Construction management


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Construction management

  1. 1. 18/04/2013 Planning 1. Planning is the most important technique of the management. 2. Planning means “Looking ahead”. 3. This is mental process requiring the use of intellectual facilities, imagination, foresight and sound judgment, to be dine, who will do it an how the results are to be evaluated. , Guided By Dr. U. J. Kahalekar Sir G id d B D U J K h l k Si 4. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human and material resources to achieve the objectives of the Represented by Rahul Agrawal project. Govt. College of Engg., A badApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 1 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 2 Agrawal Agrawal Site Selection Criteria considerations Financial Analysis 1. Availability of land, soil characteristics and cover of 1. Engg. and Project management cost land 2. Lump sum payment for technology cost 2. Approach to site 3. Engg. Fee 3. Transportation and availability of material 4. Management and supervision during construction 4. 4 Availability f A il bili of man-power 5. 5 Enabling works 5. Availability of other facilities such water supply, 6. Construction equipment used electricity, drainage, etc 7. Miscellaneous fixed assets 6. Acceptance of the project by the local bodies 8. Provision of contingencies 9. Operating cost 10. Working costApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 3 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 4 Agrawal Agrawal Steps involved in planning Objectives of Planning 1. Crystallizing the opportunity or problem 1. Proper design of each element of the project 2. Proper selection of equipment and machinery in big project 2. Securing and analyzing necessary information 3. Proper arrangement of repair of equipment and machinery near the site of 3. Establishing planning premises and constraints work to keep them ready to work 4. Procurement of material well in advance 4. Ascertaining alternative course of action or plan 5. Employment of trained and experienced staff on the project 5. 5 Selecting optimum plan 6. To provide welfare schemes for the staff and workers such as medical and 6. Determining derivative plan recreational facilities 7. To provide incentive for good workers 7. Fixing the timing of introduction 8. To arrange constant flow of funds for the completion of the project 8. Arranging future evaluation of effectiveness of the plan 9. To provide proper safety measures such as proper ventilation, proper arrangement of light and water 10. Proper arrangements of means of communications and feedback etc..April 18, 2013 Construction Management 5 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 6 Agrawal Agrawal 1
  2. 2. 18/04/2013 Advantage of Planning Advantage to contractors 1. Advantage to contractors 1. Job is studied in details by help of bar chart 2. Advantage to clients 2. Loss of money and help to relieve the financial burden to 3. Advantage to architects/ engineer contractor 3. Labours requirement are used properly 4. 4 Actual work can be measured 5. Job is completed in timeApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 7 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 8 Agrawal Agrawal Limitation in Planning Stages in Planning 1. Preplanning : objectives are clearly spelt out, general 1. The effectiveness of the plan depends upon the correctness of framework of the project is formulated, cost benefit analysis assumptions and investment alternatives. 2. Planning is expansive 2. Detailed Planning : preparation of detailed design, detailed 3. Planning delays action working drawings, specifications and detailed bill of 4. Planning encourages a false sense of security quantities. 3. Monitoring and Control : updating of the schedule, taking into account the actual progress of project and preparing revised forecasting regarding availability of various resources.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 9 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 10 Agrawal Agrawal Types of Plans Contract 1. Standing Plan : used repeatedly & including Contract is an agreement, which will be valid in law or enforceable managements policies, procedures, rules by law, between or among two or more parities, for provision of supplies and/or services against consideration of monitory 2. Single use Plan : used for single purpose and objective value, either in cash or in kind. is accomplish within short period of time. (Ex. Budgets) Types of Contract 3. 3 Strategic Plan : Vitally effect development of an 1. Lump Sum contract organization. Factor include economic, technological 2. Cost plus fixed contract and environmental factors. 3. Cost plus bid free contract 4. Administrative Plan : this is less subjective than 4. Guaranteed Maximum contract strategic plan. It focus on how to accomplish objective of project or project or organization. 5. Negotiated contract 6. Unit price contractApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 11 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 12 Agrawal Agrawal 2
  3. 3. 18/04/2013 Specification Tender Information This is description of items of work to be provided in a project 1. Name of the dept. calling for tenders along with details regarding materials to be used and 2. Name of work and location 3. Designation of officer inviting tenders workmanship to be done. 4. Last date and time of receipt of tenders Types of Specification 5. Period of availability of tender forms • p General specification 6. Cost of tender documents 7. Time of completion and type of contract • Detailed specification 8. Earnest money deposits to be paid • Special specification 9. Date, time and place of opening tenders • Restricted specification 10. Designation of the officer opening tenders • Manufacturer’s specificationApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 13 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 14 Agrawal Agrawal Tender Types Tender Document Scheduling 1. Open tender 1. General consideration of Construction scheduling is a graphical representation 2. Limited tender tender which shows the phasing rate of construction 3. Single tender 2. Schedule of items of work with clear activities with the starting completion dates and 4. Rate contract sequential relationship among the various activities or specification 3. 3 Special S i l conditions diti operations in project so that work can be carried out in an orderly and effective manner.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 15 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 16 Agrawal Agrawal Preparation of scheduling Uses of scheduling Advantages of scheduling 1. The project is divided into number of operation and the 1. Gives quantity of work 1. Many alternative method can sequences of these operation can be derived after knowing involved, labour, be choose their relationship properly. materials and equipment 2. Clear idea regarding workers, 2. The quantity of work involved in each operation has to be at each stage. materials, equipments calculated. 2. Actual progress of work 3. Staring time of work is known 3. 3 The time required for completion of the project as well as can be check 4. Resources utilization is different activities are to be calculated. This can be done 3. Carried out in systematic minimum from the quantity of work involved and rate of performing manner 5. Actual work is monitored each work. 6. Inter-relationship of various activities are knownApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 17 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 18 Agrawal Agrawal 3
  4. 4. 18/04/2013 Bar charts Limitation of Bar Chart Henry Gantt around 1900 A.D. 1. They can be used only for small projects Bar chart consists of two coordinate axes representing the jobs or activities to be performed and other representing time elapsed. 2. It does not show the interdependencies between the various activities in project Following step are involved 3. The progress of the work in project cannot be monitored 1. Divide project into many activities y scientifically 2. List out the activities 4. Delays in the work cannot be detected 3. Find the inter-relationship among these activities 5. It does not indicate critical activities of project 4. Arrange activities in systematic way 6. It gives some idea about the physical progress of project. 5. Calculate quantity of work and time required 7. It can’t be used as controlling devices by the project 6. Draw it according to scale manager to take any timely action.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 19 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 20 Agrawal Agrawal Terms in Network Diagram Network Diagram 1. Activity : any position of project which consume time ot Network is graphical and logical model or plan which lists resources and has a definite beginning and an end called as out the sequences of various operations (with an activity. It is denoted by an arrow interdependencies) which are required to be performed for 2. Event : the beginning or completion of an activity is termed the final achievement of the project objectives. as an event. It indicates a particular instant of time at which some specific milestone has been achieved. 3. Network logic : this denotes the technical dependencies among activities. A good network logic reflects cost effectiveness of project in long run. 4. Dummy : it similar to an activity but it does not consume any resources. It represent by Dashed ArrowApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 21 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 22 Agrawal Agrawal Terms in Network Diagram Types of Events 1. Tail Event : which marks the beginning of an activity. Activity 2. Head Event : which marks the completion of an activity. Dummy Node 3. Dual Role Event : which acts as tail event for one activity Representation of Activity, Node, Dummy and head event for other activity. 4. Burst & Merge Event A 2 2 A A B B 1 2 3 1 3 3 1 B Burst Merge 4 4 Event Event C Representation of Network Logic CApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 23 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 24 Agrawal Agrawal 4
  5. 5. 18/04/2013 Types of NETWORKS Rules for drawing a Networks 1. Network will have only one initial node. Initial node will be only out going arrows 1. Activity on Arrow (A-O-A) or Arrow Diagram : the arrow 2. Network can have only one final node. Final node will have only one incoming represent activities and node represent the events. arrow 2. Activity on Node (A-O-N) or Precedence Diagram : the 3. No activity can start until its tail event has occurred node represent activities and arrow represent the events. 4. An event can’t occur until all the activities leading upto it are completed 3. Event oriented networks (PERT type) ( yp ) 5. No event can occur twice. Hence network looping isn’t permitted 6. An arrow should represent singular situation. Individuality and separate entity of each activity should be maintained. 7. The network should be drafted such that all activities are completed to reach end objectives 8. All constraints and interdependencies should be shown properly on the network using dummies 9. Network logic should always be maintained 10. Time flow is usually shown from left to right.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 25 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 26 Agrawal Agrawal Fulkerson’s Rule for Numbering the Events CPM Critical Path Method 1. There will be single initial event in network which has only 1. CPM was discovered jointly by DuPont and Reunington arrows coming out of it. This event is given number 1. Rand Univac in 1957 2. All arrows coming out of event 1 are neglected. This provides us with one or more initial events. These event are numbered 2,3,4,5 etc. 3. Again neglect all the arrows coming out of these numbered events. A few more initial events will be created. These are also numbered similarly. 4. This operation is continued until last event is reached and numbered.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 27 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 28 Agrawal Agrawal Difference between CPM & PERT CPM • Earliest Event Time : earliest occurrence time is the earliest time at which an event can occur.• CPM is activity oriented • PERT is event oriented TEj = TEi + tij• Time estimates are of fair degree • Time estimates are not that where TEj = earliest event time of head event of accuracy accurate TEi = earliest event time of tail event• Deterministic approach • Probabilistic approach tij = duration of the activity (i-j)• Cost is governing factor • Time is governing factor • Latest Event Time : latest allowable occurrence time is the latest• Project duration is fixed and cost • Cost is directly proportional to time by which an event must occur to keep project on schedule. is minimum time TL = TLi - tij• Critical path which joins critical • Her critical path is path which where TL = latest event time of head event activities joins the critical events TLi = earliest event time of tail event tij = duration of the activity (i-j)April 18, 2013 Construction Management 29 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 30 Agrawal Agrawal 5
  6. 6. 18/04/2013 CPM Activity Time Float • Float denote the flexibility range within which activity start and • Earliest start time : is earliest time by which an activity can start. finish times many fluctuate without affecting total project – EST =TE(i) duration • Earliest finish time : is earliest time by which an activity can completed. • Total Float : it is time span by which starting or finishing of an activity – EFT = EST = tij can delayed without affecting overall completion time of project. – FT = LFT – EFT • Latest start time : time at which an activity can start without delaying • Free Float : it is that duration by which an activity can be delayed completion of p j as whole. p project without delaying any other succeeding activity. y g y g y – LST = LFT - tij – FF = FT - Sj • Independent Float : it is excess time available if the preceding activity • Latest finish time : time at which an activity can finish without delaying ends as late as possible and the succeeding activity starts as early as completion of project as whole. possible. – LFT = TL(i) – FID = FF - Si • Interfering Float : it is that difference between total float and free float. – FIT = FT – FF = SiApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 31 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 32 Agrawal Agrawal Classification of Activities PERT • Program Evaluation and Review Technique is management tool 1. Sub critical activities : when float is +ve; the activity used for planning, controlling and reviewing a project. needs normal attention but has no flexibility. • It follows probabilistic approach towards time durations. 2. Critical activities : when float is zero; the activity needs • It is also event oriented network method where more importance is extra attention. This has no freedom of action. given to the achievement of discernible milestone rather than the activity can’t be made. 3. Super critical activities : when float is –ve; such • Slack can be positive, zero or negative activities require very special attention and care. care • Positive Slack = it is obtained when TL is more than TE. It indicates on schedule condition • Zero Slack = it TL is equal to TE. It indicate on schedule condition • Negative Slack = it TL is less than TE. It indicates behind the scheduleApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 33 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 34 Agrawal Agrawal Classification of Construction Equipment Excavation Equipment : Power Sovels 1. Earth moving equipment 1. Long lasting and useful class of earth moving equipment. 2. Hauling Equipment 2. One of basic equipment employed to excavate the earth and to load the trucks. 3. Hoisting Equipment 3. It is capable of excavating all types of earth, except hard rock. 4. Conveying Equipment 4. It may be crawler mounted or wheel mounted. 5. Crawler mounted have low speeds but very effective in unstable soils 5. 5 Aggregate and concrete production E i A d d i Equipment 6. Wheel mounted have higher speeds and are effective only in firm soils 6. Pile Driving Equipment 7. The size of Power Sovels varies from 0.375 to 5 cubic meter 7. Tunneling and Rock Drilling Equipment 8. Basic parts include track system, cabin, cables, rack, stick, foot pin, saddle block, boom point sheaves and bucket. 8. Pumping and Dewatering EquipmentApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 35 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 36 Agrawal Agrawal 6
  7. 7. 18/04/2013 Excavation Equipment : Back Hoe Excavation Equipment : Drag Line 1. It is also termed as Hoe, Back Sovels and Pull Shovel 1. Prominent operation of dragging the bucket against the material to be dug 2. Generally used to excavate below natural surface on which it rests. 2. Long light crane boom and bucket is loosely attached to the boom through 3. Used to excavate trenches, pits for basements and generally grading work, cables. which requires precise control of depths. 3. Useful in digging below its track level and handling softer materials 4. Basic parts include Boom, Jack Boom, Boom foot drum, Boom Sheave, 4. The capacity of dragline is indicated by size of the bucket in cubic meters Stick Sheave, Bucket and Bucket Sheave. , 5. It can be crawler mounted, wheel mounted or trucked mounted. 6. Basic part dragline include the boom, hoist cable, drag cable, hoist chain, drag chain and bucket.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 37 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 38 Agrawal Agrawal Excavation Equipment : Clamshell Excavation Equipment : Trenching Machine 1. Also named as resemblance of its bucket to a clam which is like a shell fish 1. These are used for excavating trenches for laying pipelines, sewers, cables with hinged double shell. etc. 2. The front end is essentially a crane boom with specially designed bucket 2. Their operation is quick giving the required depth or width. loosely attached at the end through cables as in drag line. 3. Wheel type : this can be used for providing depth of 3m and width ranging 3. Basic part are closing line, hoist line, sheaves, brackets, tagline, shell and from 0.3 to 0.6m. The machine consist of power driven wheel provided hinge. with a number of detachable buckets having cutting teeth. 4. Ladder type : this consists of telescopic ladder or boom. There are two endless chains on which detachable buckets are mounted. The boom is holding the chains. The excavated material is conveyed to conveyor belt which disposes off the excavated earth.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 39 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 40 Agrawal Agrawal Excavating & Earth-moving Equipment : Excavating & Earth-moving Equipment : Scrapers Bull Dozers 1. Result of compromise between best loading and best hauling machines 1. These versatile equipments are commonly used in construction projects 2. They have established an important position in the earth moving field 2. Heavy blade attached to the tractor pushes material from one place to other 3. It unique machine for digging and long distance hauling of ploughable 3. Classified on basic of position of blades, mountings and controlled materials 4. Generally used for spreading earth fill 4. Self operating machine which digs and carry its own load through 5. For opening uproot roads through mountainous and rocky terrains scrapping the ground, hauls it over the required distance and discharging pp g g , q g g 6. 6 Clearing construction site 5. Classified as crawler-tractor-pulled and wheel-tractor-pulled depending on 7. Maintaining hauls roads the type of tractor used to pull them 6. Basic part are bowl, apron, and tail gate or ejector.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 41 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 42 Agrawal Agrawal 7
  8. 8. 18/04/2013 Excavating & Earth-moving Equipment : Excavating Compaction Equipment : Tractors Smooth Wheel Rollers 1. These are multi purpose machines used mainly for pulling and pushing the 1. Plain steel rollers, self-propelled type, weighing from 5 to 15 tones and are other equipment or heavy loads used for ordinarily rolling work is where deep compaction isn’t required, 2. They are also used for agricultural purposes. the principal application being wider. 3. Classified as crawler type tractor and wheel type tractor 2. These roller are usually diesel engine type 4. Crawler type tractor is versatile equipment used to move bull dozers, 3. Compacts only small top thickness of earth and it effect doesn’t reach scrapers and wagons on rough roads. The speed of this type doesn’t 12 p g g p yp bottom of the layer kmph normally. It isn’t used on bituminous road 4. After compaction roller leave the surface smooth 5. Wheel type tractor is mounted on four wheels. The main advantage is higher speed upto 50kmph. Used for long distance hauling and on good roads. And agricultural usedApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 43 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 44 Agrawal Agrawal Excavating Compaction Equipment : Excavating Compaction Equipment : Sheep Wheel Rollers Pneumatic Tyred Rollers 1. Compacting earth work in embankment and canals where compaction deep 1. Consist of base or platform mounted between tow axles, the rear of which into layer of earth is required, these types of rollers are used has one more wheel than the front 2. Tamping effect produce good effect 2. Tyres must be so arranged that the tracks of forward wheels lie in between 3. Roller is hollow steel drum tracks of backward wheels 4. Self-propelled or as towed units 3. Compacting fine grained soil and well graded sands 5. Weigh upto 15tonnes or more and travel at speed of 25kmph 4. Self propelled and ballasting is done using either water or sand or p g iron p p g g pig to increase self weightApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 45 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 46 Agrawal Agrawal Difference between Crawler & Wheeled Hauling Equipment• Crawler type roller has slow • Wheeled type roller has greater 1. Defined as movement of material form one place to another speed speed 2. Equipment used for transportation of material is called as hauling• More compact and powerful and • Can handle only lighter jobs equipment or simply haulers can handle heavier jobs 3. They classified as Dump Trucks and Dumpers • Cheaper• Costly 4. Dump trucks : used for earth moving purpose. Dumping of earth can done• Cost of operation & maintenance p • Operational & maintenance cost is rear, on the sides or at the bottom of truck. , is high less l 5. Selection of the type of dump trucks for a specific job depends on the soil• Stick control for steering • Wheel steering control condition and the nature of the haul road • Moves on rough as well as good 6. Dumpers : are high speed pneumatic wheeled trucks with short chassis• Moves on rough roads only and strong bodies.• Used for short distances roads 7. The hauling and dumping and dumping is done very fast compared to other• Requires skillful operation, • Used for longer distances equipment by using the dumper. maintenance & repairs • Lesser skills required for operation, maintenance & repairsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 47 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 48 Agrawal Agrawal 8
  9. 9. 18/04/2013 Hoisting Equipment Hoisting Equipment : Derrick Cranes 1. It is the operation of lifting a weight from one location and moving it to 1. It consist of mast, a boom and a bull wheel on which the boom rotates another location which is at a reasonable distance and then dumping it. about vertical axis and guys or supporting members 2. Now a days, many big projects such as construction of dams, industrial 2. These cranes are either electrically operated, diesel operated or both buildings etc. require hoisting equipment. 3. The guy derrick has small mast supported by a number of guys and boom 3. It includes jacks, winches, chain hoists and cranes. pivoted at the lower end of the mast. The boom can revolve through 360’. 4. As hoisting equipment, crane is only single machine which has a single This crane is used for heavy loads upto 200 tons. piece, piece is capable of providing three dimensional movement of a weight. weight 4. 4 When load become less then 50 tons, guy ropes are replaced by trussed tons 5. Cranes are broadly classified as structure which become stiff leg derrick. It consists of mast, which can 1. Stationary or derrick cranes rotate and a boom. A stiff leg derrick is used for loads from 7 to 50tons. 2. Mobile cranes 3. Overhead or gantry cranes 4. Traveler cranes 5. Tower cranesApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 49 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 50 Agrawal Agrawal Hoisting Equipment : Mobile Cranes Hoisting Equipment : Traveler Cranes 1. These are mounted on mobile units which is either crawlers type or wheel 1. They have their crabs moving on girders which are supported on legs type. instead of on overhead gantry track as used in overhead cranes. 2. Truck cranes have high mobility while the crawler mounted cranes move 2. The legs are capable of moving on tracks laid on the floors slowly. 3. Crawler type are capable of moving on rough terrain 4. Used for transportation of loads to shorter distances Hoisting Equipment : Tower Cranes g q p 1. Used for industrial and residential high rise building. 2. These are commonly used for assembly of industrial plants with steel structures. 3. Main part of crane are under carriage, slewing platform, tower with operator’s cabin and jibs 4. Tower has truss structure welded from steel bars and channelsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 51 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 52 Agrawal Agrawal Conveying Equipment Conveying Equipment : Belt Conveyor 1. It is process of transporting material from one place to another over a 1. It is one of popular conveying machinery stationary structure. 2. Used when large quantities of materials have to be conveyed over long 2. They are those which carry material in continuous stream with its distinct distances at fast speed features such as endless chain or belt. 3. Simplest form consists of belt running over a pair of end drums or pulleys 3. When equipment does horizontally conveying it is know as conveyor and supported at regular intervals by series of rollers called idlers 4. When equipment does vertically conveying it is know as elevator 4. Advantages of belt conveyor are 5. 5 Advantages of conveyor are Ad t f 1. 1 It can handles light/ heavy materials, dry/ wet, fine/ coarse. materials wet coarse 1. It increases output 2. Designed for conveying several thousand tons of material per hour and for 2. It facilitates continuity in operation distances of several kilometers. 3. It results in time saving 3. Can carry material horizontally or inclined 4. These are no waiting periods 4. Lighter in weight then other conveyors 5. Controlled discharge of materialApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 53 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 54 Agrawal Agrawal 9
  10. 10. 18/04/2013 Conveying Equipment : Screw Conveyor Aggregate Production Equipment 1. Used for handling granular or pulverized material 1. Crushers are generally used to reduce size of the large stone or rock to 2. Quantity of material conveyed is less compared to the belt conveyor, at smaller uniform sized aggregates required for concrete mix. same time cost is also less. 1. Jaw Crusher : primary crusher, operates by allowing stone to flow into the 3. Can inclined maximum upto 35’ space between two jaws one of which stationary and other is movable. 4. Length of conveyor is 65m 2. Gyratory Crusher : hardened steel plates. Lead has long conical shape, with trough shaft suspended in bearing at the top and an eccentric base connection connected to gears. 3. 3 Cone C h : are capable of producing large quantities of uniformly fine C Crusher bl f d i l ii f if l fi Conveying Equipment : Bucket Conveyor crushed stone. It has shorter cone with smaller inlet and outlet openings. 4. Roll Crusher : consists of heavy cast iron frame equipped with two counter rotating rollers mounted on separate horizontal shaft. 1. Has bucket in shape of V which are open at top 2. Length is limited upto 25m due to weight of the conveyor and strength of the chains. 3. Generally used for coal handlingApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 55 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 56 Agrawal Agrawal Factors affecting selection of Construction Equipment Management Checklist Equipment 1. Mechanize selectively for economy of production, quality and speed of 1. Use of equipment available with the organization construction 2. Suitability for job condition with special references to climatic and 2. Choose between buying, hiring and leasing operating conditions 3. Choose size and number of equipment including standby 3. Uniformity of type 4. Select the prime mover –petrol/diesel/electric 4. Size of equipment 5. check suitability for local conditions 5. Use of standard equipment 6. Decide on mobile or stationary equipment 6. Country of origin 7. Arrange finance for purchase 7. Unit cost of production 8. Examine the warranties while purchasing 8. Availability of spare parts and selection of manufacturers 9. Commission equipment within warranty period 9. Suitability of local labour for operation 10. Freeze productivity norms and ensure same 11. Use only trained personal for operation 12. Insist on regular preventative maintenance 13. Ensure that standby power is available 14. Insist on safety measuresApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 57 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 58 Agrawal Agrawal Management Information Systems in Management Information Systems in Construction Industry Construction Industry• Date : it can be defined as group of non-random symbols which represent • An Organization is an institute which promotes mechanism of interpersonal things that have happened. Data of facts that are obtained by observation or relations and activates collaboration many resources available such as, research and which are recorded frequently are called as Raw data or Basic Monetary, technical, marketing and business. data• Information : the concept of information in an organizational sense is more complex and difficult than frequent use of this common word would suggest. Information is data that have been interpreted and understood by the recipient of the message.• Communication : information is transmitted by the process of communication. Communication involves the interchange of thoughts or opinion by word, letters or by similar means.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 59 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 60 Agrawal Agrawal 10
  11. 11. 18/04/2013 Requirement of MIS Payment of Wages Act 1982• To provide an organized and efficient means of measuring, collection, 1. This act was introduced to regulate the payment of wages, imposition of verifying and qualifying data, reflecting the progress and status of operations fines, etc on the project with respect to progress, cost, resources and quantity 2. The term Wages includes all remuneration including all allowances, bonus, notice pay, etc but doesn’t include house rent, water and electricity• To provide a standard against which progress and cost can be compared charges, travel allowance, medical allowance, pension, gratuity etc• To provide an organized, accurate and effectiveness means of converting the 3. Accordingly to Act, wages are to be paid promptly on a monthly basis and data from the operation into information. The information systems should be if any person is terminated from service, his wages should be settled realistic should be realistic and should recognize li i h ld b li i d h ld i within two days of the termination. termination – Means of processing the information 4. This Act is applicable to employees having a salary less then Rs. 1600 pm – Skills available – Value of information compared with the cost of obtaining – Report the correct and necessary information – Identify and isolate critical information – To deliver the informationApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 61 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 62 Agrawal Agrawal Minimum Wages Act 1986 Indian Contract Act 1872 1. This act prevents the exploitation of the unorganized labour in the • In this Act the following words and expressions are used in the following construction industry by the employers. senses, unless a contrary intention appears from the context:- 2. Accordingly to this Act, provision is made for the statuary fixation of – When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to minimum rate of wages in the establishment. abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that 3. Wages to construction workers in India is paid either in time rate basis or other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal piece rate basis – When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent 4. In the time rate basis, suitable rate of payment is fixed per unit of time that the worker i engaged for the work h k is df h k thereto, thereto the proposal is said to be accepted A proposal, when accepted accepted. proposal accepted, becomes a promise 5. Accordingly to this Act, different minimum rates can be fixed depending on the class of work, type of personal employed and depending on the – The person making the proposal is called the" promisor and the person location of work. accepting the proposal is called the It promise" – When, at the desire of the promisor, the promise or any other person has clone or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or to abstain from doing, something, such Act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promiseApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 63 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 64 Agrawal Agrawal Workmen Compensation Act Preparation for the Construction Interview 1. In case of death: 40% of the monthly wage of the deceased workman, 1. Personal characteristics : such as physical appearance, health, sense of multiplied by the relevant factor or Rs. 20,000; whichever is more. humor, Self confidence, cultural level, alertness, manners, general working 2. In case of total permanent disablement: 50% of the monthly wage, multiplied habits. by the relevant factor: or Rs. 24,000; whichever is more. 2. Technical Competency : information about the exams passed, grades 3. In case of partial permanent disablement: The compensation is a percentage of obtained, awards and honors and extra- curricular activities. that payable in the case of total permanent disablement. The earning capacity is 3. To find the initiative, common sense and general smartness determined by a qualified medical practitioners. 4. Ability to inspire confidence by sustained effort without super-vision , 4. 4 In case of (total or partial) temporary disablement" A sum equal to 25% of the level ki l l making ability, originality and initiative. bili i i li di ii i monthly wages of the workman shall be paid half-monthly. 5. Capacity to work in team-by knowing about his family, community • The minimum rate of compensation is proposed to be raised from 50,000 to Rs. interests and his type of friends. 80,000 for death and from Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 90,000 in case of permanent/total 6. Potential for growth-long range aspirations of the applicant – whether he is disablement. State Government appoints Commissioners to investigate and a drifter or one who would exploit every possible chance to develop his solve every case for workmens compensation. The appointed Commissioners potential to the maximum. tribunal has some of the powers of a civil court. An appeal against any order of 7. Having Details of construction done in nearby area he is leaving. the Commissioner can be filed in the High Court. This must be done within 60 days of the order or decision of the Commissioner.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 65 April 18, 2013 Construction Management 66 Agrawal Agrawal 11
  12. 12. 18/04/2013 Form work removing periods • Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams – 24 to 48 hours may be decided by Engineer-in-charge • Slabs (Prop left under ) 3 day • Beam soffit (Prop left under ) 7 days • Removing of props to slabs – Spanning less then 4.5m = 7 days – Spanning over 4.5m = 14 days p g y • Removing of props to beams and arches – Spanning less then 6m = 14 days – Spanning over 6m = 21 daysApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 67 Agrawal 12