Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Sensory NeuronsMotor Neurons
Somatic Nervou...
WHAT PARTS DO YOU KNOW THAT ARE IN
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?
Brain
Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nerves
How are neurons connected?
 Synapses!!
Why are neurons connected?
More neuron connections!
AXON
The synapse -
where the action
happens
The next cell’s plasma
membrane
What is this in
the
membrane?
Transport
protei...
How does the Synapse carry the signal?
1. Electrical current travels down the axon.
2. Vesicles with chemicals move toward...
1
2
3 4
The synapse carries a signal from cell to
cell
There are lots of proteins and chemicals in your
body to do the work
Why is it important that it is an electrical
current?
Are all neurons equal in size?
 Brain vs spinal cord vs peripheral nerves?
About how many neurons are in the human brain?...
How many synapses
are in one neuron?
1,000 to 10,000!!
This science is called Neurobiology
 Looking at the actual cells - how do they work?
 Looking at the connections - how a...
What do you think can change
neurons and their connections?
 Accidents
 Drugs
 Alcohol
 Disease
Accidents
 Physical injury of your neurons
Drugs and alcohol bind important
receptors on neurons
Repeated binding causes the neuron to die
Drugs = Neuron Death
Alcohol damages dendrites - can
repair after abstinence
Alcohol blocks
receptors and
slows down
transmission
What if
neurons
die here?
or hereor here
or here
or here
Divisions of the autonomic nervous system
The Nervous System
 A physical organ system like any other
 2 main kinds of cells
 Neurons
 Glia
Neurons
 Basic units of the nervous system
 Receive, integrate, and transmit
information
 Operate through electrical im...
Glial cells
 100 billion neurons
 10x more glial cells
 Glial cells
 Support neurons (literally, provide physical supp...
Three main types of neurons
Sensory Neurons
Interneurons
Motor Neurons
Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent)
e.g., skin
e.g., muscle
sensory (afferent) nerve
motor (efferent) nerve
Neurons th...
Neurons
Axon of another
neuron
Cell BodyDendrites
Axon
Myelin
Sheath
Dendrites of
another neuron
Neural Anatomy
 Dendrite
The bushy, branching extensions of a
neuron that receive messages and conduct
impulses toward t...
Specific Parts: The Neuron
Function
Neurons = 3 functions: Reception, Conduction, Transmission
1.3.
2.
Action Potential
When dendrites stimulated, the delicate balance is altered
Membrane breaks down
Positively charged ions r...
Communication
 Impulse releases
neurotransmitter from
vesicles
 Neurotransmitter enters
synaptic gap
 Neurotransmitter ...
Myelinization clip
Myelin conduction clip
More Neurotransmitters
Neuron
Neuron
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Neuron

  1. 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory NeuronsMotor Neurons Somatic Nervous System • voluntary movements via skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System • organs, smooth muscles Sympathetic - “Fight-or-Flight” responses Parasympathetic - maintenance The Nervous System The Nervous System
  2. 2. WHAT PARTS DO YOU KNOW THAT ARE IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nerves
  3. 3. How are neurons connected?  Synapses!!
  4. 4. Why are neurons connected?
  5. 5. More neuron connections!
  6. 6. AXON The synapse - where the action happens The next cell’s plasma membrane What is this in the membrane? Transport protein Close up look at your synapse
  7. 7. How does the Synapse carry the signal? 1. Electrical current travels down the axon. 2. Vesicles with chemicals move toward the membrane . 3. Chemicals are released and diffuse toward the next cell’s plasma membrane. 4.The chemicals open up the transport proteins and allow the signal to pass to the next cell.
  8. 8. 1 2 3 4 The synapse carries a signal from cell to cell
  9. 9. There are lots of proteins and chemicals in your body to do the work Why is it important that it is an electrical current?
  10. 10. Are all neurons equal in size?  Brain vs spinal cord vs peripheral nerves? About how many neurons are in the human brain? 100 billion 1 billion around 15 feet About how many neurons are in the spinal cord? How long do you think the longest axon in the world is?
  11. 11. How many synapses are in one neuron? 1,000 to 10,000!!
  12. 12. This science is called Neurobiology  Looking at the actual cells - how do they work?  Looking at the connections - how and when do they work?  Looking at what can change normal cells and connections  Looking at diseases that occur in the brain  One of the largest areas still unknown  The you that is you is because of your neurons connecting!
  13. 13. What do you think can change neurons and their connections?  Accidents  Drugs  Alcohol  Disease
  14. 14. Accidents  Physical injury of your neurons
  15. 15. Drugs and alcohol bind important receptors on neurons
  16. 16. Repeated binding causes the neuron to die
  17. 17. Drugs = Neuron Death
  18. 18. Alcohol damages dendrites - can repair after abstinence Alcohol blocks receptors and slows down transmission
  19. 19. What if neurons die here? or hereor here or here or here
  20. 20. Divisions of the autonomic nervous system
  21. 21. The Nervous System  A physical organ system like any other  2 main kinds of cells  Neurons  Glia
  22. 22. Neurons  Basic units of the nervous system  Receive, integrate, and transmit information  Operate through electrical impulses  Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals  More about neurons and neuronal anatomy later
  23. 23. Glial cells  100 billion neurons  10x more glial cells  Glial cells  Support neurons (literally, provide physical support, as well as nutrients)  Cover neurons with myelin  Clean up debris  “Housewives”
  24. 24. Three main types of neurons Sensory Neurons Interneurons Motor Neurons
  25. 25. Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent) e.g., skin e.g., muscle sensory (afferent) nerve motor (efferent) nerve Neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the CNS Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs
  26. 26. Neurons Axon of another neuron Cell BodyDendrites Axon Myelin Sheath Dendrites of another neuron
  27. 27. Neural Anatomy  Dendrite The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  28. 28. Specific Parts: The Neuron Function Neurons = 3 functions: Reception, Conduction, Transmission 1.3. 2.
  29. 29. Action Potential When dendrites stimulated, the delicate balance is altered Membrane breaks down Positively charged ions rush in (depolarization) Charge = less negative Causes release of chemicals from terminal buttons
  30. 30. Communication  Impulse releases neurotransmitter from vesicles  Neurotransmitter enters synaptic gap  Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the receiving neuron
  31. 31. Myelinization clip Myelin conduction clip
  32. 32. More Neurotransmitters

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