Quality planning


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Quality planning

  1. 1. Quality Planning
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>“ Quality must be defined and measure if improvement is to be achieved.” </li></ul><ul><li>Facts about quality:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality is a multidimensional concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their is a level of abstraction(depends on individual). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We should not treat quality measurement as the last step (before delivery and after assembly/development) </li></ul><ul><li>Like effort and schedule estimated we can estimate quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Software Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is recognized as lack of “bugs” in the product(i.e conformance to requirements) </li></ul><ul><li>The above statement can be expressed by two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects rate (number of defects per million LOC , per function point etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability rate (number of failures per n hours of operations, mean time to failure etc) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cont.. <ul><li>Quality is measured with customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>For instance IBM monitors satisfaction with its s/w CUPRIMSO(capability[functionality],usability,performance,reliability,install-ability,maintainability,documentation,service, and overall). </li></ul><ul><li>Hwelett-Packard focused on FURPS(functionality,usability,reliability,performance and serviceability). </li></ul><ul><li>Quality attributes depends upon the type of software and customers we have. </li></ul><ul><li>Further topic deals with “how a project manager set the quality goal for their project and plan to achieve that goal.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quality Concept <ul><li>The ultimate goal of the project manager is to ensure that the final s/w is of high quality. </li></ul><ul><li>How to define software quality? (as s/w has so many quality characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>First understand Defect Injection and Removal Cycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors are obvious – S/w involves so many people for long duration of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects Injection stages – all the transformation stages(analysis,design coding testing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The high quality s/w must remove these defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have introduce defects removal after each transformation stage. </li></ul></ul>Requirement Analysis R Design R Coding R UT IT/ST AT Defects Removal Defects Injection
  5. 5. Quality Management <ul><li>Defects removal managed by quality management. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality management is to plan suitable quality control activities and then properly execute and control them to achieve the project's quality goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural approach to quality management </li></ul><ul><li>The defects are detected by performing reviews or testing. </li></ul><ul><li>In procedural approach we define the procedures for testing or review. </li></ul><ul><li>This method could not able to provide the quantitative measurement of quality , just provide the project manager is that whether the quality control task are executed or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative approaches to quality management </li></ul><ul><li>For better assessment of quality we require metrics data for evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>It not only execute the quality control procedure but also looks at metrics data to evaluate effectiveness of quality control activities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cont.. <ul><li>Quantitative quality management has following two aspects :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting a quantitative goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then managing the software development process quantitatively (so that this quality goal is met with a high degree of confidence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early warning signs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cont. <ul><li>Approaches can be used for quantitative quality control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Reliability Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It use the failure data during the final stage of testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use to estimates the reliability of the software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It indicates whether the reliability is accepted or more testing is required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not provide intermediate goals for the early detection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects Removal Efficiency (DRE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In QC activity DRE can be defined as the % of existing total defects that are detected by the QC activity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DREi=Ei)/(Ei+Ej) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is carried out in full life cycle of the project before the s/w is delivered </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cont. <ul><ul><li>Quality Prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predict the defects as per the estimated defects level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process step has defect detection point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We find % of total defects detected at various detection stages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Process Control (SPC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set performance expectation of the various quality control processes (testing and reviews) in terms of control limits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If at any stage the actual number of defects are less than the target then it may be possible that the removal process was not executed properly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Quantitative Quality Management Planning <ul><li>It is a three step process perform my the project manager. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting the quality goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction of defect levels at intermediate milestones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for suitable enhancements to the quality process </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cont. <ul><li>Setting the quality goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set during the planning stages by the project managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its noting but expected number defects found during acceptance testing (AT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their are two primary source for setting quality goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past data from similar projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data from the process capability baseline (PCB) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Quality Goal <ul><li>If we uses past data from similar projects approach then, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can estimates the number of defects found in the current by following formula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate for AT defects in CP=(AT defects in SP * estimated effort in CP)/Actual effort in SP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If use data from the PCB then(if we set the quality target as the number of defects per function point) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of steps as follows :- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) set the quality goal in terms of defects per FP. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Estimate the expected productivity level for the project. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Estimate the size of FP as (expected productivity * estimated effort ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4) Estimate the number of AT defects as (quality goal * estimated size) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity is a ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Quality Goal <ul><li>Sometime it is more useful to set the target in terms of the process's defects removal efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Set as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set the quality goal in terms of defect removal efficiency. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the total number of defects from the defect injection rate and estimated size,or by the effort-based defect injection rate and the effort estimate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the number of AT defects from the total number of defects and quality goal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Quality Process Planning <ul><li>It all about the setting the quality goal of the current project with respect to the similar project. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main task of quality control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review -> need good review process (By PM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing -> need good testing method (By PM) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Defects Prevention Planning <ul><li>Defects prevention (DP) activities are intended to improve quality and improve productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>For a given process and its removal efficiency, the quality of the final delivered software can be improved if fewer defects are introduced while the s/w is being built. </li></ul><ul><li>DP also has productivity benefits [How] </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its a cycle of defects injection and remove ...without adding any value to the software. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. How <ul><li>How is DP done ? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The premise of the DP is that there is some cause behind the injected defects. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To implement DP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project manager may start with the set of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recommendations available at the organization level and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recommendations based on analysis of the project's defect data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Defect prevention steps At Infosys <ul><li>Identify a defect prevention team within the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a kick-off meeting and identify existing solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for defect prevention. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set defect prevention goals for the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See that the DP team is trained on DP and causal analysis, if needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the frequency at which defect prevention activities will be carried out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>· Do defect prevention. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At defined points, collate defects data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the most common types of defects by doing Pareto analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform causal analysis and prioritize the root causes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and develop solutions for the root causes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement the solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the status and benefits of DP at the project milestones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capture learning. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Case Study <ul><li>Read Case study given in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book :- Software Project Management in Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Panjak Jalote </li></ul></ul></ul>