Introduction When we started about the press in independence India. Press andIndia both got its independence from the British rule on 15th august1947. They both were celebrating their victory at the beginning ofindependence the relation between the national government andpress was good but after some decade the situation was changed.That was a time when the press was booming in its area, becauseat that time India was not developed as much, so according to thepress commission 1952 report 1954 recommendation- presscouncil, press registrar, salary of working journalist, strengthen therole of editors. Then couldn’t fulfill its aim to achieve that targetwhich they presumed before. After 1954 the government of Indiamade a rule for Press journalist “The working journalist act 1955” itwas the revolutionary period for the Indian Press. After 1955 Indiangovernment support the Indian press because of influencingbehavior of political parties. After the act “the working journalist act1955” the government made another act for the Indian Press whichis “the Newspaper (price and page) act 1956. After a decade theIndian press came to at that position where they can move or printas they want to provide a clear cut view of reality to the audience.
Press during the emergency: In 26 June 1975 prime minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi declared the emergency in India. Fundamental Rights stood suspended, censorship was imposed on the press and prominent political leaders were arrested. The reason behind is that Mrs. Indira Gandhi did electoral malpractice in 12th June 1971 re-elected for lok sabha. It came in light with the help of “JP Narayan” report. After that 24th June Supreme Court imposed conditional stay on PM. This was that she will be Member of Parliament but she couldn’t be part of parliamentary proceeding. After that One of the most controversial figures in Indian politics, Sanjay Gandhi has often been accused of being the mastermind behind the atrocities committed during the emergency. To make matters worse, both Sanjay and Indira Gandhi developed a Twenty-Point program which advertised the “salient features”. It was the shocking blow to the freedom of press in independent India. During 19 months of emergency 253 journalist detained and 7 foreign correspondences expelled. When “janta dal” political party came into power all the restriction over press removed. After emergency Indian Press become more Professional along with High technology, Simultaneous publication increase tremendous change in the content, more supplements, booming of specialization magazine.
Print Post-Television:Now India press had developed in high technology byintroduce new media in India which is called “TELEVISION”and then they were started practicing with “doordarshan (DD)started in 1959 from New Delhi for educational purpose only.In 1975 India borrowed a satellite from NASA for broadcastingthe news. At that time there were only 2400 villages hadcommunity TV sets. In 1982 we saw first color broadcastingon the eve of nation games, which was held in New Delhi.Now there were 40 different broadcasting centers in India,which covers 70 % of land and 87 % of population across ofIndia. Now the program had broadcasting in dozenlanguages. There was the ratio of having TV sets is 6/100people. It was the revolutionary change for media to introducethe TV in India. Before the TV, There is no source of mediawhich is that much of effective. Because of dozen languagesthe information becomes easy for those wanted to know aboutthe reality and truth of current issues in their own languages
Minority PressMinority press is type of media which focus only those groupwhich focus only on the specific community for theirdevelopment. For example, Sahara Urdu, Inquilab Urdu daily,The Sahafat Urdu daily etc. basically we can say it is a Urdunewspaper. The basic purpose of this newspaper is tohighlight the issue of minority group among the world. At thetime of UPA the report of high-level committee appointed bythe prime minister under the chairmanship of justice RajindarSachar, retired Chief justice of the Delhi High Court, to studythe “Social, Economic and educational status of the Muslimcommunity of India” has Been a subject of wide discussion inthe press “Sachar Committee”. This committee contains thebetterment of the Muslim community and how to make equalon economy level.
English Language PressIndian press during the raj was, on whole, aggregation of vernacularreads which did little to unit caste and national interest. The firstEnglish language newspaper in India was “JAMES HICKEY’SBENGAL GAZETTE” which was launch in 1780. Vernacular press ispress which was made for regional area to create awareness withregional language newspapers. English language newspaper wasnot much affected as regional language newspaper among thepeople. English language newspapers are mainly used by urbanarea as compare to rural area, the main motive of English languagenewspaper is focusing the literate group. Many English languagenewspapers in India is largely owned by business houses. The mainreason behind that is to promote their own product in competitivemarket without having any interruption, for example “Times now –Bennett, colemn & corporation ltd. (23rd January, 2006) “Times ofIndia – Sagar surana. (3rd November, 1838), “The Hindu – Kasturi& sons ltd. (20th September, 1878). Sometimes they launched someprogram which mainly focus on the issue, which is going on now adays but indirectly they promoting their product also, for exampleIPL sponsored by DLF.
ReferencesJMC Research Paper.“TheviewsPaper.net” Internet Site.itp.nyu.edu/syllabus/Evolution_of_Post-Pring_MediaSachar ReportThe writer is a Senior Editor of Youth Ki Awaaz and astudent of Politics from University of DelhiWikipedia & some other Sites.INDIAN MEDIA LITERACY:A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OFTELEVISION EXPERIENCES FROM ITV TO IPTV