Dr. RAHUL MATHEW NIMMAGADDAM.B.,B.S., PGC.H.F.W.M., A.F.I.H., M.P.H.,
A woman is like a tea bag: you cannot tell how strong she is until you put her in hot water. ~Eleanor Roosevelt MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women MDG 4: Eliminate gender disparity in education
WHAT IS EMPOWERMENT? Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities. Empowerment of women, also called gender empowerment, has become a significant topic of discussion in regards to development and economics. Entire nations, businesses, communities, and groups can benefit from the implementation of programs and policies that adopt the notion of women empowerment
NEED FOR EMPOWERMENT The empowerment and autonomy of women, and improvements in their political, social, economic and health status, are recognized by the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)as highly important ends in themselves. In addition, they are seen as essential for the achievement of sustainable development. Discrimination on the basis of Gender starts at an early age
THE PROBLEMS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS SOCIETAL PROBLEMS GENDER PREJUDICE LOW CONFIDENCE LACK OF UNITY HEALTH PROBLEMS POVERTY IGNORANCE TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL PROBLEMS
EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS MDG 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
GENDER DISPARITY IN LITERACY Age Sex Literacy rate Gender (%) Disparity15-49 Male 78 23% Female 5520-24 Male 84 20% Female 6415-19 Male 89 15% Female 74 NFHS III 2005 - 06
GENDER DISPARITY IN HIGHER SECONDARYSCHOOL COMPLETION % with 12+ years of GenderAge Sex schooling Disparity15-49 Male 20 39% Female 1225-29 Male 23 36% Female 1520-24 Male 27 29% Female 19 NFHS III 2005 - 06
GENDER PREJUDICE Gender prejudice had long been woven into the fabric of most societies. It was driven by a universal belief that women were the weaker of the sexes emotionally as well as physically and must be protected from the world outside the home. Normally, males were expected to be the provider and dominated in family matters, particularly those relating to the outside world in commerce and politics. Females were expected to assume domestic chores, cook and bake, spin yarn and sew. At the same time, it was their responsibility to bear children and raise them according to the values and morals of the society in which they lived.
GENDER PREJUDICE STARTS EVEN BEFORE THE GIRL CHILD COMES INTO THE WORLD. Sex ratio (females per thousand males) India 933 Rural 946 Urban 900State with Highest Female Sex Ratio Kerala 1,058State with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Haryana 861UT with Highest Female Sex Ratio Pondicherry 1,001UT with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Daman & Diu 710District with Highest Female Sex Mahe (Pondicherry) 1,147RatioDistrict with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Daman (Daman & Diu) 591 CENSUS OF INDIA, 2001
EMPLOYMENT – AN IMPORTANT AREA OFGENDER DISPARITYAmong the population age PERCENT 87 15-49 79 Men are 2 times as likely to be employed Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash 43 Among the employed, 64% 29 of women vs. 91% of men earn cash Female share of population employed for cash in non- agricultural occupations is 22% Employed Employed for cash Women Men NFHS III 2005-06
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION Occupational Distribution (%)Type of worker Women MenProfessional 7 7Sales 4 14Service 7 5Production 22 37Agricultural 59 33Other 2 4 NFHS III 2005-06
DOES EMPLOYMENT EMPOWER WOMENFINANCIALLY? NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings (if relevant) 20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband 24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them
PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO DO NOTPARTICIPATE IN THE USE OF THEIR EARNINGS 39 21 21 21 13 10 6 815-19 40-49 Urban Rural None 12+ Lowest Highest Age Residence Education Wealth Index
Belong to the highest 56 wealth quintile Are employed for cash 55Have 12+ years education 60 Percentage of women age 15-49 who have money which they can decide how to use Education, employment, or wealth do not ensure that women have money that they control
DO MARRIED WOMEN HAVE ACCESS TOANY OTHER FINANCIAL RESOURCES? PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO: Participate in decision on how 68 husbands earnings are used Have money which they can 45 decide how to useHave a bank or savings account 15 that they themselve use Have taken loan from 5 microcredit program
DO MARRIED WOMEN PARTICIPATE INHOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING Make decision alone or jointlyDecisions with husbandOwn health care 62Making major household purchases 53Making purchases for daily household needs 60Visits to her family or relatives 61All four 37None of above 21
• Older women are much more likely than younger women to participate in household decisions• Differentials by other characteristics are small• However, less than half of even the oldest, urban, more educated, employed or wealthier women participate in all four decisions 46 45 41 39 45 Age 40-49 Urban 12+ yrs of Employed Wealthiest education
LACK OF UNITY THE MAIN REASON FOR THE LACK OF UNITY EVEN AMONG THE WOMEN IS BECAUSE WE LOOK AT THE WORLD FROM THE PRISM OF CASTE CASTE IS AN ENCLOSED CLASS MANU CREATED THE DIFFERENT CASTES IN HIS MANUSMIRITI WHICH IS PREVALANT EVEN TODAY WOMEN ARE THE LOWEST ACCORDING TO THESE PRINCIPLES IN EACH CASTE, INSPITE OF WHICH WE ARE SO PREJUDICED WITH OUR CASTE BARRIERS ACCORDING TO A SANSKRIT SCHOLAR THE BIRTH OF WOMAN IS DUE TO YOUR PAST SINS (if only if you believe in reincarnation)
HEALTH PROBLEMS THE MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS WOMEN FACE ARE: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS BREAST CANCER PCOD – POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN DISEASE POOR NUTIRITION – ANAMEIA – INFECTIONS HEART DISEASE AND STROKE DIABETES ARTHRITIS
TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL PROBLEMS Limited freedom of movement Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. NFHS-3 asked women and men questions about norms regarding Wife beating A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes
PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO ARE ALLOWED TO GO ALONE TO - Market 51 Health facility 48 Places outside the 38 village/community All three places 33 None of the three 4 placesThe majority of women have little freedom of movement.Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market,health facility and outside the village or community.
PERCENTAGE WHO AGREE THAT A HUSBAND IS JUSTIFIED IN HITTING OR BEATING HIS WIFE IF SHE: Shows disrespect for in-laws 37 41 24 He suspects she is unfaithful 25 Doesn’t cook properly 13 20 Women Men Refuses to have sex 8 14 26 Argues with him 30 29Neglects the house or children 35 23 Goes out without telling him 29 51 At least one reason 54
Percentage who agree with at least one reason for wifebeating Women MenAge 15-19 53 57Urban 44 4312+ years education 31 34Employed for cash 59 62Wealthiest 37 35Delhi: A highly urbanized 32 28stateALTHOUGH URBAN, EDUCATED, EMPLOYED AND WEALTHIERPERSONS ARE LESS LIKELY TO AGREE WITH WIFE BEATING, THESECHARACTERISTICS ARE NOT SUFFICIENT TO SUPPLANT BELIEFS INGENDER IN EGALITARIAN NORMS
Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched.
THE PROCESS OF EMPOWERMENT The ability to make decisions about personal/collective circumstances The ability to access information and resources for decision-making Ability to consider a range of options from which to choose (not just yes/no, either/or.) Ability to exercise assertiveness in collective decision making Having positive-thinking about the ability to make change Ability to learn and access skills for improving personal/collective circumstance. Ability to inform others’ perceptions though exchange, education and engagement. Involving in the growth process and changes that is never ending and self-initiated Increasing ones positive self-image and overcoming stigma Increasing ones ability in discreet thinking to sort out right and wrong
THE SOLUTION The right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home – pursue employment and have own income The right to have access to opportunities and resources - increase financial and non financial assets and resources. The right to have and to determine choices – within household and marriage. A sense of self-worth – against domestic violence and societal barriers.
HOLISTIC APPROACH TO EMPOWERMENT Health Water & San. Political & Nut. Participation Education Asset base Skills Marketing Technology Credit
WHAT WOULD YOU DO? Be of service. Whether you make yourself available to a friend or co-worker, or you make time every month to do volunteer work, there is nothing that harvests more of a feeling of empowerment than being of service to someone in need. - Gillian Anderson