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Election Commission of India A State-of-the-Art, User Friendly        and Tamper Proof   Electronic Voting Machine        ...
Presentation• The Genesis   – Concept, Challenge, Solution• Concerns• Remedies• EVM   – Technological Features   – Descrip...
Genesis - Concept• Idea mooted by the Chief  Election Commissioner in  1977• Pros and cons of E-voting  vis-à-vis ballot p...
Genesis - Challenge• Evolve a machine which  would fit into the existing  Election Procedure• Appear familiar to the voter...
Genesis - Solution• Electronics Corporation of  India Limited (ECIL) a  leading Public Sector  Company engaged in the  des...
Genesis - Solution               Voting the Ballot box way                                           •   Both the companie...
Concerns• How secure is the data ?• Can the data be tampered  with ?• How does the machine  operate in remote areas  witho...
Remedies•   All mechanical, electrical and    software security features are    provided to ensure the integrity          ...
EVM – Technology Features• Centres around state-of-the-art microprocessor with  built-in PROM storing the software code wh...
EVM – Technology Features• Provision is made on all the sub-units for sealing to  ensure that the units are not tampered w...
Sub-Units of EVM       Interconnecting CableControl Unit                   Ballot Unit
Ballot Unit - Details                    Ready Lamp                    Slide Switch Window                    Candidate’s ...
Ballot Unit - Internal parts                         Ready Lamp                         Slide Switch                      ...
Control Unit      ON Lamp                    Busy LampDisplay Section                                 Candidate Set Sectio...
Control Unit - View of Bottom                     Compartment       Power Switch        Connector for                   Co...
Control Unit - Display Section                                     4-Digit                                     Display Pan...
Control Unit - Candidate Set Section                        Candidate set section   Candidate set section                 ...
Control Unit - Result Section                Result I                button       Clear buttonClosebutton               Re...
Control Unit - Ballot SectionTotal button                                           Ballot button
Polling• The voter is identified from the voters list and  records his presence by a signature or thumb  impression• The P...
Polling• A red lamp glows indicating to the voter that his vote  has been cast in favour of that candidate• The casting of...
Closing• The cap on the “Close  Button” is removed and  the button pressed• The cap is then  replaced• The unit is then  s...
Counting & Results• The Power pack /  Battery is checked for  health by pressing the  TOTAL Button• After getting ready to...
Counting & Results•   The “RESULT-1” button is pressed to display the    results•   The results are then noted.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF BUTTONS    ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE                CLEAR     RESULT-1           CAND. SET      C...
Advantages• Modernises the election process• User friendly – can be used even by illiterates• Simple to operate and can be...
Advantages• Huge expenditure involved in printing, storing  and transportation and security of ballot  paper can be avoide...
Statistics of Interest• Around one million machines  deployed during Lok Sabha,  2004 polls• Low failure rate• Costs aroun...
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Evm

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Evm

  1. 1. Election Commission of India A State-of-the-Art, User Friendly and Tamper Proof Electronic Voting Machine (EVM)
  2. 2. Presentation• The Genesis – Concept, Challenge, Solution• Concerns• Remedies• EVM – Technological Features – Description – Operation • Polling, Closing, Counting & Results• Advantages• Statistics of Interest
  3. 3. Genesis - Concept• Idea mooted by the Chief Election Commissioner in 1977• Pros and cons of E-voting vis-à-vis ballot paper analysed by High Power Committees• Recommended E-voting to save avoidable and recurring expenditure on printing, storage, transportation and security of Ballot Paper to the exchequer Top: Ballot paper awaiting despatch Bottom: EVMs in store room
  4. 4. Genesis - Challenge• Evolve a machine which would fit into the existing Election Procedure• Appear familiar to the voter• Addressing the skepticism of the Political Parties and Intelligentsia including Press• Evolving a machine and a procedure which would be transparent and acceptable to all Top: Ballot box being carried to the polling station Bottom: EVMs being carried to the polling station
  5. 5. Genesis - Solution• Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) a leading Public Sector Company engaged in the design and manufacture of professional electronics was commissioned to design a machine to prove the feasibility• Once feasibility was established, Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) a second Public Sector Company was co-opted into the exercise Voters waiting to cast their vote
  6. 6. Genesis - Solution Voting the Ballot box way • Both the companies (ECIL & BEL) brought out models with a common User Interface in 1980 • The machines were extensively tried out at locations across the country • Publicity campaigns were run in the press and other media • Seminars conducted by Election Commission of India in various forums • Feedback obtained used toVoting the EVM way fine-tune the machine
  7. 7. Concerns• How secure is the data ?• Can the data be tampered with ?• How does the machine operate in remote areas without electric power ?• What happens if the power fails in the middle of the voting process ?• Can the data be stored long enough to be used as evidence in a court of law in case of electoral disputes ? Top: EVM being demonstrated to the press Middle: EVM being demonstrated to VIPs Bottom: Address to the press on EVMs
  8. 8. Remedies• All mechanical, electrical and software security features are provided to ensure the integrity Counting of the voting data Ballot paper way• It is independent of mains power and operates on a special power pack• It is tamper-proof and error free• It incorporates a microprocessor that has ‘burnt-in’ software code which cannot be altered or retrieved• All the data is recorded on non- volatile dual redundant memory chips and can be retained for over 6 months even when the power pack is removed Counting - EVM way
  9. 9. EVM – Technology Features• Centres around state-of-the-art microprocessor with built-in PROM storing the software code which cannot be retrieved or altered• Reliable, robust and error free software• Legacy software with machine codes used to preserve integrity and security• Double redundant resilient memory storage for securely retaining data without a need for a backup battery• User friendly operation sequence• Portable and easy to operate• Custom made to fit into the existing pattern
  10. 10. EVM – Technology Features• Provision is made on all the sub-units for sealing to ensure that the units are not tampered with• Each EVM can cater to a maximum of 64 candidates with 4 Ballot Units cascaded• The EVM can be used for conducting “TWO” simultaneous polls.• EVMs to conduct up to “FOUR” or “MORE” simultaneous polls to suit the electoral systems of other countries are developed and demonstration models available
  11. 11. Sub-Units of EVM Interconnecting CableControl Unit Ballot Unit
  12. 12. Ballot Unit - Details Ready Lamp Slide Switch Window Candidate’s Button Candidate’s Lamp Ballot Paper Screen
  13. 13. Ballot Unit - Internal parts Ready Lamp Slide Switch Candidate’s Button Masking Tab
  14. 14. Control Unit ON Lamp Busy LampDisplay Section Candidate Set Section Result Section Ballot Section Ballot Button Total Button
  15. 15. Control Unit - View of Bottom Compartment Power Switch Connector for Connector forInterconnecting Cable Auxiliary Unit Bottom Compartment Cover
  16. 16. Control Unit - Display Section 4-Digit Display Panel ON Lamp Busy Lamp 2-DigitDisplay Panel
  17. 17. Control Unit - Candidate Set Section Candidate set section Candidate set section inner door outer doorProvision forthread seal Latch Candidate set Power pack buttoncompartment Plug for Provision for power pack Thread seal
  18. 18. Control Unit - Result Section Result I button Clear buttonClosebutton Result II Inner Frames for button latches Paper seal
  19. 19. Control Unit - Ballot SectionTotal button Ballot button
  20. 20. Polling• The voter is identified from the voters list and records his presence by a signature or thumb impression• The Presiding Officer presses the “Ballot” button on the Control Unit permitting one vote• The voter then proceeds to the polling cubicle and after perusing the ballot paper on the Ballot Unit, presses the key against the candidate of his choice
  21. 21. Polling• A red lamp glows indicating to the voter that his vote has been cast in favour of that candidate• The casting of the vote results in a beep in the Control Unit indicating to the Presiding Officer that a vote has been cast• He then proceeds to release another vote by pressing the “Ballot” button and the process continues
  22. 22. Closing• The cap on the “Close Button” is removed and the button pressed• The cap is then replaced• The unit is then switched “Off” and the interconnecting cable disconnected
  23. 23. Counting & Results• The Power pack / Battery is checked for health by pressing the TOTAL Button• After getting ready to note down the result, the green paper seal over RESULT-1 Button is pierced and RESULT-1 Button is pressed.
  24. 24. Counting & Results• The “RESULT-1” button is pressed to display the results• The results are then noted.
  25. 25. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF BUTTONS ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE CLEAR RESULT-1 CAND. SET CLOSE BALLOT
  26. 26. Advantages• Modernises the election process• User friendly – can be used even by illiterates• Simple to operate and can be installed in a short time• Preserves voting secrecy• No scope for invalid votes• Facilitates quick and accurate counting – possible to declare results instantaneously• Re-usable by simply erasing votes recorded in earlier poll
  27. 27. Advantages• Huge expenditure involved in printing, storing and transportation and security of ballot paper can be avoided• Lowers operating costs• Easier to manage with less demand on man- power• Provision can be made to connect to a “CENTRAL STATION” to consolidate and display / record the results countrywide
  28. 28. Statistics of Interest• Around one million machines deployed during Lok Sabha, 2004 polls• Low failure rate• Costs around US $ 300• Estimated saving on the switchover to EVM is Approx US $ 40 million• Political Parties and Intelligentsia who initially were skeptical now endorse the machine for its veracity EVM being demonstrated to voters before the recent elections held in the state of Jammu & Kashmir
  29. 29. Thank You

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