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Study And Thinking Skills In English boa


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Study And Thinking Skills In English boa

  2. 4. Time Management. You can carry out your job as a college student either efficiently or inefficiently, depending on your habit patterns of using or wasting time. The best technique for developing efficient habits of time use is to prepare a time list that combines long-range and short-range planning: (1) a long-term schedule for an entire semester , (2) an intermediate schedule per wek, and (30 a more specific short schedule per day (“Time Scheduling” ).
  3. 5. Long-term Schedule – a list of fixed commitment you are required to meet every week during the semester,e.g., classes, job hours, organization meetings church, etc. Intermediate Schedule (one per week) – a short list of major events and amount of work to be completed in each subject, including nonstudy activities. Prepare a new list for each week every Sunday night. List day first. Post the list on a wall in your bedroom. Short-term Schedule (one per day) – a list of specific things to be done Write your schedule for the next day before sleeping. Carry the schedule with you, and cross out each item as you accomplish it.
  4. 6. Study Area. A good study area is any quiet place with adequate lighting where you can study without anyone bothering you. Have a study desk with a chair that supports your back. Never try to study on your bed, because that invites you to longue and eventually fall to sleep.
  5. 7. Reading . The way you read while studying Is not like reading for pleasure. You can make your study reading more effective by using the PSQ5R method (“Study Skills” ). Stands for Purpose, Survey, Question, Read selectively, Recite, “Rite”, Reflect, and Review.
  6. 8. Purpose: Before starting to read, determine your intention for reading the material. Are you looking of general concepts or specific information? What does your instructor want you to do? Survey; Have a quick scan of the whole material, taking note of chapter headings, topics, and subtopics. This valuable way to save time, as you can focus on the portions relevant to what you need to study.
  7. 9. Question. Decide on the questions that you have to answer. This allows you to actively search for answers to particular problems and ration your time per problem while reading.
  8. 10. The 5 Rs: After the following the above advice on PSQ, you are now ready to read selectively with the purpose and questions in mind” mentally recite what you learn to ascertain that you remember it; write down what you learn from your reading in Outline or point form;
  9. 11. then reflect or think about what you have read and decide whether or not your questions have been answered; and finally, review your notes within 24 hours to ensure that you remember what you have learned.
  10. 12. Writing. Effective writing is quality writing. To achieve this, analyze your writing for two characteristics: content and form. In other words, what you say and how you say it. Writing without form is like a human body without skeleton; writing without content is like a skeleton with no flesh. The writing process consists of the following steps prewriting, organizing, and writing, revising, editing, and writing the final draft after several revisions.
  11. 13. Prewriting is brainstorming. Its purpose is to create as many ideas related to the subject as possible, and as quickly as possible. Examples of brainstorming are listing, fast writing, spidering, and mapping. Organizing is selecting an opinion about the subject, choosing enough of the right type of detail from the prewrite and adding when needed, and creating an order for those details and fitting them into the form.
  12. 14. Writing is simply following the shaping of the form and putting the fragments of ideas into complete sentences, and adding when needed. Revising is adding and deleting information, changing the order of the details and the form, and looking for major mechanical errors. Editing is checking the writing for basic writing errors like spelling, punctuation, and grammar. After several revision you are finally satisfied with what you have written, write your final draft.
  13. 15. Note Taking . To take good notes, think of note taking as an active listening process and be selective in what your write down. Before the lecture, read the assigned material or skim it for five to ten minutes so that you can identify the most relevant information from the lecture.
  14. 16. During the lecture, watch for cues from the instructor as to what information is most relevant. Organize the material with headings. If there are gaps in your notes, don’t hesitate to stop instructor and ask questions. Don’t write down every word the instructor says, but you should copy any information he puts on the blackboard or overheads. Develop one set of abbreviations for use in note taking and one way of identifying key concepts and ideas.
  15. 17. Concentration. Like any other student, you may not be able to concentrate while studying nor remember the material that you studied. To improve your concentration and memory, try these techniques.
  16. 18. Arrange what you are going to study in order of relation importance. Break your study time into manageable periods of time. Schedule a regular break. Deal with your anxiesties by using relaxation techniques like shoulder shrug and shoulder rotation, including something that normally calms you.
  17. 19. Avoid distractions by choosing a study spot that does not strain your eyes or body, where all the supplies you need are within easy reach, and which is where you will only study, not to do anything else. Try some techniques to improve your ability to memorize such as organizing and summarizing your notes into essential ideas, using acronyms to remember a difficult set of concepts and constantly reciting and reviewing what you studied.
  18. 20. Test Taking. You can do well in exams if you know what do you before, during, and after the test Before the test Attend all classes Complete all required reading. Organize your study time by planning, daily. weekly, and major review sessions. Form a study group with five or six other conscientious students to undertake review activities that include making up practice tests and comparing notes.
  19. 21. Create study tools like annotated and review notes. Predict test questions. Test yourself, and recite information aloud. Ask instructor for specific information about the test. Reduce test anxiety by maintaining a balanced schedule including exercise and relaxation techniques, a healthy diet, and adequate rest.
  20. 22. During the Test Use your time wisely. Read the directions and questions carefully. Know the rules in the test, such as time limits and penalties for guessing. Answer all questions unless there are penalties for guessing. Look for clues from other test questions.
  21. 23. After the Test Which part of the exam was the easiest? Why? Which part of the exam was the hardest? Why? Which of the activities you completed prior to the exam was the most helpful? Did you feel prepared when you walked into the exam? Why or why not? How might you study differently for the next exam for better results?
  22. 25. Do not be discouraged if you cannot answer a question. Leave it and go on. You may find the answer or clues to the answer in subsequent questions. Beware of the questions with “no,” and “none.” These words easily change the meaning of questions. If you have to guess: Reject answers that use specific determines such as: everyone, always, never, etc. Look for grammatical inconsistencies which may help eliminate wrong answers.
  23. 26. Choose the longest, most precise answer. Choose the answer that is in the middle. Choose the answer which uses qualifying terms such as: often, most, etc. Choose the answer that first caught your eye.
  24. 28. Make a simple outline of what you will write about. Be sure to keep track of time. Spend more time on questions that are worth more points. Try to write as neatly as possible and leave some space for added ideas or corrections. Before turning your test in, read your answers a final time to check for grammatical errors and misspellings.
  25. 30. Compare. Examine two or more things. Identify similarities and differences. Illustrate. Give concrete examples. Explain clearly by using comparison or examples. Contrast. Show differences. Set in opposition. Interpret. Comment upon, give examples, and describe relationships. Explain the meaning. Describe, then evaluate. Criticize. Make judgments. Evaluate comparative worth. Criticism often involves analysis. Outline. Describe main ideas, characteristics, or events. Define. Give the meaning, usually a meaning specific to the course or subject. Determine the precise limits of the term to be defined. Explain the exact meaning. Definitions are usually short.
  26. 31. Prove. Support with facts (especially facts presented in class or in the test.) Describe. Give a detailed account. Make a picture with words. List characteristics, qualities, and parts. Relate. Show the connections between ideas or events. Provide a larger context. Discuss. Consider the debate or argue the pros and cons of an issue. Write about similarities, and conflict. Compare and contrast.
  27. 32. State. Explain precisely. Summarize. Give a brief, condensed account. Include conclusions. Avoid unnecessary details. Enumerate. Give your opinion or cite the opinion of an expert. Include evidence to support the evaluation.
  28. 33. Influencing Teachers. How you communicate with and relate to your instructor affect how well you do in a course. The best way to impress our instructor and get on his good side is to show genuine interest in the course material and ask good questions. The following strategies demonstrate your interest and curiosity
  29. 34. Don’t criticize, condemn, or complain to the teacher about his performance; rater, focus on the discussion of the material and your understanding of this material. Let the teacher know what you appreciate about the course. Smile. Know and use the teacher’s name. Listen to what the teacher has to say about himself. Talk in terms of what the teacher is interested in. Let the teacher know that you think he is important.
  30. 35. Avoid arguing, and try honestly to see the teacher’s point of view. If you are wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically. Ask questions rather than give orders. Let the teacher know that you sincerely want to do well in the course. Always have the course textbook in your hand whenever you see the instructor. Hand in all assignments on time throughout the semester.
  31. 37. RECALL: After studying the material, stop and recite in your own wor4ds all that you have learned. DIGEST: Go back to what you did not understand and reconsider the information. Contact external expert sources.
  32. 38. EXPAND: Ask three kinds of questions concerning the studied material. If I can speak to the author, what questions will I ask or what criticism would I offer? How can I apply this material to what I am interested in? How can I make this information interesting and understandable to other students? REVIEW: Go over the material you’ve covered. Review what strategies helped you understand and/ or retain information in the past and apply these to your current studies.
  33. 39. Thinking Skills In today’s information age, we all need thinking skills to cope with a rapidly changing world. Specific Knowledge is not as important as the ability to learn and make sense of new information. Thinking skills refer to the set of basic and advanced skills and sub skills that govern a person’s mental processes. These skills comprise knowledge, disposition, and cognitive and metacognitive operations.
  34. 40. The prominent educator Benjamin Bloom developed an instructional model popularly known as “Blooms Taxonomy”. The model categorizes thinking skills form the concrete to the abstract – knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. The last three are considered higher –order skills. Blooms Taxonomy, which is shown in the table below, presents the following: Six levels of thinking, skills demonstrated for each level, and question cues that elicit responses for each level.
  35. 41. Competence (Thinking Level) Skills Demonstrated Question Cues Knowledge <ul><li>Observation and recall of information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of dates, events, places </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of Subject matter </li></ul>List, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who when, where Comprehension <ul><li>Understanding information </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Translation knowledge into new context </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting facts, comparing, contrasting </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering, grouping, inferring causes </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting consequences </li></ul>Summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
  36. 42. Application <ul><li>Using information </li></ul><ul><li>Using methods, concept, theories in new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems using required skills or knowledge </li></ul>Apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover Analysis <ul><li>Seeing patternsa </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of parts </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of hidden meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of components </li></ul>Analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, infer Synthesis <ul><li>Using old ideas to create new ones </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizing from given facts </li></ul><ul><li>Relating knowledge from several areas </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting drawing conclusions </li></ul>Combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
  37. 43. Evaluation <ul><li>Comparing and discriminating between ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing value of theories, presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Making choices based on reasoned argument </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying value of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing subjectivity </li></ul>Asses, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
  38. 46. Unity through the Use of the Topic Sentence The topic sentence states the central idea to be developed. It may be expressed or implied. If it is expressed, it is found at the beginning of the paragraph, at the end of the paragraph, or anywhere between the first and the last sentences. When placed at the end of the paragraph, it serves as the concluding or clinching sentence. If the topic sentence is implied, as the concluding or clinching sentence.
  39. 47. Another feature of the topic sentence is the controlling idea, which consists of the keyword/s in the topic sentence. The keyword/s may be a part/ parts of the topic sentence or it may be the whole sentence. The controlling idea limits the scope of the topic and helps the writer to focus on the topic sentence of the paragraph
  40. 48. Sample paragraph Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication . A doctor makes the mother feel her baby to give her satisfaction after her birth labor. The mother caresses the newborn to give the baby a feeling of love and security that will be the foundation of the self. A father taps the shoulder of his son to boost the latter’s sagging morale after his defeat in a school contest.
  41. 49. A son holds the hands of his dying father in a final goodbye. A friend embraces another friend to drive away the latter’s loneliness. These tactile stimulations oftentimes spell a difference. Topic sentence : Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication. Controlling idea (Words that control or limit the discussion of the topic “touch”) – intimate, powerful means of communication
  42. 50. Unity through the Use of Supporting Details Supporting details are the sentences that help develop or expand the main idea in the topic sentence. These details that help expand the topic sentence may be in the form of a description, an example, a comparison or contrast, a classification, etc.
  43. 51. Sample Paragraph Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication . 1. A doctor makes the mother feel her baby to give her satisfaction after her birth labor. 2. The mother caresses the newborn to give the baby a feeling of love and security that will be the foundation of the self.3. A father taps the shoulder of his son to boost the latter’s sagging morale after his defeat in a school contest.
  44. 52. 4. A son holds the hands of his dying father in a final goodbe.5. A friend embraces another friend to drive away the latter’s loneliness. These tactile stimulations oftentimes spell a difference. Topic Sentence: Touch is our most intimate and powerful means of communication Supporting details: Examples or instances when touch communicates intimate and powerful messages. Supporting details are the sentence nos. 1-5.
  45. 55. In a coherent paragraph, the reader easily grasps the meaning of what he reads because he sees the orderly sequence of ideas and their relationship to one another. There are no gaps in thought. But sometimes, the ideas are expressed in a jumbled fashion or are not clearly linked so that the reader fails to follow the flow of though in the paragraph. Such a paragraph needs coherence. Coherence is achieved by following a definite order of ideas, also referred to as logical bridges, and by using verbal bridges or structural devices.
  46. 60. To add ideas, use and, moreover, further, furthermore, also, likewise, similarly, too, in like manner, again, besides. To introduce statements opposing the preceding statements, use but, nevertheless, otherwise, on the other hand , conversely, on the contrary, however, still, yet. To show time sequence, use then, now after that , later, eventually, at the same time, meanwhile, in a few minutes, within an hour.
  47. 61. To indicate order, use next , in the second place, to begin with, first, second, finally, in conclusion. To show space relation, use to the right, in the distance, straight ahead, up above. To indicate a consequence or a conclusion, use hence, consequently, thus, so, for this reason, therefore, as a result. To indicate repetition of one idea, use briefly, that is to say, in fact, indeed, in other words. To compare, use so, similarly, likewise, in the same way.  
  48. 63. Parallel clause structures Each of us likes to belong to some groups of tightly knit people Where we are known and accepted Where we are committed to each other Parallel sentence structures Give me land. Land to own. Land to unbeholden to any tyrant. Land that will be free. Give me land for I am starving Give me land that my children may not die
  49. 65. Note the ascending order of importance: The Kings of the earth The great men of the earth The earth The sea
  50. 68. Any narrative, whether rit is simple or complex, has four basic elements: setting, character, plot and point of view. The setting denotes the time and place of the story. Character refers to the persons who take part in the narrative. The main character is called the “protagonist’” while the villain who creates the problems in the life of the main character is called the ‘antagonist.” The plot , the series of events of the story itself, moves toward the climax or highest pint of interest, and then descends to the denouement (resolution) and the ending of the story.
  51. 69. The so-called point of view in a story is the perspective the writer take sin telling his story such as: First person point of view - the writer tells of his own story. First person -observer point of view- the character tells in the first person a story or event he has seen. This can also be second person point of view. Author -observer point of view- the writer tells very objectively about the events as they happened to another individual. This can be referred to as third person point of view.
  52. 70. The narrative, furthermore, makes use of signal words or phrases, one type of verbal bridges.   Example: Sixteen is a prideful age when a young man needs respect, not charity. Oned day, I found myself in the General store making purchases on credit for my father. I was hesitant because I had seen friends ask for credit and then stand heads bowed, as the storeowner questioned whether they were “good for it.” Mr. David, the storeowner, was standing behind the cash register, talking to a middle-aged farmer. When I brought my purchases to the counter.
  53. 71. O said sheepishly, “I need to put them on credit, Mr. David.” The farmer threw me an amused cynical look. But Mr. David’s face didn’t change a bit. “Sure,” he said with a firm nod of his head. “Your daddy has always been good for it, he continued to the farmer. “This is one of Mr. Sotero Garcia’s sons,” he added. I was filled with pride. Sotero Garcia’s son! Those words opened to an adult’s respect and trust.
  54. 73. Plot: The teenager was asked to purchase goods on credit. He approached the storeowner to make the purchase on credit. The storeowner agreed to his request. He was introduced to the farmer as Sotero Garcia’s son. He felt proud being his father’s son. Point of view- First person point of view. The teenager narrated his own story Verbal bridges- signal words one day , when, but, because, as the, and
  55. 74. Inferring – a reading skill that is done by making an oinion based on given facts. Inferences are conclusions drawn from “reading between the lines” in order to get the idea suggested y the author. Ex. “I need to put this on credit, Mr. David.” While I was waiting for the answer, the farmer raised an eyebrow, then threw me an amused cynical look. But Mr. David’s face didn’t change a abit. “Sure,” he said a firm nod. “ He is one of Sotero “Garcia’s sons,” he told the farmer.
  56. 75. Inference: Sotero Garcia’s name was as good as cash to the storeowner. Therefore, he must have been a very good debtor in that store.        
  57. 77. Discussing the Characteristics of the Paragraph (Character Sketch) A character sketch is a form of exposition. It seeks to explain or portray the characteristic/s of an individual or a group by narrating an incident/s that reveal the distinctive quality/qualities of the individual or the group. This discourse is also an anecdote, except that the point of emphasis is the character trait/s exemplified by the incident, not any funny or interesting event. In the sample paragraph, the focus is on Herman Steur’s kindness and and generosity
  58. 78. The subject of a character sketch may be an individual or a group. The individual character sketch is specific and concrete; whereas the type or profile character sketch is general because it presents a trait/s typical of the group. In sketching his subject’s outstanding characteristics, the writer will find helful including feautes that disclose these trait; for instance , his natural environment. Where does he live or work? Is the place cluttered or neat and well kept? Also, the way the subject moves may reveal his qualities. Does he move slowly but surely? Spritely but erratically? Furthermore, his likes and dislikes, hobbies , choice of clothes, motives- all these will give clues to his character traits.
  59. 79. Sample Paragraph The Remarkable Mission of Herman Steur Herman Steur, a wealthy Dutch businessman, was sleeping soundly in his beachfront mansion in Pamunugama Sri Lanka, when his butler jolted him awake to announce he had visitors – a distraught woman and her four children dressed in ragged clothes. Her husband, a poor fisherman, had died and she had neither coffin nor blanket to wrap him up for th burial. Profoundly touched by the tormented widow, Steur ordered his butler to give her all the bed sheets thaty she needed and pressed in to her hand 1000 rupees (S20). “Don’t worry about the funeral expenses,” he assured her, “I will take care of that for you.” This is Herman Steur, who moved by his encounter with this hapless woman, has given generously to countless charities throughout his life.
  60. 80. Analyzing the Structure of the Sample Paragraph (Character Sketch)``` Setting – Herman Steur’s beachfront mansion Characters – Herman Steur, the butler, the woman and her four children Person Characterized – Herman Steur, the rich Dutch businessman Character traits portrayed – Kindness, generosity, compassion Incident that portrayed these traits – When the poor woman askd for bed sheets to wrap her husband’s body for burial, Steur, ddeply touched, gladly helped, and promised to extend some more aid. Type of Character – individual; only one person is characterized Point of view – Third person point of view; an observer tells the story.
  61. 81. Reading Comprehension is enhanced by one’s ability to identify the time sequence re3lationship of ideas as indicated by such words as when, until, while, before, after, and as. Reading ability may be improved by understanding conditional sentences with words like if, unless, provided, otherwise.  
  62. 83. Discussing the Characteristics of the Paragraph by Process The paragraph by process is concerned with “how’ topics such as “how garbage is turned into compost,” “how ready-made dresses are made.” It may involve the giving and receiving of instructions on a certain task or operation; or it may entail an explanation of a process too intricate or complicated for the ordinary reader to perform and bring completion. To cite an example for each type of process writing: a paragraph on “ how to operate a calculator’ will include instructions reader is expected to follow; however, a paragraph on “ how to operate” laser” will simply aim to inform the ordinary the ordinary reader about the process and not expect him to carry it out.
  63. 84. The sample paragraph on ‘greening the Red planet” is an example of the latter type. Process writing may be used also to explain a scientific procedure, like “how food is digested,” or how the fetus develops in a mother’s womb . Or it may trace a historical chain of events, as in “how the Philippines go its independence.” Since process, according to Webster, is a systematic series of actions directed to an end,” process writing requires a logical presentation of ideas and enough information to make the paragraph clear and understandable. The instructions should be specific, complete, and properly sequenced. Verbal bridges referring to signal words to denote time sequence help considerably to achieve coherence in the paragraph.
  64. 85. Among the signal words to denote time sequence are: first, second third etc., then, later, while, to begin, to start, at the end, afterwards, subsequently, lastly, finally, etc.
  65. 86. Greening the Red Planet Terraformation – the greening of the red planet – would be the most ambitious engineering project in human history. This feat may be accomplished in several stages. The challenge is to warm mars, first by raising the temperature from -60 degrees to -40 degrees. One way to begin this is to build chemical factories, power them with small nuclear reactors that would pump out green house gases to cover the planet, and prevent the escape of heat. Then as the temperature rises, the atmosphere will become thicker but not thick enough. Hence an ozone substitute will be manufactured supplement the atmosphere. When the temperature reaches -25 degrees, tundra vegetation will survive.
  66. 87. Later, as the planet warms to -15 degrees, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water will seep from the crust. The atmosphere will continue to thicken and water will pool in canyons. Soon, Mars will have a breathable atmosphere when microorganisms will create soil to sustain plants, and plants will convert the atmospheric carbon dioxide to oxygen. When the temperature reaches -5 degrees, the ice will melt. Bodies of water will be formed and rain will fall regularly. Trees will be planted, changing the dry red planet into a moist green globe. Terrafromartion, one of our prodigious dreams, may founder. But suppose it could be done, should it be done?
  67. 88. Analyzing the Sample Paragraph Unity Topic Sentence – This feat (terraformation) may be accomplished in several stages Controlling idea - several stages Supporting details – Mars will be war5med first the temperature from -60 to -40 degrees. Chemical factors will be built, powered by small nuclear reactors.
  68. 89. Greenhouse gases pumped out by these factories will cover the planet and prevent the escape of heat. Then as the temperature rises, the atmosphere will thicken. The atmosphere will not be thick enough. An ozone substitute will be manufactured to supplement the atmosphere. When the temperature reaches -25 degrees, tundra vegetation will As the planet warms to -15 degrees, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water will seep form the crust. The atmosphere will continue to thicken. Water will pool in canyons.
  69. 90. Microorganisms will create soil to sustain plants. Plants will convert the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide to oxygen. Mars will have a breathable atmosphere. When the temperature reaches -5 degrees, ice will melt. Bodies of water will form Rain will fall regularly. Trees will be planted, changing the dry red planet into a moist green globe.   Clinching Sentence – But suppose it could be done, should it be done?
  70. 91. Coherence Logical bridge ( paragraph order) - Chronological or time order Verbal bridge (structural order) - Signal words denoting time: First, then, when, as. Beside simile, metaphor, and hyperbole, some of the other figures of speech commonly used are personification, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony Personification- Endowing inanimate objects or abstract ideas with human qualities. Ex. Truth speaks. Metonymy – using a word associated with an object to represent it. Ex. Are you familiar with Virgil? Synecdoche – Substituting part of an object/idea for the whole object or idea ex. Respect gray hairs. Irony – Expressing an idea opposite to what is meant. Ex. To his students without homework, the teacher remarked, “What diligent students you are!”  
  71. 92.   Paragraph by Description
  72. 94. Description appeals to the five senses: sense of sight , smell hearing, touch, and taste. Likewise, it calls on the writer’s imagination to recreated the images presented. So, to be able to describe the subject clearly and accurately, and arouse the reader’s special feelings or reactions, the writer must possess the skill to use fresh and specific or concrete words. Stock phrases and generic terms like ”nice” and “good” make up quantity but do not lend effectiveness to the paragraph.
  73. 95. The two types of description, according to purpose are objective and subjective. Objective description, sometimes called informative scientific or technical, aims to inform or to identify; hence, it is factual. It is focused on the physical aspect and appeals to the intellect. This type of description abounds in textbooks, guide books, lo-and-found logbooks, and police records. Furthermore, since the objective type usually deals with the description of objects, persons, or space, it uses the space order. The writer determines the starting focal pint and then proceeds smoothly and continuously without interruption for regression to the right, or vice versa; from near to far or vice versa; from the top to the bottom, or vice versa; from the outside to the inside, etc. In effect, the sequence of the description imitates the movement of the eye of the video camera.
  74. 96. The other type, subjective description, also referred to as artistic aims to give pleasure or to elicit special feelings or reaction; hence, it is suggestive and evocative in language. This type of description is often employed in narratives, poetry, and at times in expository discourses. However, most paragraphs utilize both the subjective and the objective types as shown in the sample paragraph.
  75. 97. Sample paragraph Once Upon a Time in Peggy’s Cove Peggy’s Cove lies along what is known as Lighthouse Route on Nova Scotia’s southern coast. Images of this tiny fishing village come to my mind the charm of Peggy’s Cove is in the village itself. Perched on granite rocks that were left behind by the receding glaciers ten thousand years ago, it looks picturesque. The rocks have since been smoothened by the constant lashing of the waves from the Atlantic Ocean. The stark whiteness of the rocks makes a striking contrast to the color of the quaint cottages with roof painted in bright red of varying shades. Below the rocks , fishing boats that are no less brightly colored, ply the waters. A little up left, the Atlantic ocean comes in full view. The water is so placid that it might as well be name Pacific. Its hue of brilliant blue seems mysteriously hypnotic. It beckons the beholder to come closer to the edge and be engulfe3d in its majestic beauty. This is Peggy’s Cove.
  76. 98. Analyzing the Structure of the Sample Paragraph Unity Topic Sentence – the charm of Peggy’s Cove in the village itself Controlling idea – charm village Supporting Details- description of the village – lies along Lighthouse Route tiny fishing village, picturesque; perched on granite rocks, stark whiteness of rocks, a contrast to red. Roofed cottages, brightly painted boats ply the serene water, ocean hue of brillian blue, very hypnotic.
  77. 99.   Coherence Logical bridge – space order – village itself, perched on rocks-cottages-boats- Atlantic Ocean focal point – the village itself. Verbal bridge – signal words denoting locations or direction on, around, below, further, up left
  78. 100. Type of Description Objective description – a fishing village, perched on granite rocks, rocks lashed by waves, white rocks, red roofed cottages , serene waters. Subjective description – tiny –connotes familiarity, picturesque- suggests no ordinary beauty, stark- hints of total complete quality, quaint- conjures feelings of nostalgia, a longing for the pleasant past placid, pacific- conveys serenity, peace, hypnotic-arouses mystery, fear of the unknown.
  79. 101. Giving Titles Titles – a distinguishing name of a book, poem, selection, picture, etc. oftentimes, the title spells the difference between a well-read and a less read material. A catchy, striking, or attractive title entices yo to read on. Therefore, it pays to have a title that is not only relevant and suggestive of the content, but also attractive.
  80. 102. Paragraph by Example
  81. 104. Sample Paragraph What a Piece of Work is Man! No man has painted more deep-dyed villain than has Shakespeare, but at some hour in the lives of these most wicked of characters, you see their souls quivering under the eyes of God. Macbeth has murdered the king; in the midst of festivity he sees the ghost, the shadow of his conscience! The king in Hamlet has murdered his brother; at the hour of midnight, he is a man alone with the Eternal God. He trembles like a coward; the murderer wants to pray. A sea of blood rolls between his guilty soul and the merciful eyes of God. See Richard the Third who sailed his craft of state on a sea of blood up to the English throne. Alone in his tent, he cries out in his sleep the nature of murdered dead. These examples illustrate that at some hour in each sinner’s life, he stands there in the Valley of sin and yearns for God’s forgiveness.
  82. 105. Analyzing the Structure of the Sample Paragraph Unity Topic Sentence - …but at some hour in the lives of the most wicked of characters, you see their souls quivering under the eyes of God. Controlling idea - wicked characters quivering under the eyes of God Supporting details – Examples of deep-dyed villains who quiver before God: Macbeth has murdered the king; sees the ghost-shadow of his conscience; The king in hamlet has murdered his brother; at midnight he trembles like a coward; Richard the Third has murdered the king of England; alone in his ten, he cries out the name of the murdered dead.
  83. 106. Coherence Logical Bridge (paragraph order) – (deductive): from general (topic sentence) to particular (examples of deep-dyed villains who quiver before God.) Verbal Bridge(Structural Device) - Repetition of key words- Deep-dyed villains, most wicked characters, murderer
  84. 107.   Forming Opinion Opinion is a belief that rests on grounds insufficient to produce certainty, yet it is shared by many. Opinion may take the form of a sentiment, an impression, or a point of view – something that cannot be measured objectively. To say that one is beautiful is subjective, and, therefore, may be an opinion’ but to say that one has a wide forehead is objective and cannot pass for an opinion because the width of the forehead can be measured. Others people opinions may concur with or differ from your, but all opinions are correct as far as the one who expresses it is concerned. However, although all opinions are well taken, responsible people do not form opinions indiscriminately; rather, they weigh the facts carefully before coming up with a well though-of opinion.
  85. 108. Paragraph by Classification
  86. 110. A paragraph by classification divides people, places, or things into groups. The classification is normally made according to a criterion or several criteria (standards or principles on which judgment is based). In the sample paragraph, the chemical hazards, its forms, and its preventive measures are the criteria or bases of classification.
  87. 111. Some signal words (a type of verbal bridge) used for classification are: basis/bases divide into/subdivide criterion/criteria classify/sub-classify characteristics features two of the … groups/subgroups categorize/subcategorize category/subcategory several classes/subclasses a number of main type arrange suborder
  88. 112. Developing Reading Skills
  89. 113. Outlining Outlining is a reading skill used in taking down notes from a reading material. It enables one to differentiate general information from one which is specific. In an outline, any section which is subdivided must have at least two subdivisions.
  90. 114. <ul><li>Kinds of Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence outline – is one in which the main sections and subsections are expressed in sentence form. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic outline – contains headings which may be words, phrases, or clauses. The grammatical structures for all the headings to be used must be parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph outline – is a special kind of sentence outline which is like the summary or the précis of a reading material. It is a numbered list of sentences, each of which contains the topic or main idea of each paragraph </li></ul>
  91. 115. Logical subordination. Items in the outline should be logically subordinated. Sub-points listed under larger headings should be subordinate in meaning, and should not be of equal importance to them or even greater. Any sub-point should be related to the major point under which it is listed.
  92. 116. Parallel structure. All members of the division of equal rank should have similar grammatical structure. If you start with a noun phrase for the first of the main headings, the 2 nd , 3 rd , 3tc. must also be expressed as noun phrases. Unnecessary shifts from active to passive voice or from statement to question should be avoided. Mechanics. The first words of an outline are always capitalized. For a topical outline, no end punctuation is used.
  93. 119. Opposing or Block Pattern Alternating Pattern <ul><li>Subject A: </li></ul><ul><li>First characteristic of A </li></ul><ul><li>Second characteristic of A </li></ul><ul><li>Third characteristic of A, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject B </li></ul><ul><li>First characteristic of B </li></ul><ul><li>Second characteristic of B </li></ul><ul><li>Third characteristic of B, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>First characteristic: </li></ul><ul><li>of Subject A </li></ul><ul><li>of Subject of B </li></ul><ul><li>Second characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>of Subject A </li></ul><ul><li>of Subject B </li></ul><ul><li>Third characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>of Subject A </li></ul><ul><li>of Subject B </li></ul>
  94. 120. In the opposing or block pattern, all the characteristics of Subject A are explained fully or completely before the characteristics of Subject B. are discussed. In the alternating pattern, the characteristics of Subjects A and B are elucidated alternately; that is; the first characteristic of Subject A is discussed fully, followed by the elaboration of the first characteristic of Subject B. Then the second characteristic of subject B is also taken up fully, and so on.
  95. 121. Some signal words (type of verbal bridge) used for comparison and contrast are: For comparison like in the same manner equally so also too Likewise both similarly For contrasting whereas in contrast on the contrary yet instead to differentiate however but on the other hand
  96. 122. Developing Reading Skills
  97. 123. Skimming and Scanning Skimming and scanning are two reading skills most needed when we have to read to learn, and when we have to search for information from volumes of reading materials. Skimming is used in looking for general ideas. We skim pages, chapters, tables of contents, and even dictionaries, to find out if the reading material contains the information we need. Scanning on the other hand, is done to find specific information in answer to specific questions.
  98. 124. <ul><li>When skimming: </li></ul><ul><li>Study the title of the chapter, section, or article. The title tells a lot about the content. </li></ul><ul><li>Find the main idea. </li></ul><ul><li>When scanning: </li></ul><ul><li>Study the topic sentence to determine if the information you need to answer a specific question is discussed in the paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Have in mind what you are looking for; look for the keywords. </li></ul>
  99. 125. Paragraph by Analogy
  100. 127. A paragraph by analogy compares two different things on the basis of their similarities in certain respects. It is used most effectively in explaining difficult or unknown concepts. This kind or paragraph development premises its explanation on the familiar or known, so that the logical order (from the familiar to the unfamiliar) is presumed to be the best paragraph order. Analogy differs from comparison and contrast as a method of paragraph development because analogy compares two things belonging to different classes 9in the sample paragraph, learning and growing a garden), while comparison and contrast compares two things of the same kind (e.g., two persons, two places).
  101. 128. Read the following paragraphs and notice how two different ideas or things are compared through analogy. Sample There is an old story that says you can’t kill a frog by putting him in boiling water. He reacts so quickly to the sudden heat that he jumps before he is burned. But if you put him in cold water and then warm it up gradually, he never decides to jump until it is too late. By then, he is cooked. Men are just foolish. Take way their freedom overnight and you have a violent revolution. But steal it from them gradually in the guise of security, peace, and progress and you can paralyze an entire nation. Adapted, Lunberg, in Manalo 133
  102. 129. Paragraph by Cause and Effects
  103. 130. <ul><li>Discussing the Characteristics of the Paragraph Developed by Cause and Effect </li></ul>In a paragraph developed by cause and effect, the writer points out the relationship between certain events or situations and their consequences .
  104. 131. Kernelizing Kernelizing is the process of breaking down into simple sentences long sentences having many ideas. This reading skill is an aid for better comprehension.
  105. 134. A definition makes clear the meaning of a word or an idea in simple and understandable terms. It includes the term to be defined, the class or species to which the term or idea belongs and the distinguishing characteristic/s that make the term or idea different from the other members belonging to the same class or species. There are three types of definition: the synonym, the intensive definition, and the extensive definition. A synonym is a word that is similar or almost similar in meaning to the word or idea being defined.
  106. 135. Examples pretty and beautiful adept and skillful An intensive definition is a one-sentence definition that includes the term to be defined, the class to which the term belongs, and the characteristic/s that make it different from others in the same class or species. Example intensive definition: emotional intelligence (term) is abilities(class) involving emotional discipline and control (characteristics differentiating EQ from other abilities) The extensive definition is an expansion of the intensive definition (or one-sentence definition) into a paragraph. The intensive definition is amplified into a paragraph through the use of one or more methods of paragraph development; such as: example, classification, analogy, description, comparison, contrast, cause and effect, etc.
  107. 136. Identifying the Main Ideas The main idea is the most important thought the author aims to develop. The main idea of a paragraph is located in the topic sentence which may ne stated or implied.
  108. 138. Discussing the Structure of the Paragraph Interpreting Graphic <ul><li>Linear bars,graphs, pricture or pie graphs, tables, and charts are graphic </li></ul><ul><li>or non-prose-reading materials. They contain summarized information or </li></ul><ul><li>Presented in a systematic and logically organized form using symbos and </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers.These graphic materials are very good sources of data or infor- </li></ul><ul><li>Mation for research. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis and interpetatin of these non-prose materials usually makes </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the inductive method. In effect, the sequence is: </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with and introduction of what the graphic material presents; ex.The </li></ul><ul><li>table presents the dollar remittances of overseas workers. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Give a general statement that contains the main idea; for example “The US </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar remittances iof the OFW’s tolated to US S7.9B. This serves as the </li></ul><ul><li>Topic sentence. </li></ul>
  109. 139. <ul><li>3. Present the details to support the topic sentence. These are the </li></ul><ul><li>Quarterly remittances. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Close the presentation of supporting details with a clinching </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence in the form of a summary of findings;for example, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Remittances for the 1 st and 3 rd quarters were low, while those for the 2 nd </li></ul><ul><li>and 4 th quarters were high. </li></ul><ul><li>5.State the generalization which is your conclusion based on the findings, as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The high remittances for the 2 nd quarters may be due to the opening of </li></ul><ul><li>Classes in June and the advent of Christmas in December. Both seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Entail extra expenses.” </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting data from graphs/tables requires of the writer: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to present the facts/information objectively, avoiding conjectures </li></ul><ul><li>or opinions; </li></ul><ul><li>2. A keen sense or ability to see the significance of the relationship between </li></ul><ul><li>the parts (details0 and the topic to the whole paragraph; and </li></ul><ul><li>3. The ability to interpret facts and to form a generalization based on the details </li></ul><ul><li>Presented.` </li></ul>
  110. 141. <ul><li>A composition is an exercise of putting together words, sentences, and </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraphs that are combined into a whole. A short composition may have </li></ul><ul><li>Five to eight paragraphs or may be two to five pages in length. It has a </li></ul><ul><li>Central purpose or objective that controls the whole composition. The purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Is expressed in a sentence called thesis statement, usually found in the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph of the composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Title – the title is often a fragment. The first and the last words and all the </li></ul><ul><li>Important words are capitalized. Prepositions, articles, and short conjuctions </li></ul><ul><li>Not capitalized unless they are the first or the last words fo the title. </li></ul><ul><li>Points to consider in writing a title: </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate what the composition is about </li></ul><ul><li>Created reader’s interest to read the compostion </li></ul><ul><li>Be brief as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Attention - getting titles capture the reader’s attention and draw him into writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Several strategies could be used to create this type of heading. </li></ul>
  111. 142. <ul><li>Aliteration – repetition of the initial sounds ex. Lasers, Light, and love </li></ul><ul><li>Allusion – reference to a famous play, book, song, slogan, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. A Separate Peace in Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Pun/Humor – a play on words using sound or meaning ex. American </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents: An Acid Reign </li></ul><ul><li>Startling Question – Example: Is Homework Deadly? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introduction – this is the first major part of the composition. It includes </li></ul><ul><li>The thesis statement which gives the plan for the compostion, Its purpose is to </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the reader for the suject, to engage his interest in it and to lead him to </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the ff. points in organizing your Introduction: </li></ul><ul><li>Write an opening sentence or two to attract the reader’s attention and to </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is his interest on the thesis or topic of the composition. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Write a sentence or two either before the thesis statement or after it, to give </li></ul><ul><li>The background of the subject, to set the limits of the discussion or to clarify </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of the keywords in the thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Write the thesis statement. This has a main idea or a subject followed </li></ul>
  112. 143. <ul><li>Followed by two or three parts or supports. The supports are often introduced by </li></ul><ul><li>Because, as, due to, or by a punctuation mark, usually the colon. For style or for </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis, the supports precede the main idea. The parts supports of the thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Statement determine the content, the order and the aproximate wording of the </li></ul><ul><li>Topic sentences that begin the paragraphs in the main text or discussion. In turn, </li></ul><ul><li>The topic sentences dictate the organization of the paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hook your reader. To get your reader’s interest in your subject matter, and to </li></ul><ul><li>Keep him reading, you may choose any one of the six different strategies you feel </li></ul><ul><li>Is best to get your idea across to your reader and to suit your purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested Techniques for Writing the Introductory Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatize or present part of an anecdote. Present a brief dramatic scene or part </li></ul><ul><li>of an interesting or humorous story. Highlight someone or an incident that you will </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss or characterize later in your discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with a quotation. Quotations which sum up an idea are found in plays, short </li></ul><ul><li>Stories, novels, poems, songs, newspapers., magazines, and textbooks. Set the </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation marks, then follow it up with you own words. </li></ul>
  113. 144. c. Surprise with an expected point of view. Catch the reader off guard, startle Him by beginning the introduction with a point of view he doesn’t expect. Contradict what you think he believes as true or right. d. Begin with a question. Asking a question involves the reader’s participation He thinks actively about the question asked, before he is led to the writer’s answer In the thesis statement. e. Build Background. Present a background information in a series of statements that Will build and strengthen the thesis. This develops the reader’s interest until the Climactic presentation of the thesis at the end of the introductory paragraph. f. Combine these techniques or simplify them. An anecdote can include a Quotation. A question may precede a surprise point of view. A dramatic scene can be Simplified by summing it up in one statement. Background information can be Shortened.
  114. 145. <ul><li>3.Body/Main Text/ Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>This is the second major part of the composition. It is determined by </li></ul><ul><li>The supports in the thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the correct order. The orderly sequencing of ideas in a composition </li></ul><ul><li>Is one way of obtaining coherence in a composition. The choice of proper order </li></ul><ul><li>Will depend on the purpose of the composition. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Choosing an effective methods of paragraph development. The appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Method hinges again upon the thesis statement which may be amplified through </li></ul><ul><li>Examples, narrations, giving causes and effects, descriptions, comparisons,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Keeping a balance. This depends too, on the purpose of the composition as stated </li></ul><ul><li>In the thesis statement of the introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Providing signals (Verbal Bridges). Signals should be provided for important points </li></ul><ul><li>In the composition particularly the major turning points. </li></ul>
  115. 146. <ul><li>d. Paving the way. Pave the way for the reader. Word choice, sentence </li></ul><ul><li>structure, and organization of the paragraphs should be smooth and readable. </li></ul><ul><li>The composition should be a pleasure to read. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Concluding Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>The concluding paragraph is the third major part of the composition. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most powerful part of writing. It should provoke the reader and stimulate </li></ul><ul><li>him to think about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Essential functions of a good conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>Restates the thesis statement – this reasserts the idea in the thesis statement </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizes the main points – a summary draws together and reinforces the main </li></ul><ul><li>a composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Offers solutions to a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Presents opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Use final question – A final question often prompts the reader to think further on the </li></ul><ul><li>topic. If your composition persuades, the concluding question may pave the way </li></ul><ul><li>for a reasonable person to emphasize your point of view. </li></ul>
  116. 147. <ul><li>Provide a captivating quotation . A quotation can capture the essence of your </li></ul><ul><li>thought end the composition with authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain the reader’s interest by an ironic twist or surprising observation. This </li></ul><ul><li>technique sustains the reader’s interest and prompts him to think further about </li></ul><ul><li>The topic discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize through a clever or lighthearted ending. The writer ends by exagge- </li></ul><ul><li>rating the fault or the idea criticized. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge the reader. A challenge often engages the reader to take action. </li></ul><ul><li>Express hope or a recommendation. Both hope and recommendation may restate </li></ul><ul><li>points mentioned in the composition or suggest actions to take in order to arrive at </li></ul><ul><li>a solution. </li></ul>