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Rahul Chaudhary
X B
APS PRTC
Work that is NOT
hazardous or
other WFCL
Hazardous work
or other WFCL
Children
above the
minimum
age but
below 18y
4 2
Children
below the
minimum
working age
3 1
18y
14/15/16
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street
children working on the street

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children working on the street

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Work that is NOT hazardous or other WFCL Hazardous work or other WFCL Children above the minimum age but below 18y 4 2 Children below the minimum working age 3 1 18y 14/15/16

Editor's Notes

  1. This is an extremely simplified schema, and does not represent the size of the problem (the number of children in each category) All the 4 areas put together represent working children (under 18y of age) - according to the latest 2010 Global estimate: 305.7 million children globally. 1+2+3 = child labour that needs to be eliminated – 215.3 mio children 1 + 2 are children in WFCL (hazardous work or other worst forms) – 115.3 mio in hazardous work is often used as a proxy figure (the other WFCL were estimated to be about 8 mio in 2002) 3 is children below the minimum age at work, not in WFCL, but still in child labour - about 100 mio 4 is NOT child labour, but adolescents at work or part of “youth employment” – rather promoted – around 90 mio (in the context of Global estimates, this category of “permissible work” included short hours of light work by children as from age 12, but this is not separated in this schema. So strictly speaking, the line between 3 and 4 is a bit more nuanced) In terms of ILO standards and goals, 1+2 is the target of eliminating WFCL (by 2016, according to the Hague, ILO GAP 2010, AU goal etc) Among these, category 1 should be the high priority (younger children in hazardous or other WFCL) – they should be withdrawn and put to school. Solutions for category 2 can include vocational training or placement to safer jobs (introduction to decent work). In addition to 1+2 as an urgent priority under C182, Category 3 is the scope of the ultimate goal of effective abolition of child labour (cf. minimum age C138 and also CRC) if necessary, progressively. A simple way of defining child labour could be: i) Work by a child who is too young to work (below the minimum working age = areas 1+3 in this schema) and ii) Work that is unsuitable and prohibited for children below 18, even having reached this age (WFCL, including HCL = areas 1+2 ; this is the scope of 2016 target) area 1 is an overlapping area: unacceptable work (WFCL) by younger children, therefore priority for elimination This simplified explanation using i) and ii) is not just by the ILO; but also taken by the UN (in a Secretary-General’s Report to the GA in 2009 on the Rights of the Child [A/64/172]
  2. (1) Forced labour including forced begging and child trafficking Regarding begging, the issue here is not about whether begging as such should be criminalized or not. It is the act of ‘using’ children or ‘trafficking’ them for the purpose of begging that must be prohibited and punished, and the children involved should be treated as victims and not as offenders. The use of children in begging has also been examined by the ILO supervisory bodies[1] as a situation of forced or compulsory labour of children, when it occurred in the context of traditional and so-called ‘religious’ exercises[2]. Exploitation that results from child trafficking is, of course, not limited to their use in begging. Forms of exploitation vary considerably. Some child victims of trafficking may escape from exploitation at the destination, e.g. as child domestic workers, or subjected to sexual exploitation, and end up on the street. At the same time, children living on the street are extremely vulnerable to trafficking. (2) Sexual exploitation The UN Study on Violence against Children underlined that “girls and boys living on the street are vulnerable to sexual abuse” and “also risk being recruited by pimps and traffickers for sexual and economic exploitation.” Even where they have to resort to ‘survival sex’ (sex in exchange for food or shelter), it falls within the definition of child prostitution under the Optional Protocol to the CRC,[3] and is therefore an issue of the worst forms of child labour – requiring an immediate and effective measures to rescue them. (3) The use of children in illicit activities The use of children in illicit activities, including but not limited to drug trafficking, is explicitly defined among the WFCL under Convention No. 182. It is a relatively new category of issues among child labour. The use of children in illicit activities is not only an issue for criminal or juvenile justice; it must also be tackled from different approaches which reach the root causes of the problem. The issues cannot be solved solely by strengthening law enforcement against offenders who use children in illicit activities, and even less so by only punishing those children for the act itself. [1] Namely, the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR). Please see www.ilo.org/normes for more information. [2] For instance, the practice of “talibé” in Senegal has been commented by the CEACR, and also was subject of a UCW study (Please see below for the interagency project UCW – Understanding Children’s Work). [3] Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Article 2(b).
  3. Global goal and targets:   The elimination of all worst forms of child labour by 2016 To this end, all countries should design and put in place appropriate time-bound measures by 2008