Divesity in living organism


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Divesity in living organism

  1. 1. Science Project Work 2012-13 Dec
  2. 2. Science of classification is taronomy Importance :- classification makes the study of the organisms easy it helps in exploring the diversity of life .  BASIC OF CLASSIFICATION Nature of the cell – prokaryotic and eukaryotic. No. of cells – single cell or multicellular.
  3. 3. Lack well defined nucleus and membrane bound all organelles.Mode of nutrition :- either autotrophic or hetrotrophic. Ex:- bacteria , blue-green algae.(gnobacteria)
  4. 4. Unicellular eukaryotic organism.Movement is done by cilia or whip like flagella. Ex :- algae , cliatoms protozoas.
  5. 5. they are non – green , hetrotrophic (particle or saprophyte).Cell wall is made up of complex sugar called chitin. Ex :- yeast and mushroom.
  6. 6. Those are multicellular eukaryotes with cell wall.These are autotrophic and use chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
  7. 7. These include all organisms which are multicellular eukaryotes.Without cell walls.These are hetrotrops.
  8. 8. Phylum - THALLOPHYTAThallophyta don’t have well differentiated body design fall in this group.The plant in this group are commonly called algae.These plants are aquatic.Ex :- spirogyra , cladophora and chara.
  10. 10. Phylum - BRYOPHYTABryophyta are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom.The plant body is commonly differentiated from stem and leaf like structure.There is no specialised tissue for the conduction of water and other substance from one part of the water plant body to another.Ex :- moss and marchantia.
  11. 11. MOSS
  12. 12. MOSS
  13. 13. MARCHANTIA
  14. 14. Phylum - PTERIDOPHYTAThe body is differentiated into roots , stem and leaves.Pteridophyta has specialised tissue for the conduction of water other substance from one part of the plant body to another .Some examples are marcilia ferns horse-tails.
  15. 15. Phylum - CRYPTOGAMAEThallophyta , Bryophyta , Pteridophyta , these all three groups have hidden reproductive organ and hence they are called Cryptogamae.
  16. 16. Phylum - PHANAROGAMESThey are most advanced type of bearing seeds they have root , stem , leaves and flowers . They includes gymnosperm and angiosperm.
  17. 17. Seeds are enclosed in fruits.Productive organ are flowers which carry male and female sex organs.Ex :- pea , maize .
  18. 18. Plants bear naked seeds.They have productive organ cone which carry male and female sex organs.Ex :- pinus , cycus.
  19. 19. Leaves have parallel venation.They have fibrous roots.They have one cotyledon.Ex :- maize.Monocots
  20. 20. Leaves have reticulate venation.They have tap roots.They have two cotyledons.Ex :- pea , maize.Dicots
  23. 23. Phylum - PORIFERAThey have pores called Ostia all over the body; with a single large opening , known as Osculum on the top.Animals of this phylum are known as sponges. They have a characteristics canal system for water passage not found in any other kind of animals.Their skeleton is made up of calcareous and siliseous spicules of spongin fibres.Reproduction is both asexual by gemules and sexual reproduction through fertilizations.Ex :- Sycon , Spongilla , Euplectella.
  24. 24. Phylum – CNIDARIAThe body of this phylum is radially symmetrical.The body bears tentacles supplied with special stinging cells called cnibloblasts.There is a cavity in a body.The body is made up of two layers of cells.Some coelenterates live in colony (obelia) while others solitary (hydra).Animals of this phylum exists in two types known as zooids-polyps and medusae. Polyps are always fixed but medusae are free swimming.Reproduction is usually asexual (budding) in polyp form and sexual in medusae form.Ex :- Hydra (sea anemones) Obelia , Aurelia and Jelly fish.
  25. 25. Phylum - PLATYHELMINTHESTheir body is dorsiventrally flat and leaf-like or ribbon like.Body symmetry is bilateral.Body cavity is absent.There are three layers of cells from which differentiated tissues can be formed. So , animals of this phylla are triploblastic.Ex :- Dugesia (planaria) is free living , Fasciola (liver fluke) and Taenia solium (tape worm) are parasitic animals.
  26. 26. Phylum - NEMATODAMost of the Aschelminthes are small cylindrical or round worms.Body cavity is not a true coelom. A pseudocoelom is present.Body is bilaterally symetrical and triploblastic.Sexes are separate.Ascaris (round worms) ,Ancylostoma (hook worm) and Wuchereria (filarial worm) causes elephantiasis.
  27. 27. Phylum - ANNELIDAThey have elongated and segmented body.Body bears laterals appendages for locomotion in the form of chitinous setae or Parapodia.The body is bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic.Reproduction by sexual means. Sex may be separated or hermaphrodite (body sexes in the same individual).They are the first animals with true coelom (body cavity).Ex:- pheretima (earthworm) , hirudinaria (cattle leech)
  28. 28. Phylum - ARTHOPODAThey poses jointed legs/appendages.Aethropodes have chitinous exoskeleton.The body is segmented and may divisible into two regions-cephalothorax (head and thorax joined) and abdomen.Body cavity is reduced and is known as haemoceol (cavity filled with blood).These animals are bilaterally symmetrical.There is an open circulatory system i.e., the blood does not flow in definite blood vessels.Ex:- apis (honey bee) , musca , anopheles (mosquito) , palaemon (prawn) , crabs
  29. 29. Phylum - MULLUSCAThey have unsegmented soft body.The body is divided into three regions – head , dorsal visceral mass and ventral foot.Body is bilaterally symmetrical.The coelomic cavity is reduced.They have open circulatory system and kindly like organs for excretion.Some molluscs have hard calcareous shell , an outer covering of the body.Respiration is by gills called ctenidia.Ex:- pila (snail) , unio (fresh water mussel) and octopus.
  30. 30. Phylum - ECHINODERMATAThey are marine and free living.They triploblastic , and have a coelomic cavity.They are spiny skinned animals.Water driven tube system is present.Ex:- asterias , featherstar etc.
  31. 31. Phylum – PROTOCHODATAThey have motochord which runs up to the pasteorior and saparates the nervous tissue from the elementary canal.They live in sea water.They show bilateral symmetrical.They are tribloblastic and have coelom.
  32. 32. VERTIBRATA
  33. 33.  They have a notochord. They have a dorsol nerve card. They are triploblastic. They have paired gill pouchis. They are coelomak. They are:- pisces , amphibia , reptilia, aves , mammalia.
  34. 34.  The binomial nomenclature makes for a uniform way of identification of the vast diversity of life around us. The binomial nomenclature is made up of two words :- a gernic name and a specific name.