Moreover such Too therefore 264
  265. 265. Study the paragraphs below. Explain the relationship illustrated by the transitional words used. Precision means exactness. It means hitting the nail on the head. In writing, precision means taking care to find not the big word or the little word but exactly the right word for what must not say “idiom” when you mean “idiot”, “sadistic” when you mean “statistic,” or even, “read” when you mean “ready”. 265
  266. 266. Such irresponsible words might result in misunderstanding. It will prompt people to say that the writer is not very literate. Therefore, the moral should be obvious; don’t use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. 266
  267. 267. 2. Repetition Of A Key Word In The Preceding Paragraph. Example: Courage is not always shown in big acts. The student who can go up to this teacher and stammer. “Sir, I am sorry, but I cheated on that test,” is displaying as much courage as the public official who tells the investigating committee, “Madam President, I’m sorry but I mishandled project funds causing great losses to the Philippine Government.” 267
  268. 268. 3. Pronouns A pronoun that refers to a person, thing or idea mentioned in the preceding paragraph. Example: Philippine Democracy is experiencing the most crucial test of its more than fifty years of existence. Not only has each of the past presidents done significant reform programs but also fought all forms of opposition to democratic ideology. 268
  269. 269. Today, one of its greatest enemies is insurgency. It has to content the radical demands of this group of anti-democratic elements. 269
  270. 270. AFTER ACTUAL WRITING 1. Review your first draft for content improvement. Ask these questions as you mark your draft for revisions: a. Is my point of view clearly established in my opening paragraph? Do my readers know what my intentions are? b. Is my opening interesting enough for my readers to want to continue? Have I saved my supporting points for the following paragraphs? How can I make the paragraph more effective? 270
  271. 271. c. Have I developed a different main point in each paragraph? Does my topic sentence clearly state the point of the paragraph? Do I have plenty of details and examples to support the main idea in each paragraph? Are any of the paragraphs extremely short or extremely long? d. Are there things I can add – new points or details – to make the paper more effective? Are there ideas or details that don’t seem effective? Should I eliminate anything? 271
  272. 272. e. Are my ideas in the best sequence? Should I move anything around? Do I need to move information that I added to a more appropriate spot? Have I organized my thoughts most effectively? f. Does the paper maintain the point of view intended? Do my main points develop a point of view successfully? Do I need to consider changing the point of view or any of the supporting ideas? 272

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