Dr. RAHUL MATHEW NIMMAGADDAM.B.,B.S., PGC.H.F.W.M., A.F.I.H., M.P.H.,
   A woman is like a tea bag: you cannot tell    how strong she is until you put her in hot    water. ~Eleanor Roosevelt...
WHAT IS EMPOWERMENT?   Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual,    political, social, or economic strength of indi...
NEED FOR EMPOWERMENT The empowerment and autonomy of women, and  improvements in their political, social, economic  and h...
THE PROBLEMS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS SOCIETAL PROBLEMS GENDER PREJUDICE LOW CONFIDENCE LACK OF UNITY HEALTH PROBLEMS P...
EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS   MDG 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary    and secondary education preferably by 2005,    and...
GENDER DISPARITY IN LITERACY  Age     Sex     Literacy rate    Gender                       (%)        Disparity15-49    M...
GENDER DISPARITY IN HIGHER SECONDARYSCHOOL COMPLETION                   % with 12+                    years of    GenderAg...
State/Sex-wise Enrolment of Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes                                     (SC/ST) Students in Highe...
State-wise Dropout Rates of Scheduled Tribes (ST) Students in Classes I-V, I-VIII and I-X in India (2008-2009)            ...
LINK BETWEEN FEMALE LITERACY AND CHILD NUTRITION
SOCIETAL PROBLEMS             DOWRY SYSTEM   PURDAH   FAMILY
GENDER PREJUDICE   Gender prejudice had long been woven into the fabric of    most societies.   It was driven by a unive...
GENDER PREJUDICE STARTS EVEN BEFORE      THE GIRL CHILD COMES INTO THE WORLD. Sex ratio (females per thousand             ...
EMPLOYMENT – AN IMPORTANT AREA OFGENDER DISPARITYAmong the population age        PERCENT 87 15-49                         ...
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION                 Occupational Distribution (%)Type of worker     Women                 MenProfess...
DOES EMPLOYMENT EMPOWER WOMENFINANCIALLY?   NFHS-3 asked married employed women and    men who controlled their own earni...
PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO DO NOTPARTICIPATE IN THE USE OF THEIR EARNINGS   39                           21      21            2...
Belong to the highest                                                   56      wealth quintile  Are employed for cash    ...
DO MARRIED WOMEN HAVE ACCESS TOANY OTHER FINANCIAL RESOURCES?     PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO: Participate in decision on how    ...
DO MARRIED WOMEN PARTICIPATE INHOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING                                             Make decision        ...
•   Older women are much more likely than    younger women to participate in household    decisions•   Differentials by ot...
LACK OF UNITY   THE MAIN REASON FOR THE LACK OF UNITY EVEN    AMONG THE WOMEN IS BECAUSE WE LOOK AT THE    WORLD FROM THE...
HEALTH PROBLEMS THE MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS WOMEN FACE  ARE: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS BREAST CANCER PCOD – POLYCYSTI...
State-wise Infant Mortality Rate by Sex and Residence in India                                             (2004)         ...
WOMEN – POVERTY & IGNORANCE
TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL PROBLEMS Limited freedom of movement Gender norms that promote men’s control over  women. NFHS...
PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO ARE ALLOWED TO GO ALONE TO -                   Market                             51            Healt...
PERCENTAGE WHO AGREE THAT A HUSBAND  IS JUSTIFIED IN HITTING OR BEATING HIS  WIFE IF SHE: Shows disrespect for in-laws    ...
Percentage who agree with at least one reason for wifebeating                            Women               MenAge 15-19 ...
 Women are disadvantaged absolutely and  relative to men in terms of access to education,  media exposure, and employment...
THE PROCESS OF EMPOWERMENT   The ability to make decisions about personal/collective    circumstances   The ability to a...
THE SOLUTION The right to have the power to control their own  lives, both within and outside the home – pursue  employme...
HOLISTIC APPROACH TO EMPOWERMENT        Health         Water & San.              Political        & Nut.                  ...
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?   Be of service. Whether you make yourself    available to a friend or co-worker, or you make    time ...
THANK YOU
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
Empowering women – means to a health society
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Empowering women – means to a health society

  1. 1. Dr. RAHUL MATHEW NIMMAGADDAM.B.,B.S., PGC.H.F.W.M., A.F.I.H., M.P.H.,
  2. 2.  A woman is like a tea bag: you cannot tell how strong she is until you put her in hot water. ~Eleanor Roosevelt MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women MDG 4: Eliminate gender disparity in education
  3. 3. WHAT IS EMPOWERMENT? Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities. Empowerment of women, also called gender empowerment, has become a significant topic of discussion in regards to development and economics. Entire nations, businesses, communities, and groups can benefit from the implementation of programs and policies that adopt the notion of women empowerment
  4. 4. NEED FOR EMPOWERMENT The empowerment and autonomy of women, and improvements in their political, social, economic and health status, are recognized by the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)as highly important ends in themselves. In addition, they are seen as essential for the achievement of sustainable development. Discrimination on the basis of Gender starts at an early age
  5. 5. THE PROBLEMS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS SOCIETAL PROBLEMS GENDER PREJUDICE LOW CONFIDENCE LACK OF UNITY HEALTH PROBLEMS POVERTY IGNORANCE TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL PROBLEMS
  6. 6. EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS MDG 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
  7. 7. GENDER DISPARITY IN LITERACY Age Sex Literacy rate Gender (%) Disparity15-49 Male 78 23% Female 5520-24 Male 84 20% Female 6415-19 Male 89 15% Female 74 NFHS III 2005 - 06
  8. 8. GENDER DISPARITY IN HIGHER SECONDARYSCHOOL COMPLETION % with 12+ years of GenderAge Sex schooling Disparity15-49 Male 20 39% Female 1225-29 Male 23 36% Female 1520-24 Male 27 29% Female 19 NFHS III 2005 - 06
  9. 9. State/Sex-wise Enrolment of Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) Students in Higher Education in India (2003-2004) Number of Students Belonging toStates/UTs Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes Boys Girls Total Boys Girls TotalAndhra Pradesh 76217 36232 112449 18792 7617 26409Arunachal Pradesh 0 0 0 3233 2063 5296Assam 13280 6847 20127 18732 9780 28512Bihar 56408 6725 63133 14664 4509 19173Chattisgarh 12649 5738 18387 9280 4650 13930Goa 133 122 255 142 69 211Gujarat 46234 20004 66238 26854 17560 44414Haryana 14173 8791 22964 0 0 0Himachal Pradesh 8081 4605 12686 2413 1734 4147Jammu & Kashmir 220 315 535 316 452 768Jharkhand 3302 1743 5045 8877 8610 17487Karnataka 32183 19495 51678 11398 6267 17664Kerala 13342 21667 35009 1385 2116 3501Madhya Pradesh 48147 15537 63684 30986 8504 39490Maharashtra 75092 44464 119556 24902 10780 35682Manipur 539 541 1080 6096 5417 11513Meghalaya 253 190 443 13391 11801 25192Mizoram 1 0 1 6067 5180 11247Nagaland 13 62 75 7691 5165 12856Orissa 32092 11972 44064 18637 7132 25769Punjab 20205 17900 38105 0 0 0Rajasthan 36935 18037 54972 19616 9372 28988Sikkim 153 139 292 708 567 1275Tamil Nadu 59851 43923 103774 2969 1477 4447Tripura 2174 1430 3604 1578 953 2531Uttar Pradesh 167360 53087 220447 8051 2110 10161Uttaranchal 13154 5055 18209 1594 337 1931West Bengal 59053 28835 87888 8045 3872 19918Andaman & Nicobar Islands 0 0 0 75 70 146Chandigarh 1856 1718 3574 143 142 285Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0 0 0 0 0 0Daman & Diu 11 15 26 70 23 93Delhi 13021 9027 22048 2171 1506 3677Lakshadweep 0 0 0 137 77 214Pondicherry 1473 1207 2680 22 19 41India 807607 385423 1193030 269034 139932 408966
  10. 10. State-wise Dropout Rates of Scheduled Tribes (ST) Students in Classes I-V, I-VIII and I-X in India (2008-2009) Classes I-V Classes I-VIII Classes I-XStates/UTs Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls TotalAndhra Pradesh 37.22 42.45 39.78 66.47 70.24 68.30 80.86 82.77 81.77Arunachal Pradesh 43.32 39.36 41.51 48.91 47.59 48.30 66.32 65.90 66.13Assam -25.04 -14.40 -19.78 - - - 84.47 82.46 83.63Bihar 9.90 -5.65 4.06 66.55 58.63 63.81 98.55 98.68 98.60Chhattisgarh* 37.68 37.87 37.77 52.66 54.03 53.30 - - -Goa -108.20 -142.00 -122.60 - - - - - -Gujarat 53.22 51.80 52.58 64.33 66.42 65.28 73.30 74.82 73.99Haryana - - - - - - - - -Himachal Pradesh 2.31 4.83 3.52 -22.07 -14.43 -18.28 5.44 31.05 18.05Jammu and Kashmir 6.15 2.74 4.65 - - - 69.86 57.82 65.36Jharkhand* 33.02 26.09 29.89 71.38 70.37 70.93 - - -Karnataka 4.77 6.03 5.38 28.61 32.47 30.47 45.26 51.14 48.13Kerala -14.96 -12.05 -13.56 8.54 11.72 10.12 38.64 31.67 35.24Madhya Pradesh 22.07 12.79 17.75 37.84 40.48 39.03 80.62 85.82 82.86Maharashtra 32.10 34.31 33.15 46.51 51.66 48.95 65.74 75.07 70.15Manipur 51.24 53.13 52.15 - - - 70.80 72.58 71.66Meghalaya 55.41 50.50 52.96 81.86 77.52 79.74 78.90 76.01 77.47Mizoram 40.00 40.16 40.08 65.39 66.06 65.72 70.71 66.89 68.91Nagaland 13.35 5.91 9.82 20.61 13.36 17.23 69.20 65.08 67.28Orissa 35.08 35.35 35.21 83.37 83.92 83.61 86.19 85.19 85.78Punjab - - - - - - - - -Rajasthan 38.28 40.98 39.54 62.91 70.63 66.30 68.00 74.84 70.76Sikkim 43.11 31.27 37.36 28.47 -0.31 14.53 66.41 60.77 63.70Tamil Nadu -42.57 -77.10 -57.12 -63.10 -61.30 -62.25 48.89 51.88 50.37Tripura 33.02 31.88 32.48 62.32 63.29 62.78 77.60 79.92 78.69Uttar Pradesh -121.58 -212.87 -158.77 38.69 8.12 26.58 48.07 61.69 53.93Uttarakhand* 21.21 10.16 15.99 22.86 35.36 29.33 - - -West Bengal 50.54 49.21 49.91 77.25 73.54 75.69 88.87 83.55 87.12Andaman and Nicobar Islands 18.06 27.35 22.65 21.81 29.51 25.82 28.78 28.27 28.53Chandigarh - - - - - - - - -Dadra and Nagar Haveli 24.16 24.96 24.55 35.65 52.17 43.33 65.42 72.32 68.62Daman and Diu -72.68 -63.22 -68.21 - - - 57.75 55.22 56.56Delhi -19.29 -14.29 -17.28 - - - 9.13 -11.40 0.11Lakshadweep 9.30 2.83 6.13 17.15 6.84 12.24 26.26 34.07 29.94Puducherry - - - - - - - - -India 32.17 30.23 31.26 57.66 58.99 58.26 75.63 76.90 76.18
  11. 11. LINK BETWEEN FEMALE LITERACY AND CHILD NUTRITION
  12. 12. SOCIETAL PROBLEMS DOWRY SYSTEM PURDAH FAMILY
  13. 13. GENDER PREJUDICE Gender prejudice had long been woven into the fabric of most societies. It was driven by a universal belief that women were the weaker of the sexes emotionally as well as physically and must be protected from the world outside the home. Normally, males were expected to be the provider and dominated in family matters, particularly those relating to the outside world in commerce and politics. Females were expected to assume domestic chores, cook and bake, spin yarn and sew. At the same time, it was their responsibility to bear children and raise them according to the values and morals of the society in which they lived.
  14. 14. GENDER PREJUDICE STARTS EVEN BEFORE THE GIRL CHILD COMES INTO THE WORLD. Sex ratio (females per thousand males) India 933 Rural 946 Urban 900State with Highest Female Sex Ratio Kerala 1,058State with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Haryana 861UT with Highest Female Sex Ratio Pondicherry 1,001UT with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Daman & Diu 710District with Highest Female Sex Mahe (Pondicherry) 1,147RatioDistrict with Lowest Female Sex Ratio Daman (Daman & Diu) 591 CENSUS OF INDIA, 2001
  15. 15. EMPLOYMENT – AN IMPORTANT AREA OFGENDER DISPARITYAmong the population age PERCENT 87 15-49 79  Men are 2 times as likely to be employed  Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash 43 Among the employed, 64% 29 of women vs. 91% of men earn cash Female share of population employed for cash in non- agricultural occupations is 22% Employed Employed for cash Women Men NFHS III 2005-06
  16. 16. OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION Occupational Distribution (%)Type of worker Women MenProfessional 7 7Sales 4 14Service 7 5Production 22 37Agricultural 59 33Other 2 4 NFHS III 2005-06
  17. 17. DOES EMPLOYMENT EMPOWER WOMENFINANCIALLY? NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings (if relevant) 20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband 24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them
  18. 18. PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO DO NOTPARTICIPATE IN THE USE OF THEIR EARNINGS 39 21 21 21 13 10 6 815-19 40-49 Urban Rural None 12+ Lowest Highest Age Residence Education Wealth Index
  19. 19. Belong to the highest 56 wealth quintile Are employed for cash 55Have 12+ years education 60  Percentage of women age 15-49 who have money which they can decide how to use  Education, employment, or wealth do not ensure that women have money that they control
  20. 20. DO MARRIED WOMEN HAVE ACCESS TOANY OTHER FINANCIAL RESOURCES? PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO: Participate in decision on how 68 husbands earnings are used Have money which they can 45 decide how to useHave a bank or savings account 15 that they themselve use Have taken loan from 5 microcredit program
  21. 21. DO MARRIED WOMEN PARTICIPATE INHOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING Make decision alone or jointlyDecisions with husbandOwn health care 62Making major household purchases 53Making purchases for daily household needs 60Visits to her family or relatives 61All four 37None of above 21
  22. 22. • Older women are much more likely than younger women to participate in household decisions• Differentials by other characteristics are small• However, less than half of even the oldest, urban, more educated, employed or wealthier women participate in all four decisions 46 45 41 39 45 Age 40-49 Urban 12+ yrs of Employed Wealthiest education
  23. 23. LACK OF UNITY THE MAIN REASON FOR THE LACK OF UNITY EVEN AMONG THE WOMEN IS BECAUSE WE LOOK AT THE WORLD FROM THE PRISM OF CASTE CASTE IS AN ENCLOSED CLASS MANU CREATED THE DIFFERENT CASTES IN HIS MANUSMIRITI WHICH IS PREVALANT EVEN TODAY WOMEN ARE THE LOWEST ACCORDING TO THESE PRINCIPLES IN EACH CASTE, INSPITE OF WHICH WE ARE SO PREJUDICED WITH OUR CASTE BARRIERS ACCORDING TO A SANSKRIT SCHOLAR THE BIRTH OF WOMAN IS DUE TO YOUR PAST SINS (if only if you believe in reincarnation)
  24. 24. HEALTH PROBLEMS THE MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS WOMEN FACE ARE: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS BREAST CANCER PCOD – POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN DISEASE POOR NUTIRITION – ANAMEIA – INFECTIONS HEART DISEASE AND STROKE DIABETES ARTHRITIS
  25. 25. State-wise Infant Mortality Rate by Sex and Residence in India (2004) Total Rural UrbanStates/UTs Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male FemaleIndia 58 58 58 64 64 63 40 39 40Andhra Pradesh 59 59 58 65 64 66 39 42 35Assam 66 76 55 69 80 57 38 37 40Bihar 61 60 63 63 61 65 47 44 50Chhattisgarh 60 78 42 61 82 41 52 51 53Delhi 32 32 32 48 47 49 30 30 29Gujarat 53 50 57 62 62 62 38 30 48Haryana 61 55 68 66 63 69 47 30 67Jammu & Kashmir 49 41 59 51 41 64 37 40 34Jharkhand 49 42 57 51 47 57 34 17 53Karnataka 49 49 49 54 52 57 38 44 31Kerala 12 14 11 13 15 11 9 9 9Madhya Pradesh 79 82 75 84 88 80 56 58 53Maharashtra 36 31 42 42 34 53 27 28 26Orissa 77 76 79 80 78 81 58 54 63Punjab 45 37 55 50 42 60 36 28 46Rajasthan 67 66 69 74 70 79 42 49 33Tamil Nadu 41 43 38 45 46 44 35 39 30Uttar Pradesh 72 71 72 75 75 75 53 51 55West Bengal 40 45 34 42 48 35 32 33 32
  26. 26. WOMEN – POVERTY & IGNORANCE
  27. 27. TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL PROBLEMS Limited freedom of movement Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. NFHS-3 asked women and men questions about norms regarding  Wife beating  A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes
  28. 28. PERCENT OF WOMEN WHO ARE ALLOWED TO GO ALONE TO - Market 51 Health facility 48 Places outside the 38 village/community All three places 33 None of the three 4 placesThe majority of women have little freedom of movement.Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market,health facility and outside the village or community.
  29. 29. PERCENTAGE WHO AGREE THAT A HUSBAND IS JUSTIFIED IN HITTING OR BEATING HIS WIFE IF SHE: Shows disrespect for in-laws 37 41 24 He suspects she is unfaithful 25 Doesn’t cook properly 13 20 Women Men Refuses to have sex 8 14 26 Argues with him 30 29Neglects the house or children 35 23 Goes out without telling him 29 51 At least one reason 54
  30. 30. Percentage who agree with at least one reason for wifebeating Women MenAge 15-19 53 57Urban 44 4312+ years education 31 34Employed for cash 59 62Wealthiest 37 35Delhi: A highly urbanized 32 28stateALTHOUGH URBAN, EDUCATED, EMPLOYED AND WEALTHIERPERSONS ARE LESS LIKELY TO AGREE WITH WIFE BEATING, THESECHARACTERISTICS ARE NOT SUFFICIENT TO SUPPLANT BELIEFS INGENDER IN EGALITARIAN NORMS
  31. 31.  Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched.
  32. 32. THE PROCESS OF EMPOWERMENT The ability to make decisions about personal/collective circumstances The ability to access information and resources for decision-making Ability to consider a range of options from which to choose (not just yes/no, either/or.) Ability to exercise assertiveness in collective decision making Having positive-thinking about the ability to make change Ability to learn and access skills for improving personal/collective circumstance. Ability to inform others’ perceptions though exchange, education and engagement. Involving in the growth process and changes that is never ending and self-initiated Increasing ones positive self-image and overcoming stigma Increasing ones ability in discreet thinking to sort out right and wrong
  33. 33. THE SOLUTION The right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home – pursue employment and have own income The right to have access to opportunities and resources - increase financial and non financial assets and resources. The right to have and to determine choices – within household and marriage. A sense of self-worth – against domestic violence and societal barriers.
  34. 34. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO EMPOWERMENT Health Water & San. Political & Nut. Participation Education Asset base Skills Marketing Technology Credit
  35. 35. WHAT WOULD YOU DO? Be of service. Whether you make yourself available to a friend or co-worker, or you make time every month to do volunteer work, there is nothing that harvests more of a feeling of empowerment than being of service to someone in need. - Gillian Anderson
  36. 36. THANK YOU

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