Appraisal and Review for a Rural Water Supply andSanitation ProjectRahul Bhargava23 November 2012Contents Background 1 Monitoring water supply and sanitation 1 Methodology 1 Monitoring 2 Contaminants to be analysed 4 Sampling 4 Glossary 4 References 5BackgroundThe Project is aligned with the Government’s policies, guidelines, planningprocesses, rules and regulations. Funds from the Government, clubbedwith those from multilateral agencies, are channeled from the CentralGovernment through local bodies to communities in accordance withexisting processes and mechanisms. In keeping with the projects objectivesof inclusion, support has been provided for the development of DistrictWASH Implementation Guidelines and activities are being implementedaccording to these guidelines. Outputs/targets:1. Model District WASH Implementation Guideline (DWIG)2. District WASH Plans3. Village Development Committees (VDC) WASH plans4. Improved sanitation and hygenic practices, along with behaviour change5. Strengthened instiutions with the capacity to implement, operate and maintain water supply, sanitation and hygiene6. Water supply through gravity schemes, gravity rehabilitations, point source improvements, tube wells, hand dug wells, rainwater harvesting systems.
Monitoring water supply and sanitationMethodologyBefore the planning of water sampling and analysis, it is necessary to deve-lop a monitoring program document that clearly outlines what informationis needed and what is already available under the mandate of the RWSSPProject. This will provide the foundation to,• Describe water resources and identify actual and emerging problems of water pollution.• Develop a monitoring network design by establishing what is measured and sampled where, when and how often. Random sampling for the Appraisal is necessary so that the emerging picture can be generalized in a statistically satifactory manner.• Formulate plans and setting priorities for water quality management. This will include estimating resources available for undertaking field surveys, hydrological measurements and microbiological, biological and sediment sampling, undertaking laboratory work, and determining staff competency and training. Laboratories must be identified that will undertake physical and chemical analyses under appropriate external and internal quality controls.• Peform a gap analysis to determine if the preconditions for the Comple- tion Phase of the RWSSP have been met.• Evaluate the effectiveness of RWSSP to date.Monitoring“The indicators/parameters to be included in water quality assessment andmonitoring programmes can be summarised as follows:1. microbial quality: micro-organisms which indicate faecal contamination (‘indicator organisms’ such as Escherichia coli or, as a surrogate, ther- motolerant coliforms) and thus signal the potential presence in water of micro-organisms that are harmful to health (pathogens);2. parameters that have been shown to influence microbial quality (such as disinfectant residuals, pH and turbidity);3. chemical parameters of known health risk; and4. aesthetic parameters, i.e. those that cause rejection of water (notably turbidity, taste, colour, odour, iron and manganese).”1 1 Rapid assessment of drinking-water quality: a handbook for implementation 2
Sources of drinking water Table 1: WHO/UNICEF Joint Mo- Improved Room for improvement nitoring Programme for Water Piped water into dwelling, yard or plot Tanker truck water Supply and Sanitation. Water for Public tap/standpipe Vendor-provided water life: making it happen. 2005. pg 6. Tubewell/borewell Protected dug well Unprotected dug well Protected spring Unprotected spring Rainwater collection Surface water (river, stream, dam Bottled water lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) Sanitation Improved Room for improvement Flush/pour-flush to: Public or shared latrine piped sewer system sepctic tank Hanging toilet pit (latrine) Bucket latrine Ventilated improved pit laterine Pit laterine with slab Pit laterine w/o slab, open pit Composting toilet No facilities (use open area)Contaminants to be analysed• Organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs, Organophosphorus• Pentachlorophenol, Phenolics, Phenoxy acid herbicides• Aluminium, Antimony, Barium, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lead, Lithium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Selenium, Strontium, Vanadium, Zinc• Silver• Mercury• Acidity, Alkalinity, Arsenic, Calcium, Chloride, Colour, Fluoride, Hard- ness, Magnesium, Non-filterable residue, pH, Potassium, Sodium, Specific conductance, Sulphate, Turbidity• Carbon, total organic; Nitrogen: ammonia; Nitrogen: nitrate, nitrite; Nitrogen: total• Phosphorus, totalSamplingComposite sampling should be undertaken and be a combination of depth,area and time integrated. That is, two or more parts should be collected at 3
Likely volume of Public health risk Intervention priority Service level Distance/time water collected from poor hygiene and actions No access More than 1 km; more than Very low: 5 litres per capita Very high Very high 30 min round-trip per day Hygiene compromised; Provision of basic level of basic consumption may service; be compromised hygiene education Basic access Within 1 km; within 30 min Average approximately High High round-trip 20 litres per capita per day Hygiene may be compromised; Hygiene education; provision laundry may occur off-plot of improved level of service Intermediate access Water provided on-plot Average approximately Low Low through at least one tap 50 litres per capita per day Hygiene should not be Hygiene promotion still (yard level) compromised; laundry likely yields health gains; to occur on-plot encourage optimal access Optimal access Supply of water through Average 100– 200 litres Very low Very low multiple taps within the per capita per day Hygiene should not be Hygiene promotion house compromised; laundry will still yields health gains occur on-plot Table 2: Source: Domestic water quantity, service level and health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.4
predetermined depths below the surface and bottom, spatially distributed,and at regular intervals.GlossaryWASH Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene. Behaviour change relating to both sanitation and hygienic practices is essential.DWIG District WASH Implementation GuidelineVDC Village Development CommitteesMonitoring is the long-term, standardised measurement and observation of the aquatic environment in order to define status and trends.Surveys are finite duration, intensive programmes to measure and observe the quality of the aquatic environment for a specific purpose.Surveillance is continuous, specific measurement and observation for the purpose of water quality management and operational activities.ReferencesWorld Health Organization. Rapid assessment of drinking-water quality: ahandbook for implementation, 2012. WHO/UNICEF Joint Water Supply and Sanitation Monitoring Pro-gramme Staff (Contribution by). Water for Life : Making It Happen. Albany,NY, USA: World Health Organization, 2005. p 27. Jamie Bartram and Richard Ballance (editors). Water Quality Moni-toring - A Practical Guide to the Design and Implementation of Fresh-water Quality Studies and Monitoring Programmes. UNEP/WHO, 1996.http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resourcesquality/waterqualmonitor.pdf. Last accessed 23 November 2012. WHO/UNICEF. Rapid assessment of drinking-water quality: a handbookfor implementation. October 2012. http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/RADWQHandbookv1final.pdf IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. http://www.irc.nl/page/102 World Health Organization (WHO). http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/en/ Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). http://www.wsp.org/ Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. http://www.wsscc.org Global Water Partnership (GWP). http://gwpforum.netmasters05.netmasters.nl/en/index.html 5