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Biological Science boa


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Biological Science boa

  2. 3. <ul><li>State the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform the Experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a conclusion. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Curiosity and Fascination of the world around us </li></ul><ul><li>Curious asking and observing are the start of science. Indeed, all scientist have that curious child in their hearts and minds. </li></ul>
  5. 6. 2. Humility and Healthy Skepticism <ul><li>A good scientist must be humble to accept that they does not have the answer to every question; a good scientist also admits his mistakes. </li></ul>
  6. 7. 3.Positive Attitude toward Failure <ul><li>Science is not only getting the answer. It is also about the process of getting the answer. It is from failure that one learns lesson to modify and improve the experiment. </li></ul>
  7. 8. 4. Open-mindedness <ul><li>Science need scientists with ideas that run counter to preconceive notions. These scientists are not afraid to see things with an open mind and try new techniques. “Think outside the box” </li></ul>
  8. 9. 5. Patience <ul><li>A good scientist must be patient. A scientist is always ready to try again especially when things do not work. </li></ul>
  9. 10. 6. Perseverance <ul><li>Doing scientific research is like a steep climb. You just have to keep going, persevere no matter what in order to succeed </li></ul>
  10. 11. 7. Self-Confidence <ul><li>A scientist is confident and is ready to depend his work especially if he knows that he is on the right track. </li></ul>
  11. 12. 8. Intellectual Honesty <ul><li>Science is a continuum of knowledge. It is also important that scientist do not claim to be the author of a work that is not theirs. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 9. Scientific Intuition <ul><li>A scientist has the gut feeling to intuitively predict that something will happen. This prediction is based on the scientific training and understanding of the scientific principle. </li></ul>
  13. 14. 10. Serendipity <ul><li>Most scientific breakthroughs came out of serendipity. </li></ul>
  15. 16. The early Earth and its atmosphere <ul><li>Billions of years ago stellar explosion ripped through our galaxy, leaving behind a dense cloud of dust and gas that extended trillion of kilometers in space </li></ul><ul><li>Farther out from the center of the disk and other planets were also forming under gravitational forces. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Long before life appeared in the forbidding place, gasses trapped beneath the thin crust or formed during reaction in the earth’s molten interior. Thus, causing forming the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of earth’s size and its distance from the sun the earth could retain liquid water on its surface. </li></ul>
  17. 18. GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE with emphasis on life development
  18. 19. Cenozoic (65 Million Years to the Present ) <ul><li>The Cenozoic is the most recent of the three major subdivisions of animal history. The other two are the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The Cenozoic spans only about 65 million years, from the end of the Cretaceous and the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs to the present. The Cenozoic is sometimes called the Age of Mammals , because the largest land animals have been mammals during that time. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Mesozoic Era (248 to 65 Million Years Ago) <ul><li>The Mesozoic is divided into three time periods: the Triassic (245-208 Million Years Ago), the Jurassic (208-146 Million Years Ago), and the Cretaceous (146-65 Million Years Ago). </li></ul>
  20. 22. The Paleozoic Era (543 to 248 Million Years Ago) <ul><li>The Paleozoic is bracketed by two of the most important events in the history of animal life. At its beginning, multicelled animals underwent a dramatic &quot;explosion&quot; in diversity, and almost all living animal phyla appeared within a few millions of years. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>At the other end of the Paleozoic, the largest mass extinction in history wiped out approximately 90% of all marine animal species. The causes of both these events are still not fully understood and the subject of much research and controversy. Roughly halfway in between, animals , fungi , and plants alike colonized the land, the insects took to the air, and the limestone shown in this picture was deposited near Burlington, Missouri </li></ul>
  22. 25. The Divisions of Precambrian Time
  23. 26. Introduction to the Archaean (3.8 to 2.5 billion yrs. Ago) <ul><li>If you were able to travel back to visit the Earth during the Archaean, you would likely not recognize it is the same planet we inhabit today. The atmosphere was very different from what we breathe today; at that time, it was likely a reducing atmosphere of methane, ammonia, and other gases which would be toxic to most life on our planet today. Also during this time, the Earth's crust cooled enough that rocks and continental plates began to form </li></ul>
  25. 29. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>Contain aldehyde or a ketone group, one or more hydroxyl groups </li></ul><ul><li>monasaccharides – ex. Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>disaccharides – ex. Sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>polysaccharides – starch cellulose </li></ul>
  26. 30. LIPIDS <ul><li>Are largely hydrocarbon, generally do not dissolve in water but dissolve in nonpolar substances </li></ul>
  27. 31. PROTEINS <ul><li>Are polypeptides (up to several thousand of amino acids, covalently linked) </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEOTIDES </li></ul><ul><li>- Are derived from monomers having a five-carbon sugar, a phospate group, and a nitrogen-containing base </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>BIOSPHERE – Those regions of the earth’s waters, crust, and atmosphere in which organisms can exist. </li></ul><ul><li>ECOSYSTEM – Any community and its physical and chemical environment </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>COMMUNITY – The populations of all species that occupy </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION – Group of individuals of the same kind (that is the same species) occupying a given area </li></ul><ul><li>MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM – Individual composed of specialized, interdependent cells arrayed in tissues, organs, and often organ systems </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>ORGAN SYSTEM – Two or more organ whose separate functions are integrated in the performance of a specific task </li></ul><ul><li>ORGAN – One or more type of tissues interacting as a structural, functional unit. </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>TISSUE – A group of cells and intercellular substances functioning together in a specialized activity </li></ul><ul><li>CELL – Smallest living unit; may live independently or may be part of a multicellular organism. </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>ORGANELLE – Any various membranous sacs or other compartments inside the cell that separate different metabolic reactions within the cellular space and in time. </li></ul><ul><li>MOLECULE – A unit of two or more atoms of the same or different metabolic reactions within the cellular space and in time. </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>ATOM – Smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of that element. </li></ul><ul><li>SUBATOMIC PARTICLE – An electron, or neutron; one of the three major particles of which atoms are composed. </li></ul>
  35. 39. THE CELL
  36. 40. CELL THEORY <ul><li>Cell is the basic unit of life. </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are made up of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells came from the division of pre-existing cells </li></ul>
  37. 41. CELL STRUCTURE <ul><li>Three fundamental parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus - control center of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane – serves as the outer covering of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm – site of metabolic processes </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. ORGANELLES <ul><li>ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - manufacture of protein, lipid components of membranes; modification of proteins destined for secretion </li></ul><ul><li>GOLGI BODIES – transport of proteins and other materials </li></ul><ul><li>LYSOSOMES – degredation, recycling of materials </li></ul>
  39. 43. <ul><li>VESICLES – transport of materials </li></ul><ul><li>MITOCHONDRIA – extraction of energy from carbohydrates; ATP formation </li></ul><ul><li>RIBOSOME – protein synthesis </li></ul>
  40. 44. <ul><li>LYSOSOME – controlled degredation, material processing </li></ul><ul><li>PLASTIDS </li></ul><ul><li>chloroplast – photosynthesis, some starch storage </li></ul><ul><li>chloromoplast – pigment storage </li></ul><ul><li>amyloplast – starch storage </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>CYTOSKELETON – cytoplasmic organizations, support </li></ul><ul><li>MICROTUBULE, MICROFILAMENT, AND RELATED STRUCTURES – structural support, subcellular and cellular movement </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRIOLE – give rise to cilia and flagella </li></ul>
  42. 46. PLANT CELL
  43. 47. ANIMAL CELL
  46. 50. DIFFUSION <ul><li>With the concentration gradient through the lipid portion of the cell membrane or through membrane channels </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride ions and urea </li></ul>
  47. 51. OSMOSIS <ul><li>With the concentration gradient through the lipid portion of the cell membrane or through membrane channels </li></ul><ul><li>ex. water </li></ul>
  48. 52. FILTRATION <ul><li>Movement of liquid and substances by pressure through a partition containing holes </li></ul><ul><li>ex. In the kidneys, filtration of everything in blood smaller than proteins and blood cells </li></ul>
  49. 53. FACILITATED DIFFUSION <ul><li>With the concentration gradient by carrier molecules </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Glucose in most cells </li></ul>
  51. 55. ACTIVE TRANSPORT <ul><li>Against the concentration gradient by carrier molecules </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Na+, K+, Ca2+, and H+; amino acids </li></ul>
  52. 56. SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT <ul><li>Against the concentration gradient by carrier molecules; the energy for secondary active transport of one substance comes from the concentration gradient of another </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Glucose, amino acids </li></ul>
  53. 57. ENDOCYTOSIS <ul><li>Movement into cells by vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Ingestion of particles by phagocytosis or receptor- mediated endocytosis and liquids by pinocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>EXOCYTOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Movement into cells </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Secretion of proteins </li></ul>
  54. 58. TISSUES
  55. 59. EPITHELIAL TISSUE <ul><li>Epithelial tissue covers surfaces, usually has a basement membrane, has little extra-cellular material, and has no blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA </li></ul><ul><li>-general functions of epithelia include protection, permitting the passage of substances, secreting substances, and absorption of substances </li></ul>
  56. 60. CONNECTIVE TISSUE <ul><li>connective tissue holds cells and tissues together </li></ul><ul><li>connective tissue has an extracellular matrix consisting of protein fibers, ground substance, and fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen fibers are flexible but resisting stretching, reticular fibers form a fiber network, and elastic fibers recoil </li></ul>
  57. 61. FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE <ul><li>Connective tissues enclose and separate; connect tissues to one another; play a role in support and movement; store, cushion, insulate, transport, and protect. </li></ul>
  58. 62. MUSCLE TISSUE <ul><li>Muscle tissue is specialized to shorten, or contract. </li></ul><ul><li>the three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle </li></ul>
  59. 63. NERVOUS TISSUE <ul><li>Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct action potentials </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons conduct action potentials, and neuroglia support the neurons </li></ul>
  60. 64. <ul><li>tissue repair is the substitution of viable cells for dead cells. Labile cells divide throughout life and can undergo regeneration. Stable cells do not ordinarily divide but can regenerate if necessary. Permanent cells have little or no ability to divide but can regenerate if necessary </li></ul>
  62. 66. <ul><li>tissue repair clot formation, inflammation, formation of granulation tissue, and the regeneration or replacement of tissues. In severe wounds, wound contracture. </li></ul>
  64. 68. <ul><li>cells divide more slowly as people age. Injuries heal more slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>Extracellular matrix containing collagen and elastic fibers become less flexible and less and elastic. Consequently, skin wrinkles elasticity in arteries is reduced, and bones break more easily. </li></ul>
  66. 70. <ul><li>the functions of the digestive system are to take in food, break down the food, absorb the digested molecules, and, thus, provide nutrients to the body. </li></ul>
  68. 72. Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esopaghus <ul><li>the lips and cheeks are involved in mastication and speech </li></ul><ul><li>the tongue is involved in speech, taste, mastication, and swallowing. </li></ul><ul><li>there are 32 permanent teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Each tooth consists of a crown, neck and root. </li></ul>
  69. 73. <ul><li>the roof of the oral cavity is divided into the hard and soft palates. </li></ul><ul><li>salivary glands produce serous and mucous secretions. The three pairs of large salivary glands are the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. </li></ul>
  70. 74. PHARYNX <ul><li>The pharynx consists of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>ESOPHAGUS </li></ul><ul><li>The esophagus connects the pharynx to the stomach. The upper and lower esophageal sphincters regulate movement. </li></ul>
  71. 75. STOMACH <ul><li>The stomach has a cardiac opening from the esophagus and a pyloric opening into the duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>the wall of the stomach consists of three muscle layers, circular, and oblique </li></ul><ul><li>gastric glands produce mucus, hydrochloric acid ,pepsin, gastrin, and intrinsic factor </li></ul>
  72. 76. SMALL INTESTINE <ul><li>The small intestine is divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. </li></ul><ul><li>circular folds, villi, and microvilli greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal lining. </li></ul><ul><li>goblet cells and duodenal glands produce mucus. </li></ul>
  73. 77. LIVER <ul><li>the liver consists of four lobes. It receives blood from the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein. </li></ul><ul><li>The liver is divided into lobules with portal triads at the corners. </li></ul><ul><li>Bile leaves the liver through the hepatic duct system. The right and left hepatic bladder ducts joins to form the common hepatic duct. </li></ul>
  74. 78. Functions of the Liver <ul><li>the liver produces bile, which contains bile salts that emulsify fats. </li></ul><ul><li>the liver stores and processes nutrients, produces new molecules, and detoxifies molecules </li></ul><ul><li>the liver produces blood proteins </li></ul>
  75. 79. PANCREAS <ul><li>The pancreas is an endocrine and an exocrine gland. Its endocrine function is to control blood nutrient levels. Its exocrine function is to produce bicarbonate ions and digestive enzymes </li></ul>
  76. 80. Functions of the Pancreas <ul><li>the pancreas produces bicarbonate ions and digestive enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>acidic chyme stimulates the release of a watery bicarbonate solution that neutralizes acidic chyme. Fatty acids anda mino acids in the duodenum stimulate the release of pancreatic enzymes. </li></ul>
  77. 81. LARGE INTESTINE <ul><li>The cecum forms a blind sac at the junction of the small and large intestines. The appendix is a blind sac off the cecum. </li></ul><ul><li>the colon consists of ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions. </li></ul>
  78. 82. Functions of the Large Intestine <ul><li>the function of the large intestine is feces production and water absorption </li></ul><ul><li>in the colon, chyme is converted into feces. </li></ul><ul><li>defecation is the elimination of feces. </li></ul>
  80. 84. SECRETIONS OF THE ORAL CAVITY <ul><li>amylase is saliva starts starch digestion. Mucin provides lubrication </li></ul><ul><li>mastication is accomplished by teeth, which cut, tear, and crush the food. </li></ul><ul><li>during the voluntary phase of deglutition, the soft palate close s the nasopharynx and the epiglottis closes the opening into the larynx </li></ul>
  81. 85. DEGLUTITION <ul><li>during the esophageal phase of deglutition, a wave of constriction (peristalsis) moves the food down the esophagus to the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>the stomach secretions are initiated by the sight, smell, taste, smell, taste or thought of food </li></ul>
  82. 86. REGULATION OF STOMACH SECRETIONS <ul><li>acidic chyme in the duodenum stimulates neuronal reflexes and the secretion of hormones that induce and then inhibit gastric secretions. Secretin, a gastric inhibit gastric secretion. </li></ul>
  83. 87. MOVEMENT IN THE STOMACH <ul><li>Mixing waves mix the stomach contents with the stomach secretions to form the chyme. </li></ul><ul><li>peristaltic waves more the chyme into the duodenum </li></ul>
  84. 88. Secretions of the small intestine <ul><li>mucus protects against digestive enzymes and stomach acids. </li></ul><ul><li>chemical or tactile irritation, vagal stimulation, and secretion stimulate intestinal secretion </li></ul>
  85. 89. Movement in the small intestine <ul><li>segmental contractions occur over short distances and mix the intestinal contents. </li></ul><ul><li>peristaltic contractions occur the length of the intestine and propel chyme through the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption in the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>most absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejunum. </li></ul>
  86. 90. DIGESTION, ABSORPTION, AND TRANSPORT <ul><li>Digestion is the chemical breakdown of organic molecules into their component parts. After the molecules are digested, some diffuse through the intestinal wall; others must be transported across the intestinal wall </li></ul>
  88. 92. FOODS
  89. 93. GO FOODS <ul><li>- Go foods are the type of a food group that provides energy, hence the name &quot;go&quot;. Examples of this type of food group are bread, rice cereals and other foods that primarily provides carbohydrates. </li></ul>
  90. 94. GLOW FOODS <ul><li>Glow foods are foods that enhances the quality or the &quot;Glow&quot; of our skin. this foods are rich in vitamin D that is important for the development of a healthy skin. green-leafy vegetables are examples of this food group </li></ul>
  91. 95. GROW FOODS <ul><li>Grow foods are foods that enhances growth development. foods like milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products are types of this food group. </li></ul>
  93. 97. Malnutrition <ul><li>Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or inadequate diet and nutrition. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under or overabundant in the diet. </li></ul>
  95. 99. Agricultural productivity <ul><li>Food shortages can be caused by poverty as farmers cannot afford or governments cannot provide the physical capital needed for higher yields that are found in modern agriculture , such as nitrogen fertilizers , pesticides and irrigation . Additional constraints include moves to stop supplying fertilizer to Africa on environmental grounds. [7] </li></ul>
  96. 100. Poverty and food prices <ul><li>The economist Amartya Sen observed that, in recent decades, famine has always a problem of food distribution and/or poverty, as there has been sufficient food to feed the whole population of the world. His states that malnutrition and famine were more related to problems of food distribution and purchasing power. [19] </li></ul><ul><li>It is argued that commodity speculator are increasing the cost of food. As the real estate bubble in the United States was collapsing, it is said that trillions of dollars moved to invest in food and primary commodities, causing the 2007-2008 food price crisis </li></ul>
  97. 101. Dietary practices <ul><li>The lack of breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children. Possible reasons for the dearth in the developing world may be that the average family thinks bottle feeding is better. [21] The WHO says mothers abandon it because they do not know how to get their baby to latch on properly or suffer pain and discomfort </li></ul>
  99. 103. <ul><li>According to the World Health Organization , malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality . Underweight births and inter-uterine growth restrictions cause 2.2 million child deaths a year. Poor or non-existent breastfeeding causes another 1.4 million. </li></ul>
  100. 104. <ul><li>Malnutrition increases the risk of infection and infectious disease; for example, it is a major risk factor in the onset of active tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>. According to The Lancet , malnutrition in the first two years is irreversible. Malnourished children grow up with worse health and lower educational achievements. Their own children also tend to be smaller. Hunger was previously seen as something that exacerbates the problems of diseases such as measles, pneumonia and diarrhea. But malnutrition actually causes diseases as well, and can be fatal in its own right. [3] </li></ul>
  102. 106. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>the respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood, regulates blood pH, produces sounds, moves air over sensory receptors that detect smell, and protects against some microorganisms </li></ul>
  104. 108. Nose and nasal cavity <ul><li>the bridge of the nose is the bone, and most of the external nose is cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>the nasal cavity warms, humidifies, and cleans the air. </li></ul>
  105. 109. Pharynx <ul><li>the nasopharynx joins the nasal cavity through the choane and cons the opening to the auditory tube and the pharyngeal tonsils. </li></ul><ul><li>the oropharynx joins the oral cavity and contains the palatine and lingual tonsils. </li></ul>
  106. 110. Larynx <ul><li>the larynx consists of three unpaired cartilages and six paired ones. </li></ul><ul><li>the vocal chords vibrate and produce sounds when air passes through the larynx. The force of air movement controls the loudness. </li></ul>
  107. 111. thrachea <ul><li>the trachea connects the larynx to the main bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>the main bronchi extend from the trachea to each lung. </li></ul>
  108. 112. LUNGS <ul><li>There are two lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The airway passages of the lungs branch and decrease in size. The main bronchi from the lobar, which go to each lobe of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>the bronchioles branch to form the terminal bronchioles </li></ul>
  109. 113. GAS EXCHANGE <ul><li>Ventilation supplies atmospheric air to the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>The next step in the process of respiration is the diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. </li></ul>
  110. 114. <ul><li>The respiratory membrane is all of the areas in which gas exchange between air and blood occurs </li></ul><ul><li>gas exchange does not occur in such other areas of the respiratory passageways as the bronchioles, bronchi and trachea. </li></ul>
  114. 118. CONTENT OF BLOOD
  115. 119. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>are disk-shaped cells containing hemoglobin, which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>in response to low-blood oxygen levels, the kidney produce erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cells production in bone marrow </li></ul>
  116. 120. White Blood Cells <ul><li>Protect the body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris </li></ul><ul><li>granulocytes contain cytoplasmic granules: and there are three types of granulocytes; neutrophils are small phagocycotic cells, basophils promote inflammation and eosinophils reduce inflammation </li></ul>
  117. 121. Platelets <ul><li>platelets are cell fragments involved with preventing blood loss </li></ul><ul><li>minor damage to blood vessels is repaired by platelet plugs </li></ul>
  118. 122. Plasma <ul><li>is a pale yellow fluid that consists of about 91 % of water, 7 % proteins and 2 % other substances such as ions, nutrients, gases and waste products </li></ul><ul><li>plasma proteins includes albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. </li></ul>
  119. 123. Blood Circulation
  120. 124. Blood supply to the heart <ul><li>the left and the right coronary arteries originate from the base of the aorta and supply the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>the inferior and superior vena cava enter the right atrium. The four pulmonary veins enter the left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>the pulmonary trunk exits the left ventricle. </li></ul>
  121. 125. ABO BLOOD GROUPING <ul><li>The system that is used to categorized human blood. </li></ul><ul><li>ABO antigens appear on the surface of the red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Type A blood has type A antigens, type B blood has type B antigens an, type AB blood has both antigens and O has neither </li></ul>
  122. 126. <ul><li>type A blood has anti –B antibodies, type B blood has anti –A antibodies, type AB blood has neither A or B antibodies, and type O blood has both –A and anti –B antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>mismatching the ABO blood group can result in transfusion reactions </li></ul>
  123. 127. Circulation Patterns
  124. 128. HEART <ul><li>The heart generates blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>the heart routes blood through the systemic and pulmonary circulation </li></ul><ul><li>the pumping action of the heart and the valves of the heart ensure a one-way flow of blood through the heart and blood vessels </li></ul>
  125. 129. Lymphatic system
  126. 130. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs. </li></ul>
  127. 131. Lymphatic Capillaries and Vessels <ul><li>The lymphatic capillaries and vessels are tiny, closed-ended vessels consisting of simple squamous epithelium. Combinations of lymphatic capillaries give rise to the lymphatic vessels that avoids the back-flow of blood from the parts of the body. </li></ul>
  128. 132. Tonsils <ul><li>the tonsils form a protective ring of lymphatic tissue around the opening between the nasal and oral cavities and the pharynx. They provide protection against pathogens entering from the nose and mouth. </li></ul>
  129. 133. Spleen <ul><li>the spleen is roughly the size of a clenched fist, and is located in the left, superior corner of the abdominal cavity. The spleen filters blood and contains small amount of blood that acts as a reservoir in case of blood loss. </li></ul>
  130. 134. Thymus <ul><li>The site of the production and maturation of lymphocytes. </li></ul>
  131. 135. Heart Diseases <ul><li>Endocarditis – is the inflammation of the endocardium. It affect the valves more severely than other areas of the heart and may lead to deposition of scar tissue, causing valves to become stenosed or incompetent. </li></ul>
  132. 136. <ul><li>Myocarditis – is the inflammation of the myocardium and can lead to heart failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Pericarditis – is the inflammation of the pericardium. Pericarditis can result from bacterial or viral infections and can be extremely painful. </li></ul>
  133. 137. Hypertension <ul><li>Hypertension or high blood pressure is the increase of the pressure of the flow of the blood through the vessels. This requires the heart to perform a greater-than-normal amount of work because of the increases afterload on the heart. </li></ul>
  134. 138. Immune System Problems <ul><li>Allergy – is a harmful response to an antigen that does not stimulate an adaptive immune response in most people. </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmmune disease – the immune system incorrectly treats self-antigens as foreign antigens </li></ul>
  135. 139. <ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – is a life threatening disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) </li></ul>
  138. 142. Support <ul><li>The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The pelvis and associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the ribs, costal cartilages, and the intercostal muscles the lungs would collapse. </li></ul>
  139. 143. Movement <ul><li>The joints between bones permit movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement, all coordinated by the nervous system. </li></ul>
  140. 144. Protection <ul><li>The skeleton protects many vital organs: </li></ul><ul><li>The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears. </li></ul><ul><li>The vertebrae protect the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels. </li></ul>
  141. 145. <ul><li>* The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip. </li></ul><ul><li>* The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>* The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder. </li></ul><ul><li>* The carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively. </li></ul>
  142. 146. Blood cell production <ul><li>The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, which takes place in red bone marrow. Marrow is found in the center of long bones </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not entirely made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone. </li></ul>
  143. 147. Endocrine regulation <ul><li>Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat </li></ul>
  144. 148. BONE STRUCTURE <ul><li>The average adult human skeleton has around 206 bones. These bones meet at joints, the majority of which are freely movable. The skeleton also contains cartilage for elasticity. Ligaments are strong strips of fibrous connective tissue that hold bones together at joints, thereby stabilizing the skeleton during movement. </li></ul>
  145. 149. JOINTS AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF MOVEMENT <ul><li>joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact.They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.[2] </li></ul><ul><li>Joints can also be classified functionally, by the degree of mobility they allow: </li></ul><ul><li>synarthrosis - permits little or no mobility. Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous joints (eg The Skull). </li></ul>
  146. 150. <ul><li>amphiarthrosis - permits slight mobility. Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (eg. Vertebrae). </li></ul><ul><li>* diarthrosis - permits a variety of movements. All diarthrosis joints are synovial joints (eg. Shoulder, Hip, Elbow, Knee etc), and the terms &quot;diarthrosis&quot; and &quot;synovial joint&quot; are considered equivalent by Terminologia Anatomica. </li></ul>
  149. 153. KINDS OF MUSCLES
  150. 154. Skeletal muscle or &quot;voluntary muscle&quot; <ul><li>anchored by tendons to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture. Though this postural control is generally maintained as a subconscious reflex, the muscles responsible react to conscious control like non-postural muscles. An average adult male is made up of 42% of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 36% (as a percentage of body mass). </li></ul>
  151. 155. Smooth muscle or &quot;involuntary muscle <ul><li>is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair). Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control . </li></ul>
  152. 156. Cardiac muscle <ul><li>is also an &quot;involuntary muscle&quot; but is more akin in structure to skeletal muscle, and is found only in the heart. </li></ul>
  154. 158. Osteoporosis <ul><li>is a disease of bone, which leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old sex-matched healthy person average) as measured by DXA; the term &quot;established osteoporosis&quot; includes the presence of a fragility fracture.[6] </li></ul>
  155. 159. <ul><li>Osteoporosis is most common in women after the menopause, when it is called postmenopausal osteoporosis, but may develop in men and premenopausal women in the presence of particular hormonal disorders and other chronic diseases or as a result of smoking and medications, specifically glucocorticoids, when the disease is craned steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP or GIOP). </li></ul>
  156. 160. Osteoarthritis <ul><li>(OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease), is a group of diseases and mechanical abnormalities entailing degradation of joints,[1] including articular cartilage and the subchondral bone next to it. Clinical symptoms of OA may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, inflammation, creaking, and locking of joints. In OA, a variety of potential forces—hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical—may initiate processes leading to loss of cartilage -- a strong protein matrix that lubricates and cushions the joints. </li></ul>
  157. 161. <ul><li>As the body struggles to contain ongoing damage, immune and regrowth processes can accelerate damage.[2] When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, subchondral bone may be exposed and damaged, with regrowth leading to a proliferation of ivory-like, dense, reactive bone in central areas of cartilage loss, a process called eburnation.[3] The patient increasingly experiences pain upon weight bearing, including walking and standing. Due to decreased movement because of the pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax.[4] OA is the most common form of arthritis,[4] and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States </li></ul>
  158. 162. Osteosarcoma <ul><li>is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. There is a preference for the metaphyseal region of tubular long bones. 50% of cases occur around the knee. It is a malignant connective (soft) tissue tumor whose neoplastic cells present osteoblastic differentiation and form tumoral bone. </li></ul>
  162. 166. Skin <ul><li>The skin is another part of the excretory system: it eliminates sweat that helps cool the body and regulate the concentration of salt. The salt helps evaporate the water, cooling off the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>The liver is an organ of the digestive system. It also helps in excreting wastes from the body in a variety of processes. Laboratory analysis reveals a high concentration of a small organelle called a peroxisome, responsible for breakdown of several toxic substances. It also takes in nitrogenous wastes and converts them to urea to reduce their toxicity. </li></ul>
  163. 167. Kidneys <ul><li>The key organs in the excretory system of vertebrates. (See protonephridia system for Platyhelminthes, metanephridia for Annelida, or the Malpighian tubes for insects and terrestrial arthropods.) The kidneys are placed on either side of the spinal column near the lower back. They are primarily responsible for filtering blood by removing nitrogenous wastes, though they also regulate blood pressure in a process called osmoregulation and also assist with the production of red blood cells </li></ul>
  164. 169. URINARY SYSTEM
  165. 170. <ul><li>The urinary system (also called excretory system or the genitourinary system) is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and the penis in males. The analogous organ in invertebrates is the nephridium. </li></ul>
  166. 171. KIDNEYS <ul><li>The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, which lie in the abdomen, retroperitoneal to the organs of digestion, around or just below the ribcage and close to the lumbar spine. The organ is about the size of a human fist and is surrounded by what is called Peri-nephric fat, and situated on the superior pole of each kidney is an adrenal gland. The kidneys receive their blood supply of 1.25 L/min (25% of the cardiac output) from the renal arteries which are fed by the abdominal aorta. This is important because the kidneys' main role is to filter water soluble waste products from the blood. The other attachment of the kidneys are at their functional endpoints the ureters, which lies more medial and runs down to the trigone of urinary bladder. </li></ul>
  167. 172. <ul><li>The kidneys perform a number of tasks, such as: concentrating urine, regulating electrolytes, and maintaining acid-base homeostasis. The kidney excretes and re-absorbs electrolytes (e.g. sodium, potassium and calcium) under the influence of local and systemic hormones. pH balance is regulated by the excretion of bound acids and ammonium ions. In addition, they remove urea, a nitrogenous waste product from the metabolism of amino acids. The end point is a hyperosmolar solution carrying waste for storage in the bladder prior to urination. </li></ul>
  169. 174. Benign prostatic hyperplasia <ul><li>(BPH) is a condition in men that affects the prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is located at the bottom of the bladder and surrounds the urethra. BPH is an enlargement of the prostate gland that can interfere with urinary function in older men. It causes blockage by squeezing the urethra, which can make it difficult to urinate. Men with BPH frequently have other bladder symptoms including an increase in frequency of bladder emptying both during the day and at night. Most men over age 60 have some BPH, but not all have problems with blockage. There are many different treatment options for BPH. </li></ul>
  170. 175. Painful bladder syndrome/Interstitial cystitis <ul><li>(PBS/IC) is a chronic bladder disorder also known as frequency-urgency-dysuria syndrome. In this disorder, the bladder wall can become inflamed and irritated. The inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, pinpoint bleeding, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining. The cause of IC is unknown at this time. </li></ul>
  171. 176. Kidney stones <ul><li>is the term commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the urinary system. Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. They vary in size. Some stones cause great pain while others cause very little. The aim of treatment is to remove the stones, prevent infection, and prevent recurrence. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are used. Kidney stones affect men more often than women. </li></ul>
  173. 178. PITUITARY GLAND <ul><li>he pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g (0.02 oz.). It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain. </li></ul>
  174. 179. <ul><li>The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating homeostasis, including tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence. </li></ul>
  175. 180. THYROID GLAND <ul><li>The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the thyroid cartilage (also known as the Adam's apple in men) and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones. </li></ul>
  176. 181. <ul><li>The thyroid participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Iodine and tyrosine are used to form both T3 and T4. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. </li></ul>
  177. 182. PANCREAS <ul><li>The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as an exocrine gland, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that pass to the small intestine. These enzymes help in the further breakdown of the carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the chyme </li></ul>
  178. 183. GONADS <ul><li>The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. The gonads in males are the testes and the gonads in females are the ovaries. The product, gametes, are haploid germ cells. For example, spermatozoon and egg cells are gametes. Although medically the gonad term can refer to either male gonads (testicles) or female gonads (ovaries), the vernacular, or slang, use of &quot;gonads&quot; (or &quot;nads&quot;) usually only refers to the testicles. </li></ul>
  180. 185. <ul><li>The menstrual cycle is a cycle of physiological changes that occurs in fertile females. Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the vagina) occurs primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees.[1] Females of other species of placental mammal undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the animal (covert menstruation) at the end of its reproductive cycle. This article focuses on the human menstrual cycle. </li></ul>
  181. 186. <ul><li>The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction. It may be divided into three distinct phases: menstruation, the follicular phase and the luteal phase.[2] Ovulation defines the transition from the follicular phase to the luteal phase. The length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days.[2] Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction. </li></ul>
  182. 187. <ul><li>Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, menses slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24-36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation. </li></ul>
  183. 188. <ul><li>After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. These hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining in a process termed menstruation. </li></ul>
  185. 190. Diabetes mellitus <ul><li>often referred to simply as diabetes—is a condition in which the body does not produce enough, or properly respond to, insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. In diabetes, the body either doesn't respond properly to its own insulin, doesn't make enough insulin, or both. </li></ul>
  186. 191. <ul><li>This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood, often leading to various complications.[2][3] The American Diabetes Association reported in 2009 that there are 23.6 million children and adults in the United States—7.8% of the population, who have diabetes. While an estimated 17.9 million in the US alone have been diagnosed with diabetes, nearly one in four (5.7 million) diabetics are unaware that they have the disease.[3] </li></ul>
  187. 192. Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion <ul><li>(or Cushing disease) is a form of hyperpituitarism characterized by an abnormally high level of ACTH produced by the anterior pituitary.[1] </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the causes of Cushing's syndrome. (However, Cushing's syndrome can be caused by many other causes, including exogenous administration.) </li></ul><ul><li> A goitre </li></ul><ul><li>or goiter also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the thyroid gland,[1] which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx </li></ul>
  188. 193. Gender identity disorder <ul><li>(GID) is the formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe persons who experience significant gender dysphoria (discontent with the biological sex they were born with). It is a psychiatric classification and describes the attributes related to transsexuality, transgender identity, and transvestism. </li></ul>
  189. 194. <ul><li>Gender identity disorder in children is usually reported as &quot;having always been there&quot; since childhood, and is considered clinically distinct from GID which appears in adolescence or adulthood, which has been reported by some as intensifying over time.[1] Since many cultures strongly disapprove of cross-gender behavior, it often results in significant problems for affected persons and those in close relationships with them. In many cases, discomfort is also reported as stemming from the feeling that one's body is &quot;wrong&quot; or meant to be different </li></ul>
  190. 196. NERVOUS SYSTEM
  191. 197. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>The central nervous system (CNS) is the largest part of the nervous system, and includes the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cavity holds and protects the spinal cord, while the head contains and protects the brain. The CNS is covered by the meninges, a three layered protective coat. The brain is also protected by the skull, and the spinal cord is also protected by the vertebrae. </li></ul>
  192. 198. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS <ul><li>The PNS is a regional term for the collective nervous structures that do not lie in the CNS. The bodies of the nerve cells lie in the CNS, either in the brain or the spinal cord, and the longer of the cellular processes of these cells, known as axons, extend through the limbs and the flesh of the torso. The large majority of the axons, which are commonly called nerves, are considered to be PNS. </li></ul>
  193. 199. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>The autonomic nervous system, which mediates involuntary behaviors such as heartbeat and breathing, consists of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell bodies of afferent PNS nerves lie in the dorsal root ganglia </li></ul>
  194. 200. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS <ul><li>The PNS is a regional term for the collective nervous structures that do not lie in the CNS. The bodies of the nerve cells lie in the CNS, either in the brain or the spinal cord, and the longer of the cellular processes of these cells, known as axons, extend through the limbs and the flesh of the torso. The large majority of the axons, which are commonly called nerves, are considered to be PNS. </li></ul>
  196. 202. Alzheimer Disease <ul><li>Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in western civilization. It affects more women than men, and the clinical course generally lasts approximately five years.  The younger the individual is at the onset of the disease, the more severe the deficits for the patient.  One famous contemporary who suffers from the disease is former U.S. President Ronald Reagan. </li></ul>
  197. 203. <ul><li>The cerebral cortex and some other forebrain regions atrophy so severely that the brain may weigh less than 1000g at death. Shrinkage is most pronounced in the frontal and temporal lobes.  The insula and the medial part of the temporal lobe tend to demonstrate the highest  number of neuritic plaques.  The greater the number of plaques the higher the degree of dementia.  The disease often causes vacuolization of the subpial layers of the temporal and parietal lobes.  The spongy state is associated with neuronal loss and is similar to the effects of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. </li></ul>
  198. 204. <ul><li>Researchers continue to search for causes and cures for AD.  The gene that codes for the B-amyloid protein located on chromosome 21 is implicated in the 20% of  patients for whom there is a family history of AD.  Head injury has been implicated in 3 to 5 % of AD cases.  There is a 70 to 90% decrease in the production of the enzyme that makes acetylcholine.  Other neurotransmitter abnormalities have also been implicated. </li></ul>
  199. 205. Huntington Disease <ul><li>This is an autosomally-inherited, dominant disorder in which the patient begins to exhibit symptoms in the third to fourth decades.  Patients with Huntington Disease (HD) initially have a tendency to fidget which over months or years develops into jerky, choreiform movements. HD usually progresses over a 10 to 25 year period.  As the disease progresses it leads to dementia and usually death from incurrent infection.  There is a high incidence of suicide among patients with HD. </li></ul>
  200. 206. <ul><li>Pathologically, there is atrophy of certain forebrain structures including the entire cerebral cortex and even more notably of the caudate nucleus and putamen  The head of the caudate is reduced to a narrow brownish band of tissue that is flattened or concave.  In normal brain the ratio of small neurons to large neurons in the corpus striatum is approximately 160:1 in Huntingtons patients the ratio is reduced to 40:1 with a marked decrease in the number of astrocytes.  The gene for this disease has been isolated to the short arm of chromosome 4. </li></ul>
  201. 207. Parkinson Disease <ul><li>Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by a slowing of voluntary movements, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity and tremor at rest.  These abnormalities result from a reduction of neurons that make dopamine in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra.  The axons of these neurons normally release this neurotransmitter where they synapse, in parts of the basal ganglia called the caudate nucleus and putamen or, collectively, the corpus striatum.  Dopamine usually works as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the corpus striatum where it acts on cholinergic neurons.  </li></ul>
  202. 208. <ul><li>Lewy bodies, a hyaline inclusion, are seen microscopically in the cytoplasm of residual neurons in the substantia nigra of nearly all patients with Parkinsonism. The  loss of neurons results in a grossly evident depigmentation of the substantia nigra because those dopaminergic neurons also contain the pigment neuromelanin in their cytoplasm. </li></ul>
  203. 209. <ul><li>There are various causes for the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the resultant signs of PD.  Some evidence exists for involvement of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PD.  For example, several large families with an autosomal, dominant inheritance pattern of PD have now been described, and the first genetic locus for PD has been identified in one of those families </li></ul>
  204. 210. <ul><li>This disease is caused by the inheritance of a mutation on chromosome 13.  The mutation prevents the body from eliminating excess copper.  Ceruloplasmin is the protein that binds and removes excess copper and its levels are greatly reduced in this disorder.  Too much copper in the system damages the cells of the liver and leads to cirrhosis.  Neurological damage primarily occurs in the putamen and globus pallidus, collectively known as the lenticular nucleus.  </li></ul>Wilson Disease (Hepatolenticular Degeneration
  205. 211. <ul><li>Symptoms of the disease include a peculiar type of tremor in the upper extremities, slowness of movement and changes in temperament. Persons may become exceptionally argumentative, overly emotional or may experience a decrease in mental capabilities.  Kayser-Fleischer rings (a rusty brown discoloration at the rims of the corneas) become evident as the copper begins to affect the nervous system.  </li></ul>
  206. 212. <ul><li>The disease first affects the liver, and if treatment is administered early enough, damage to the nervous system is dramatically reduced.  Treatment includes the elimination of copper containing foods such as chocolate and mushrooms.  Patients are also given drugs to chelate excess copper and eliminate it from the body. </li></ul>
  207. 214. THE SENSE ORGANS
  208. 215. The senses
  209. 216. The sense of touch <ul><li>Touch, also called tactition or mechanoreception, is a perception resulting from activation of neural receptors, generally in the skin including hair follicles, but also in the tongue, throat, and mucosa. A variety of pressure receptors respond to variations in pressure (firm, brushing, sustained, etc). The touch sense of itching caused by insect bites or allergies involves special itch-specific neurons in the skin and spinal cord.[6] The loss or impairment of the ability to feel anything touched is called tactile anesthesia. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin that may result from nerve damage and may be permanent or temporary </li></ul>
  210. 217. Taste <ul><li>Taste or gustation is one of the two main &quot;chemical&quot; senses. There are at least four types of tastes[4] that &quot;buds&quot; (receptors) on the tongue detect, and hence there are anatomists who argue[citation needed] that these constitute five or more different senses, given that each receptor conveys information to a slightly different region of the brain[citation needed]. The inability to taste is called ageusia. </li></ul>
  211. 219. <ul><li>The four well-known receptors detect sweet, salt, sour, and bitter, although the receptors for sweet and bitter have not been conclusively identified. A fifth receptor, for a sensation called umami, was first theorised in 1908 and its existence confirmed in 2000[5]. The umami receptor detects the amino acid glutamate, a flavour commonly found in meat and in artificial flavourings such as monosodium glutamate. </li></ul>
  212. 220. Smell <ul><li>Smell or olfaction is the other &quot;chemical&quot; sense. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of olfactory receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odour molecules possess a variety of features and thus excite specific receptors more or less strongly. This combination of excitatory signals from different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. </li></ul>
  213. 221. <ul><li>This combination of excitatory signals from different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. In the brain, olfaction is processed by the olfactory system. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis. The inability to smell is called anosmia. Some neurons in the nose are specialized to detect pheromones </li></ul>
  214. 222. Hearing <ul><li>Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception. Since sound is vibrations propagating through a medium such as air, the detection of these vibrations, that is the sense of the hearing, is a mechanical sense akin to a sense of touch, albeit a very specialized one. </li></ul>
  215. 223. <ul><li>In humans, this perception is executed by tiny hair fibres in the inner ear which detect the motion of a membrane which vibrates in response to changes in the pressure exerted by atmospheric particles within a range of 20 to 22000 Hertz[citation needed], with substantial variation between individuals. Sound can also be detected as vibrations conducted through the body by tactition. Lower and higher frequencies than that can be heard are detected this way only. The inability to hear is called deafness. </li></ul>
  216. 224. Sight <ul><li>Sight or vision is the ability of the brain and eye to detect electromagnetic waves within the visible range (light) which is why people see interpreting the image as &quot;sight.&quot; There is disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or three senses. Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors are responsible for the perception of colour (the frequency of photons of light) and brightness (amplitude/intensity - number of photons of light). </li></ul>
  217. 225. <ul><li>Some argue that stereopsis, the perception of depth, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded as a cognitive (that is, post-sensory) function of brain to interpret sensory input and to derive new information. The inability to see is called blindness. </li></ul>
  219. 227. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>The human male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contribute towards the reproductive process. The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male gamete or spermatozoa for fertilization of the ovum. </li></ul>
  220. 228. <ul><li>The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories. The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the testes which are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymis for development and storage. The second category are the ejaculatory fluid producing glands which include the seminal vesicles, prostate, and the vas deferens. The final category are those used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa (sperm) within the female, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, and Cowper's gland. </li></ul>
  221. 229. <ul><li>Major secondary sexual characteristics include: larger, more muscular stature, deepened voice, facial and body hair, broad shoulders, and development of an adam's apple. An important sexual hormone of males is androgen, and particularly testosterone.[5] </li></ul>
  223. 231. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>he human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contribute towards the reproductive process. The human female reproductive system contains three main parts: the vagina, which acts as the receptacle for the male's sperm, the uterus, which holds the developing fetus, and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova. The breasts are also an important reproductive organ during the parenting stage of reproduction. </li></ul>
  224. 232. <ul><li>The vagina meets the outside at the vulva, which also includes the labia, clitoris and urethra; during intercourse this area is lubricated by mucus secreted by the Bartholin's glands. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, typically approximately every 28 days, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. The lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, and unfertilized ova are shed each cycle through a process known as menstruation. </li></ul><ul><li>X </li></ul>
  225. 233. <ul><li>Major secondary sexual characteristics include: a smaller stature, a high percentage of body fat, wider hips, development of mammary glands, and enlargement of breasts. Important sexual hormones of females include estrogen and progesterone.[5] </li></ul>
  227. 235. RELATED DISEASES <ul><li>Examples of congenital abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>* Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causing decreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands caused by a deficiency of a hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>* Cryptorchidism - Absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. </li></ul>
  228. 236. <ul><li>* Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A genetic disorder causing people who are genetically male (i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as a female due to an inability to utilize androgen. </li></ul><ul><li>* Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or other sexual traits which are not clearly male or female. </li></ul>
  229. 237. Examples of cancers <ul><li>* Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate gland. </li></ul><ul><li>* Breast cancer - Cancer of the mammary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>* Ovarian cancer - Cancer of the ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>* Penile cancer - Cancer of penis. </li></ul><ul><li>* Uterine cancer - Cancer of the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>* Testicular cancer - Cancer of the testicles. </li></ul><ul><li>* Cervical Cancer - Cancer of the cervix. </li></ul>
  230. 238. Examples of infections <ul><li>* HIV - Infection by the retrovirus known as human immunodeficiency virus. </li></ul><ul><li>* Genital warts - Sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). </li></ul><ul><li>* Herpes simplex - Sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus called herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 </li></ul><ul><li>* Gonorrhea - Common sexually transmitted disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae </li></ul>
  231. 239. <ul><li>Yeast infection - Infection of the vagina by any species of the fungus genus Candida. </li></ul><ul><li>* Pelvic inflammatory disease - Painful infection of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries with associated scar formation and adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. </li></ul><ul><li>* Syphilis - Sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. </li></ul><ul><li>* Pubic lice - Infection of the pubic hair by crab lice, Phthirius pubis. </li></ul><ul><li>* Trichomoniasis - Sexually transmitted infection by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. </li></ul>
  232. 240. Examples of functional problems <ul><li>* Impotence - The inability of a male to produce or maintain an erection. </li></ul><ul><li>* Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, in regards to either hormones or gamete production. </li></ul><ul><li>* Ectopic pregnancy - When a fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall. </li></ul><ul><li>* Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - A low level of sexual desire and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>* Female sexual arousal disorder - A condition of decreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication in females during sexual activity </li></ul><ul><li>* Premature ejaculation - A lack of voluntary control over ejaculation. </li></ul>
  234. 242. <ul><li>Male-----Female-----Total--Rate^--Percent* </li></ul><ul><li>1. Heart Diseases----------------38,677---29,019-----67,696--83.5--17.1 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vascular System Diseases--29,054---22,814-----51,868--64.0--13.1 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Malignant Neoplasm----------20,634---18,664-----39,298--48.5--9.9 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Accidents-----------------------27,720---6,246------33,966--41.9--8.6 </li></ul><ul><li>5. Pneumonia---------------------15,831---16,224-----32,055--39.5--8.1 </li></ul>
  235. 243. <ul><li>6. Tuberculosis, all forms-------18,367---8,404----- 26,771--33.0--6.8 </li></ul><ul><li>7. Symptoms, signs and abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>clinical, laboratory findings, </li></ul><ul><li>NEC---------------------------------10,740---10,623-----21,363--26.3--5.4 </li></ul><ul><li>8. Chronic lower resp. dis. -----12,998---5,907------18,905--23.3--4.8 </li></ul><ul><li>9. Diabetes Mellitus--------------6,823----7,373------14,196--17.5--3.6 </li></ul><ul><li>10. Certain conditions </li></ul><ul><li>originating in the </li></ul><ul><li>perinatal period-------------------8,397----5,725------14,122--17.4--3.6 </li></ul>
  236. 244. THANK YOU!!!