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Tsunami Detector

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Tsunami Detector

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Tsunami Detector

  1. 1. Tsunami Detector • Rahul patil •
  2. 2. Tsunami A sea wave of local or distant origin that results from large-scale seafloor displacements associated with large earthquakes, major submarine slides, or exploding volcanic islands.
  3. 3. Regular Wind Generated Wave 10 Feet 300 Feet Speed: 10-20 mph
  4. 4. Tsunami in Deep Ocean 1-2 Feet 316,800 Feet Speed: 450-650 mph
  5. 5. Tsunami Approaching Shore 10-100+ Feet 5,000 – 10,000 Feet Speed: 35-220 mph
  6. 6. Tsunami Cycle TidalTidal SurgeSurge UnderlyingUnderlying GeologicalGeological EventEvent WaterWater DisplacedDisplaced WaveWave PropagationPropagation TidalTidal WithdrawWithdraw Detection Opportunities
  7. 7. Detection Coastline Activity Coastline Activity Wave Activity Wave Activity Geologic Activity Geologic Activity Phase 1Phase 1 Phase 2Phase 2 Phase 3Phase 3
  8. 8. Current State of the Art 5,000 M Surface Buoy Hydrophone Anchor Tsunami Detector Acoustic Link Satellite Gonzalez, F.I. (1999): Tsunami!. Scientific American, 280(5), 56-65
  9. 9. Advantages & Drawbacks • AdvantagesAdvantages – Deep water pressureDeep water pressure produces relatively lowproduces relatively low false-positives as wind-false-positives as wind- driven waves do notdriven waves do not generate deep pressuregenerate deep pressure differentialsdifferentials – Multiple sensors canMultiple sensors can triangulate epicenter oftriangulate epicenter of water displacement andwater displacement and wave propagation can bewave propagation can be predicted.predicted. – Good advance warningGood advance warning • DrawbacksDrawbacks – Expensive equipmentExpensive equipment – High maintenanceHigh maintenance – Requires multipleRequires multiple communication links:communication links: • SonarSonar • Satellite uplinkSatellite uplink • Satellite downlinkSatellite downlink • Last-mile notification toLast-mile notification to authoritiesauthorities • Authorities must notify coastalAuthorities must notify coastal dwellersdwellers
  10. 10. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Deep sea pressureDeep sea pressure SeismicSeismic EventsEvents Surface anomaliesSurface anomalies CoastalCoastal Alarm &Alarm & DetectionDetection
  11. 11. Leading Trough The receding sea that precedes a tsunami • Near-shore subsidence facilitate tsunami penetration inland • Theoretical predictions* and field surveys indicate that coastal run-up and inundation will be greater if the trough of the leading wave precedes the crest * Raissa Mazova of the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University in Russia and by Costas Synolakis of the University of Southern California
  12. 12. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Anchor Tsunami trough threshold level Receding sea trigger Anchor line under constant spring tension at buoy
  13. 13. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Anchor Tsunami trough threshold level Tsunami trough (receding sea) Tension in anchor line pulls buoy into contact with trigger Flares ignited to signal coastal communities Satellite, RF, audible alarms execute responsive to contact with trigger
  14. 14. Genesis Tsunami Coastal Alert Buoy measures tsunami crest – broadcasts satellite data for emergency response in other areas.
  15. 15. Advantages to Coastal Alert • Direct warning system in third world andDirect warning system in third world and emerging industrial countriesemerging industrial countries – FlaresFlares – Audible sirenAudible siren – Local RF broadcast on emergency marine VHFLocal RF broadcast on emergency marine VHF channels and terrestrial radiochannels and terrestrial radio – Can be activated in advance by RF or satelliteCan be activated in advance by RF or satellite transmission if deep sea sensors forecast tsunami hittransmission if deep sea sensors forecast tsunami hit in the areain the area • Low Cost DesignLow Cost Design – No expensive off-shore installation and maintenanceNo expensive off-shore installation and maintenance – Multi-use design – can be used for navigation,Multi-use design – can be used for navigation, temperature readings, etc.temperature readings, etc. • Ideal supplement to sophisticated deep seaIdeal supplement to sophisticated deep sea monitoringmonitoring
  16. 16. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Responsive to seismic event GTOA releases non-buoyant pressure sensors at multiple depths below normal wave action.
  17. 17. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Detachable pressure sensors Detachable pressure sensors Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. NOAA’s DART system uses pressure sensors that are permanently mounted to seabed. Prone to failure. NOAA’s DART system uses pressure sensors that are permanently mounted to seabed. Prone to failure.
  18. 18. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Detachable pressure sensors Detachable pressure sensors Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Seismic event detected – Genesis Offshore buoys drop pressure sensors to multiple depths. Pressure Wave
  19. 19. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert Detachable pressure sensors Detachable pressure sensors Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Pressure changes below predetermined depth are indicators of tsunami activity. Pressure readings are relayed to monitoring station. Multiple readings provide more accurate analysis of deep pressure readings. Satellite
  20. 20. Genesis Drop Sensor Lead weight is adjusted so that rate of decent is controlled so that multiple sensors reach their operating depth in synchronization. Lead weight is adjusted so that rate of decent is controlled so that multiple sensors reach their operating depth in synchronization. Sensor is maintained above waterline before release. No fouling or damage from deep sea mounting. Sensor is maintained above waterline before release. No fouling or damage from deep sea mounting. Pressure transducer supplied by Paroscientific, Inc. – Quartz crystal detection of flex of Bourdon tube. Pressure transducer supplied by Paroscientific, Inc. – Quartz crystal detection of flex of Bourdon tube. Telemetry and support line. Telemetry and support line.
  21. 21. Genesis Tsunami Offshore Alert • No permanent seabed pressure sensor • Pressure readings at multiple depths • Pressure transducer equipment kept out of hostile environment until deployed • Redundancy if a sensor fails • Lower false positives • No ROV needed for maintenance or deployment
  22. 22. Genesis Tsunami System • Costal detection and notification • Offshore monitoring and early warning • Integrated systems provide prediction, notification and warning in a single package. • Low costs for deployment and maintenance • Superior data capture and uptime
  23. 23. Deep Sea P Sensor
  24. 24. Deep-sea pressure sensors (Germany)
  25. 25. Suggested global distribution of deep sea pressure sensors (to be defined)
  26. 26. Suggested placement of new seismographic and deep sea pressure sensors (India)
  27. 27. Suggested real-time sea level stations (India)
  28. 28. Evacuation - 1 - Tsunami Detection - 2 - Data Processing - 3 - Alert Messaging - 5 - Preparation - 4 - Rescue aid Evacuation - 1 - Tsunami Detection - 2 - Data Processing - 3 - Alert Messaging - 5 - Preparation - 4 - Rescue aid TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM IN MOBILE ENVIRONMENT 津波津波  tsu nami   SOURCE: earth.observation@vtt.fi www.vtt.fi/space 1. Tsunami detection  Sensor system for the detection of the earthquake and the tsunami wave  Data transfer from surface to the processing centers 2. Data processing and data management  Data collection and processing at the processing centers  Derivation of alert messages including maps with evacuation routes 3. Alert message distribution  Through the Internet  To cellular phones, including evacuation routes 4. Rescue aid  Alert message collection and analysis from the cellular phones  Cellular phone location, including historical data  Damage estimation using satellite data 5. Preparation  Land cover maps and elevation information using satellite data for flood area simulations
  29. 29. Local Tsunami – Alert System * Earthquake->Tsunami Seismic recording Civil Defense – to local administrations, 10 min Evacuation wave arrives in 45 minutes! Analysis – Seismic data center Automatic procedures: -Broad band sensor -Small seismic array -Virtual regional network Radio, TV stations – to population, 2 min Cellular phone –to local population, 2 min 10 min ? human factor 3 min
  30. 30. Chinandega (El viejo) 1.- Venecia 2.- Aposentillo 3.- Jiquilillo 4.- Aserraderos 5.- Los Zorros 6.- Padre Ramos 7.- Mechapa 8.- Punta Nata 9.- Potosí Chinandega (Corinto) 10.- Corinto 11.- Isla del Cardón 12.- Isla del Amor Chinandega (El Realejo) 13.- Isla Maderas Negras 14.- Isla Paredones 15.- Paso Caballos León 16.- El Tránsito 17.- Puerto Sandino 18.- Salinas Grandes 19.- Poneloya 20.- Las Peñitas 21.- Los Brasiles Managua 22.- Salamina 23.- Montelimar 24.- Masachapa 25.- Pochomil 26.- San Diego 27.- Gran Pacífica 28.- Miraflores Carazo 29.- Casares 30.- La Boquita 31.- Bocana de Masapa Jinotepe 32.- Tipilapa 33.- Huehuete 34.- La Bocana Rivas 35.- El Ostional 36.- San Juan del Sur 37.- El Menco 38.- El Gigante 39.- San Martín 40.- Las Salinas 41.- El Astillero 42.- La Flor (130,000) under risk INETERINETER CODECODE DEFENSA CIVILDEFENSA CIVIL 90 kms 45 min 1 34 38 37 2 3 4 6 5 87 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2021 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 39 4041 42 Civil defence communication system Source Defensa Civil, 2005
  31. 31. -Alert messenger to PC screen of radio/TV presenters (under testing) -SMS cell phone to decision maker (under testing) -SMS cell phone to large sectors of population (under development) New communication methods (in development)
  32. 32. Thank you

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