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MDG: progress in India

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  1. 1. MDG BriefExcerpts from publications.May 16, 2012Contents Press 1 Millennium Development Goals: India makes impressive progress in 10 out of 22 indicators 1 Goals and Targets from the Millennium Declaration 4 GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY & HUNGER 4 GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION 4 GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN 4 GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY 4 GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH 4 GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES 4 GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY 5 GOAL 8:DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT 5PressMillennium Development Goals: India makes impressive progress in 10out of 22 indicatorsWith roughly three years left for India to achieve the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs), the country has managed to showsignificant progress in 10 of the 22 indicators.1 1 Refer to Appendix A for goals and With impressive gains in improving primary education enrollment targetsrate, promoting gender equality and increasing forest cover, thecountry’s lackluster performance in reducing overall poverty andhealth indicators has dragged down the performance of the overallSouth Asian region. The millennium development goals are a list of eight internationaldevelopment parameters that all 193 members of the United Na-tions have to achieve by 2015. The progress in the 8 parameters ismeasured by 22 socio-economic indicators. India, compared to most nations in the Asia Pacific, has madevery slow progress in eradicating poverty over the period of 10 years,according to the Asia - Pacific Regional MDG report 2011-122 . 2 http://www.unescap. org/pdd/calendar/ CSN-MDG-NewDelhi-Nov-2011/ MDG-Report2011-12.pdf
  2. 2. MDG brief With 49.4 % people living on less than $1.25 per day in the country,the metric for poverty used by MDGs, in 1994, the country has able toreduce it to only 41.6% in the ten years to 2005. The following data is from PovcalNet3 3 developed by the Development In the following tables, Research Group of the World Bank PovcalNet/index.htmInc/Con: Welfare measured by income or consumptionHeadcount: % of population living in households with consumption or income per person below the poverty line.Watts’ poverty index: mean across the population of the proportionate poverty gaps, as measured by the log of the ratio of the poverty line to income, where the mean is formed over the whole popula- tion, counting the non poor as having zero poverty gap.Gini index: measure of inequality between 0 (everyone has the same income) and 100 (richest person has all the income)MLD index: mean across the population of the log of the overall mean divided by individual income. Survey Inc/ Mean Pov Head Pov Pov gap Watts Gini MLD Detail year Con ($) line ($) (%) gap (%) square index index index 2004.5 C 53.49 38 41.64 10.51 3.69 0.1328 33.38 0.1892 weighted 1993.5 C 46.68 38 49.40 13.56 5.07 0.174 30.82 0.1604 weighted 1987.5 C 44.84 38 53.59 15.81 6.27 0.2063 31.88 0.1701 weighted 1983 C 42.76 38 55.51 17.24 7.19 0.2329 31.11 0.1602 weighted 1977.5 C 39.17 38 65.89 23.22 10.64 0.3255 35.09 0.2117 weighted Table 1: India Survey Inc/ Mean Pov Head Pov Pov gap Watts Gini MLD year Con ($) line ($) (%) gap (%) square index index index 2009.5 C 54.96 38 34.28 7.53 2.46 0.0914 29.96 0.1548 2004.5 C 49.93 38 43.83 10.66 3.65 0.1325 30.46 0.1595 1993.5 C 43.76 38 52.46 14.33 5.36 0.1828 28.59 0.1393 1987.5 C 42.85 38 55.60 16.27 6.43 0.2112 30.13 0.1548 1983 C 41.03 38 57.78 18.06 7.57 0.2456 30.06 0.1499 1977.5 C 37.51 38 69.02 24.52 11.26 0.3453 34.2 0.2077 Table 2: India – rural The rate of reduction in poverty is much lower than other southAsian countries like Bangladesh that has brought down proportion ofexteremely poor people from 66.8% in 1992 to 49.6% in 2005. India’spoor population is much higher than Pakistan (22.6%), Sri Lanka (7%)and Turkey (2.7%). 2
  3. 3. MDG brief Survey Inc/ Mean Pov Head Pov Pov gap Watts Gini MLD year Con ($) line ($) (%) gap (%) square index index index 2009.5 C 73.01 38 28.93 7.39 2.61 0.0906 39.28 0.2565 2004.5 C 62.43 38 36.16 10.16 3.8 0.1336 37.59 0.2333 1993.5 C 54.91 38 40.77 11.39 4.24 0.1491 34.34 0.1929 1987.5 C 50.89 38 47.50 14.43 5.78 0.1916 35.57 0.209 1983 C 48.28 38 48.25 14.62 5.99 0.1923 33.33 0.1821 1977.5 C 45.07 38 54.79 18.61 8.42 0.2554 35.74 0.2132 Table 3: India – urban The Asia- Pacific region as a whole has however already reachedthe MDG of halving the incidence of poverty. The proportion ofpeople living below $1.25 per day in the region has come down from50% in 1990 to 22% in 2009. Out of the 22 indicators, India has achieved 7 while is on track toachieve another 3 while it is lagging behind in the rest. The SouthAsian region as a whole also has a similar profile though if oneexcludes India, the region is on track to eradicate extreme poverty by2015. Health indicators however continue to suffer in all sub regions inAsia - Pacific. “We are in a race against time with just 3 years left to achieve theMDG. The good news though, is that our analysis shows many ofthese goals can still be reached with a re doubling of efforts,” saidNoeleen Heyzer, United Nations under secretary general. The greatest progress in the region has been in South East Asiawhich has already achieved 10 out of 22 assessed indicators and is ontrack for another 4. India has the second highest increase in primaryenrollment ratio at 96.9% in 2008, up from 85% in 2000 among allcountries of South West Asia. The country has lagged behind in bringing infant mortality andmaternal mortality rates down during the 1990-2008 decade signifi-cantly; however it has made progress in bringing down tuberculosisprevalence rate and HIV prevalence rates. Forest cover in the country has improved to 23% of land coverin 2010, up from 21.5% in 1990. Protected areas have also seen amarginal increase during the 10 year period to 4.82% in 2010, from4.49% in 1990. This is the best performance among other nations inSouth Asia. Carbon dioxide emissions have, however increased in thecountry over the period from 1.48 tons per capita in 2008 to 0.8 tonsper capita in 1990.4 4 http://articles. economictimes.indiatimes. com/2012-02-18/news/31074955_1_ mdgs-extreme-poverty-millennium-development-go 3
  4. 4. MDG briefGoals and Targets from the Millennium DeclarationGOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY & HUNGERTarget 1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a dayTarget 1.B Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young peopleTarget 1.C Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hungerGOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATIONTarget 2.A Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schoolingGOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMENTarget 3.A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITYTarget 4.A Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under- five mortality rateGOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTHTarget 5.A Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratioTarget 5.B Achieve universal access to reproductive healthGOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASESTarget 6.A Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDSTarget 6.B Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need itTarget 6.C Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 4
  5. 5. MDG briefGOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTarget 7.A Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environ- mental resourcesTarget 7.B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of lossTarget 7.C Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitationTarget 7.D By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellersGOAL 8:DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENTTarget 8.A Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non- discriminatory trading and financial systemTarget 8.B Address the special needs of least developed countriesTarget 8.C Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing StatesTarget 8.D Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of develop- ing countriesTarget 8.E In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countriesTarget 8.F In cooperation with the private sector, make available benefits of new technologies, especially information and communi- cations Note: The Millennium Development Goals and targets comefrom the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries, in-cluding 147 heads of state and government, in September 2000( andfrom further agreement by member states at the 2005 World Summit(Resolution adopted by the General Assembly – A/RES/60/1). Thegoals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole.They represent a partnership between the developed countries andthe developing countries “to create an environment–at the nationaland global levels alike– which is conducive to development and theelimination of poverty.”5 6 5 United Nations. 2008. Report of the Secretary-General on the Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Develop- ment Goals. E/CN.3/2008/29. New York. Also, millenniumgoals/global.shtml 6 World Bank (Author). Global Mon- 5 itoring Report : Global Monitoring Report 2011 : Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs. Herndon, VA, USA: World Bank Publications, 2011. p xvi. lib/britishcouncilonline/Doc?id= 10468648&ppg=18