Cm be civil


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Cm be civil

  1. 1. Guided By Dr. U. J. Kahalekar Sir Represented by Rahul Agrawal Govt. College of Engg., A badApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 1 Agrawal
  2. 2. Planning 1. Planning is the most important technique of the management. 2. Planning means “Looking ahead”. 3. This is mental process requiring the use of intellectual facilities, imagination, foresight and sound judgment, to be dine, who will do it an how the results are to be evaluated. 4. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human and material resources to achieve the objectives of the project.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 2 Agrawal
  3. 3. Site Selection Criteria considerations 1. Availability of land, soil characteristics and cover of land 2. Approach to site 3. Transportation and availability of material 4. Availability of man-power 5. Availability of other facilities such water supply, electricity, drainage, etc 6. Acceptance of the project by the local bodiesApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 3 Agrawal
  4. 4. Financial Analysis 1. Engg. and Project management cost 2. Lump sum payment for technology cost 3. Engg. Fee 4. Management and supervision during construction 5. Enabling works 6. Construction equipment used 7. Miscellaneous fixed assets 8. Provision of contingencies 9. Operating cost 10. Working costApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 4 Agrawal
  5. 5. Steps involved in planning 1. Crystallizing the opportunity or problem 2. Securing and analyzing necessary information 3. Establishing planning premises and constraints 4. Ascertaining alternative course of action or plan 5. Selecting optimum plan 6. Determining derivative plan 7. Fixing the timing of introduction 8. Arranging future evaluation of effectiveness of the planApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 5 Agrawal
  6. 6. Objectives of Planning 1. Proper design of each element of the project 2. Proper selection of equipment and machinery in big project 3. Proper arrangement of repair of equipment and machinery near the site of work to keep them ready to work 4. Procurement of material well in advance 5. Employment of trained and experienced staff on the project 6. To provide welfare schemes for the staff and workers such as medical and recreational facilities 7. To provide incentive for good workers 8. To arrange constant flow of funds for the completion of the project 9. To provide proper safety measures such as proper ventilation, proper arrangement of light and water 10. Proper arrangements of means of communications and feedback etc..April 18, 2013 Construction Management 6 Agrawal
  7. 7. Advantage of Planning 1. Advantage to contractors 2. Advantage to clients 3. Advantage to architects/ engineerApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 7 Agrawal
  8. 8. Advantage to contractors 1. Job is studied in details by help of bar chart 2. Loss of money and help to relieve the financial burden to contractor 3. Labours requirement are used properly 4. Actual work can be measured 5. Job is completed in timeApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 8 Agrawal
  9. 9. Limitation in Planning 1. The effectiveness of the plan depends upon the correctness of assumptions 2. Planning is expansive 3. Planning delays action 4. Planning encourages a false sense of securityApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 9 Agrawal
  10. 10. Stages in Planning 1. Preplanning : objectives are clearly spelt out, general framework of the project is formulated, cost benefit analysis and investment alternatives. 2. Detailed Planning : preparation of detailed design, detailed working drawings, specifications and detailed bill of quantities. 3. Monitoring and Control : updating of the schedule, taking into account the actual progress of project and preparing revised forecasting regarding availability of various resources.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 10 Agrawal
  11. 11. Types of Plans 1. Standing Plan : used repeatedly & including managements policies, procedures, rules 2. Single use Plan : used for single purpose and objective is accomplish within short period of time. (Ex. Budgets) 3. Strategic Plan : Vitally effect development of an organization. Factor include economic, technological and environmental factors. 4. Administrative Plan : this is less subjective than strategic plan. It focus on how to accomplish objective of project or project or organization.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 11 Agrawal
  12. 12. Contract Contract is an agreement, which will be valid in law or enforceable by law, between or among two or more parities, for provision of supplies and/or services against consideration of monitory value, either in cash or in kind. Types of Contract 1. Lump Sum contract 2. Cost plus fixed contract 3. Cost plus bid free contract 4. Guaranteed Maximum contract 5. Negotiated contract 6. Unit price contractApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 12 Agrawal
  13. 13. Specification This is description of items of work to be provided in a project along with details regarding materials to be used and workmanship to be done. Types of Specification • General specification • Detailed specification • Special specification • Restricted specification • Manufacturer’s specificationApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 13 Agrawal
  14. 14. Tender Information 1. Name of the dept. calling for tenders 2. Name of work and location 3. Designation of officer inviting tenders 4. Last date and time of receipt of tenders 5. Period of availability of tender forms 6. Cost of tender documents 7. Time of completion and type of contract 8. Earnest money deposits to be paid 9. Date, time and place of opening tenders 10. Designation of the officer opening tendersApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 14 Agrawal
  15. 15. Tender Types Tender Document 1. Open tender 1. General consideration of 2. Limited tender tender 3. Single tender 2. Schedule of items of 4. Rate contract work with clear specification 3. Special conditionsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 15 Agrawal
  16. 16. Scheduling Construction scheduling is a graphical representation which shows the phasing rate of construction activities with the starting completion dates and sequential relationship among the various activities or operations in project so that work can be carried out in an orderly and effective manner.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 16 Agrawal
  17. 17. Preparation of scheduling 1. The project is divided into number of operation and the sequences of these operation can be derived after knowing their relationship properly. 2. The quantity of work involved in each operation has to be calculated. 3. The time required for completion of the project as well as different activities are to be calculated. This can be done from the quantity of work involved and rate of performing each work.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 17 Agrawal
  18. 18. Uses of scheduling Advantages of scheduling 1. Gives quantity of work 1. Many alternative method can involved, labour, be choose materials and equipment 2. Clear idea regarding workers, at each stage. materials, equipments 2. Actual progress of work 3. Staring time of work is can be check known 3. Carried out in systematic 4. Resources utilization is manner minimum 5. Actual work is monitored 6. Inter-relationship of various activities are knownApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 18 Agrawal
  19. 19. Bar charts Henry Gantt around 1900 A.D. Bar chart consists of two coordinate axes representing the jobs or activities to be performed and other representing time elapsed. Following step are involved 1. Divide project into many activities 2. List out the activities 3. Find the inter-relationship among these activities 4. Arrange activities in systematic way 5. Calculate quantity of work and time required 6. Draw it according to scaleApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 19 Agrawal
  20. 20. Limitation of Bar Chart 1. They can be used only for small projects 2. It does not show the interdependencies between the various activities in project 3. The progress of the work in project cannot be monitored scientifically 4. Delays in the work cannot be detected 5. It does not indicate critical activities of project 6. It gives some idea about the physical progress of project. 7. It can’t be used as controlling devices by the project manager to take any timely action.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 20 Agrawal
  21. 21. Network Diagram Network is graphical and logical model or plan which lists out the sequences of various operations (with interdependencies) which are required to be performed for the final achievement of the project objectives.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 21 Agrawal
  22. 22. Terms in Network Diagram 1. Activity : any position of project which consume time ot resources and has a definite beginning and an end called as an activity. It is denoted by an arrow 2. Event : the beginning or completion of an activity is termed as an event. It indicates a particular instant of time at which some specific milestone has been achieved. 3. Network logic : this denotes the technical dependencies among activities. A good network logic reflects cost effectiveness of project in long run. 4. Dummy : it similar to an activity but it does not consume any resources. It represent by Dashed ArrowApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 22 Agrawal
  23. 23. Terms in Network Diagram Activity Dummy Node Representation of Activity, Node, Dummy A B 1 2 3 Representation of Network LogicApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 23 Agrawal
  24. 24. Types of Events 1. Tail Event : which marks the beginning of an activity. 2. Head Event : which marks the completion of an activity. 3. Dual Role Event : which acts as tail event for one activity and head event for other activity. 4. Burst & Merge Event A 2 2 A B 1 3 3 1 B Burst Merge 4 4 Event Event C CApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 24 Agrawal
  25. 25. Types of NETWORKS 1. Activity on Arrow (A-O-A) or Arrow Diagram : the arrow represent activities and node represent the events. 2. Activity on Node (A-O-N) or Precedence Diagram : the node represent activities and arrow represent the events. 3. Event oriented networks (PERT type)April 18, 2013 Construction Management 25 Agrawal
  26. 26. Rules for drawing a Networks 1. Network will have only one initial node. Initial node will be only out going arrows 2. Network can have only one final node. Final node will have only one incoming arrow 3. No activity can start until its tail event has occurred 4. An event can’t occur until all the activities leading upto it are completed 5. No event can occur twice. Hence network looping isn’t permitted 6. An arrow should represent singular situation. Individuality and separate entity of each activity should be maintained. 7. The network should be drafted such that all activities are completed to reach end objectives 8. All constraints and interdependencies should be shown properly on the network using dummies 9. Network logic should always be maintained 10. Time flow is usually shown from left to right.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 26 Agrawal
  27. 27. Fulkerson’s Rule for Numbering the Events 1. There will be single initial event in network which has only arrows coming out of it. This event is given number 1. 2. All arrows coming out of event 1 are neglected. This provides us with one or more initial events. These event are numbered 2,3,4,5 etc. 3. Again neglect all the arrows coming out of these numbered events. A few more initial events will be created. These are also numbered similarly. 4. This operation is continued until last event is reached and numbered.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 27 Agrawal
  28. 28. CPM Critical Path Method 1. CPM was discovered jointly by DuPont and Reunington Rand Univac in 1957April 18, 2013 Construction Management 28 Agrawal
  29. 29. Difference between CPM & PERT• CPM is activity oriented • PERT is event oriented• Time estimates are of fair degree • Time estimates are not that of accuracy accurate• Deterministic approach • Probabilistic approach• Cost is governing factor • Time is governing factor• Project duration is fixed and cost • Cost is directly proportional to is minimum time• Critical path which joins critical • Her critical path is path which activities joins the critical eventsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 29 Agrawal
  30. 30. CPM • Earliest Event Time : earliest occurrence time is the earliest time at which an event can occur. TEj = TEi + tij where TEj = earliest event time of head event TEi = earliest event time of tail event tij = duration of the activity (i-j) • Latest Event Time : latest allowable occurrence time is the latest time by which an event must occur to keep project on schedule. TL = TLi - tij where TL = latest event time of head event TLi = earliest event time of tail event tij = duration of the activity (i-j)April 18, 2013 Construction Management 30 Agrawal
  31. 31. CPM Activity Time • Earliest start time : is earliest time by which an activity can start. – EST =TE(i) • Earliest finish time : is earliest time by which an activity can completed. – EFT = EST = tij • Latest start time : time at which an activity can start without delaying completion of project as whole. – LST = LFT - tij • Latest finish time : time at which an activity can finish without delaying completion of project as whole. – LFT = TL(i)April 18, 2013 Construction Management 31 Agrawal
  32. 32. Float • Float denote the flexibility range within which activity start and finish times many fluctuate without affecting total project duration • Total Float : it is time span by which starting or finishing of an activity can delayed without affecting overall completion time of project. – FT = LFT – EFT • Free Float : it is that duration by which an activity can be delayed without delaying any other succeeding activity. – FF = FT - Sj • Independent Float : it is excess time available if the preceding activity ends as late as possible and the succeeding activity starts as early as possible. – FID = FF - Si • Interfering Float : it is that difference between total float and free float. – FIT = FT – FF = SiApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 32 Agrawal
  33. 33. Classification of Activities 1. Sub critical activities : when float is +ve; the activity needs normal attention but has no flexibility. 2. Critical activities : when float is zero; the activity needs extra attention. This has no freedom of action. 3. Super critical activities : when float is –ve; such activities require very special attention and care.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 33 Agrawal
  34. 34. PERT • Program Evaluation and Review Technique is management tool used for planning, controlling and reviewing a project. • It follows probabilistic approach towards time durations. • It is also event oriented network method where more importance is given to the achievement of discernible milestone rather than the activity can’t be made. • Slack can be positive, zero or negative • Positive Slack = it is obtained when TL is more than TE. It indicates on schedule condition • Zero Slack = it TL is equal to TE. It indicate on schedule condition • Negative Slack = it TL is less than TE. It indicates behind the scheduleApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 34 Agrawal
  35. 35. Classification of Construction Equipment 1. Earth moving equipment 2. Hauling Equipment 3. Hoisting Equipment 4. Conveying Equipment 5. Aggregate and concrete production Equipment 6. Pile Driving Equipment 7. Tunneling and Rock Drilling Equipment 8. Pumping and Dewatering EquipmentApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 35 Agrawal
  36. 36. Excavation Equipment : Power Sovels 1. Long lasting and useful class of earth moving equipment. 2. One of basic equipment employed to excavate the earth and to load the trucks. 3. It is capable of excavating all types of earth, except hard rock. 4. It may be crawler mounted or wheel mounted. 5. Crawler mounted have low speeds but very effective in unstable soils 6. Wheel mounted have higher speeds and are effective only in firm soils 7. The size of Power Sovels varies from 0.375 to 5 cubic meter 8. Basic parts include track system, cabin, cables, rack, stick, foot pin, saddle block, boom point sheaves and bucket.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 36 Agrawal
  37. 37. Excavation Equipment : Back Hoe 1. It is also termed as Hoe, Back Sovels and Pull Shovel 2. Generally used to excavate below natural surface on which it rests. 3. Used to excavate trenches, pits for basements and generally grading work, which requires precise control of depths. 4. Basic parts include Boom, Jack Boom, Boom foot drum, Boom Sheave, Stick Sheave, Bucket and Bucket Sheave.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 37 Agrawal
  38. 38. Excavation Equipment : Drag Line 1. Prominent operation of dragging the bucket against the material to be dug 2. Long light crane boom and bucket is loosely attached to the boom through cables. 3. Useful in digging below its track level and handling softer materials 4. The capacity of dragline is indicated by size of the bucket in cubic meters 5. It can be crawler mounted, wheel mounted or trucked mounted. 6. Basic part dragline include the boom, hoist cable, drag cable, hoist chain, drag chain and bucket.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 38 Agrawal
  39. 39. Excavation Equipment : Clamshell 1. Also named as resemblance of its bucket to a clam which is like a shell fish with hinged double shell. 2. The front end is essentially a crane boom with specially designed bucket loosely attached at the end through cables as in drag line. 3. Basic part are closing line, hoist line, sheaves, brackets, tagline, shell and hinge.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 39 Agrawal
  40. 40. Excavation Equipment : Trenching Machine 1. These are used for excavating trenches for laying pipelines, sewers, cables etc. 2. Their operation is quick giving the required depth or width. 3. Wheel type : this can be used for providing depth of 3m and width ranging from 0.3 to 0.6m. The machine consist of power driven wheel provided with a number of detachable buckets having cutting teeth. 4. Ladder type : this consists of telescopic ladder or boom. There are two endless chains on which detachable buckets are mounted. The boom is holding the chains. The excavated material is conveyed to conveyor belt which disposes off the excavated earth.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 40 Agrawal
  41. 41. Excavating & Earth-moving Equipment : Scrapers 1. Result of compromise between best loading and best hauling machines 2. They have established an important position in the earth moving field 3. It unique machine for digging and long distance hauling of ploughable materials 4. Self operating machine which digs and carry its own load through scrapping the ground, hauls it over the required distance and discharging 5. Classified as crawler-tractor-pulled and wheel-tractor-pulled depending on the type of tractor used to pull them 6. Basic part are bowl, apron, and tail gate or ejector.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 41 Agrawal
  42. 42. Excavating & Earth-moving Equipment : Bull Dozers 1. These versatile equipments are commonly used in construction projects 2. Heavy blade attached to the tractor pushes material from one place to other 3. Classified on basic of position of blades, mountings and controlled 4. Generally used for spreading earth fill 5. For opening uproot roads through mountainous and rocky terrains 6. Clearing construction site 7. Maintaining hauls roadsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 42 Agrawal
  43. 43. Excavating & Earth-moving Equipment : Tractors 1. These are multi purpose machines used mainly for pulling and pushing the other equipment or heavy loads 2. They are also used for agricultural purposes. 3. Classified as crawler type tractor and wheel type tractor 4. Crawler type tractor is versatile equipment used to move bull dozers, scrapers and wagons on rough roads. The speed of this type doesn’t 12 kmph normally. It isn’t used on bituminous road 5. Wheel type tractor is mounted on four wheels. The main advantage is higher speed upto 50kmph. Used for long distance hauling and on good roads. And agricultural usedApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 43 Agrawal
  44. 44. Excavating Compaction Equipment : Smooth Wheel Rollers 1. Plain steel rollers, self-propelled type, weighing from 5 to 15 tones and are used for ordinarily rolling work is where deep compaction isn’t required, the principal application being wider. 2. These roller are usually diesel engine type 3. Compacts only small top thickness of earth and it effect doesn’t reach bottom of the layer 4. After compaction roller leave the surface smoothApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 44 Agrawal
  45. 45. Excavating Compaction Equipment : Sheep Wheel Rollers 1. Compacting earth work in embankment and canals where compaction deep into layer of earth is required, these types of rollers are used 2. Tamping effect produce good effect 3. Roller is hollow steel drum 4. Self-propelled or as towed units 5. Weigh upto 15tonnes or more and travel at speed of 25kmphApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 45 Agrawal
  46. 46. Excavating Compaction Equipment : Pneumatic Tyred Rollers 1. Consist of base or platform mounted between tow axles, the rear of which has one more wheel than the front 2. Tyres must be so arranged that the tracks of forward wheels lie in between tracks of backward wheels 3. Compacting fine grained soil and well graded sands 4. Self propelled and ballasting is done using either water or sand or pig iron to increase self weightApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 46 Agrawal
  47. 47. Difference between Crawler & Wheeled• Crawler type roller has slow • Wheeled type roller has greater speed speed• More compact and powerful and • Can handle only lighter jobs can handle heavier jobs • Cheaper• Costly• • Operational & maintenance cost is Cost of operation & maintenance is high less• Stick control for steering • Wheel steering control• Moves on rough roads only • Moves on rough as well as good• Used for short distances roads• Requires skillful operation, • Used for longer distances maintenance & repairs • Lesser skills required for operation, maintenance & repairsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 47 Agrawal
  48. 48. Hauling Equipment 1. Defined as movement of material form one place to another 2. Equipment used for transportation of material is called as hauling equipment or simply haulers 3. They classified as Dump Trucks and Dumpers 4. Dump trucks : used for earth moving purpose. Dumping of earth can done rear, on the sides or at the bottom of truck. 5. Selection of the type of dump trucks for a specific job depends on the soil condition and the nature of the haul road 6. Dumpers : are high speed pneumatic wheeled trucks with short chassis and strong bodies. 7. The hauling and dumping and dumping is done very fast compared to other equipment by using the dumper.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 48 Agrawal
  49. 49. Hoisting Equipment 1. It is the operation of lifting a weight from one location and moving it to another location which is at a reasonable distance and then dumping it. 2. Now a days, many big projects such as construction of dams, industrial buildings etc. require hoisting equipment. 3. It includes jacks, winches, chain hoists and cranes. 4. As hoisting equipment, crane is only single machine which has a single piece, is capable of providing three dimensional movement of a weight. 5. Cranes are broadly classified as 1. Stationary or derrick cranes 2. Mobile cranes 3. Overhead or gantry cranes 4. Traveler cranes 5. Tower cranesApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 49 Agrawal
  50. 50. Hoisting Equipment : Derrick Cranes 1. It consist of mast, a boom and a bull wheel on which the boom rotates about vertical axis and guys or supporting members 2. These cranes are either electrically operated, diesel operated or both 3. The guy derrick has small mast supported by a number of guys and boom pivoted at the lower end of the mast. The boom can revolve through 360’. This crane is used for heavy loads upto 200 tons. 4. When load become less then 50 tons, guy ropes are replaced by trussed structure which become stiff leg derrick. It consists of mast, which can rotate and a boom. A stiff leg derrick is used for loads from 7 to 50tons.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 50 Agrawal
  51. 51. Hoisting Equipment : Mobile Cranes 1. These are mounted on mobile units which is either crawlers type or wheel type. 2. Truck cranes have high mobility while the crawler mounted cranes move slowly. 3. Crawler type are capable of moving on rough terrain 4. Used for transportation of loads to shorter distancesApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 51 Agrawal
  52. 52. Hoisting Equipment : Traveler Cranes 1. They have their crabs moving on girders which are supported on legs instead of on overhead gantry track as used in overhead cranes. 2. The legs are capable of moving on tracks laid on the floors Hoisting Equipment : Tower Cranes 1. Used for industrial and residential high rise building. 2. These are commonly used for assembly of industrial plants with steel structures. 3. Main part of crane are under carriage, slewing platform, tower with operator’s cabin and jibs 4. Tower has truss structure welded from steel bars and channelsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 52 Agrawal
  53. 53. Conveying Equipment 1. It is process of transporting material from one place to another over a stationary structure. 2. They are those which carry material in continuous stream with its distinct features such as endless chain or belt. 3. When equipment does horizontally conveying it is know as conveyor 4. When equipment does vertically conveying it is know as elevator 5. Advantages of conveyor are 1. It increases output 2. It facilitates continuity in operation 3. It results in time saving 4. These are no waiting periodsApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 53 Agrawal
  54. 54. Conveying Equipment : Belt Conveyor 1. It is one of popular conveying machinery 2. Used when large quantities of materials have to be conveyed over long distances at fast speed 3. Simplest form consists of belt running over a pair of end drums or pulleys and supported at regular intervals by series of rollers called idlers 4. Advantages of belt conveyor are 1. It can handles light/ heavy materials, dry/ wet, fine/ coarse. 2. Designed for conveying several thousand tons of material per hour and for distances of several kilometers. 3. Can carry material horizontally or inclined 4. Lighter in weight then other conveyors 5. Controlled discharge of materialApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 54 Agrawal
  55. 55. Conveying Equipment : Screw Conveyor 1. Used for handling granular or pulverized material 2. Quantity of material conveyed is less compared to the belt conveyor, at same time cost is also less. 3. Can inclined maximum upto 35’ 4. Length of conveyor is 65m Conveying Equipment : Bucket Conveyor 1. Has bucket in shape of V which are open at top 2. Length is limited upto 25m due to weight of the conveyor and strength of the chains. 3. Generally used for coal handlingApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 55 Agrawal
  56. 56. Aggregate Production Equipment 1. Crushers are generally used to reduce size of the large stone or rock to smaller uniform sized aggregates required for concrete mix. 1. Jaw Crusher : primary crusher, operates by allowing stone to flow into the space between two jaws one of which stationary and other is movable. 2. Gyratory Crusher : hardened steel plates. Lead has long conical shape, with trough shaft suspended in bearing at the top and an eccentric base connection connected to gears. 3. Cone Crusher : are capable of producing large quantities of uniformly fine crushed stone. It has shorter cone with smaller inlet and outlet openings. 4. Roll Crusher : consists of heavy cast iron frame equipped with two counter rotating rollers mounted on separate horizontal shaft.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 56 Agrawal
  57. 57. Factors affecting selection of Construction Equipment 1. Use of equipment available with the organization 2. Suitability for job condition with special references to climatic and operating conditions 3. Uniformity of type 4. Size of equipment 5. Use of standard equipment 6. Country of origin 7. Unit cost of production 8. Availability of spare parts and selection of manufacturers 9. Suitability of local labour for operationApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 57 Agrawal
  58. 58. Equipment Management Checklist 1. Mechanize selectively for economy of production, quality and speed of construction 2. Choose between buying, hiring and leasing 3. Choose size and number of equipment including standby 4. Select the prime mover –petrol/diesel/electric 5. check suitability for local conditions 6. Decide on mobile or stationary equipment 7. Arrange finance for purchase 8. Examine the warranties while purchasing 9. Commission equipment within warranty period 10. Freeze productivity norms and ensure same 11. Use only trained personal for operation 12. Insist on regular preventative maintenance 13. Ensure that standby power is available 14. Insist on safety measuresApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 58 Agrawal
  59. 59. Management Information Systems in Construction Industry• Date : it can be defined as group of non-random symbols which represent things that have happened. Data of facts that are obtained by observation or research and which are recorded frequently are called as Raw data or Basic data• Information : the concept of information in an organizational sense is more complex and difficult than frequent use of this common word would suggest. Information is data that have been interpreted and understood by the recipient of the message.• Communication : information is transmitted by the process of communication. Communication involves the interchange of thoughts or opinion by word, letters or by similar means.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 59 Agrawal
  60. 60. Management Information Systems in Construction Industry• An Organization is an institute which promotes mechanism of interpersonal relations and activates collaboration many resources available such as, Monetary, technical, marketing and business.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 60 Agrawal
  61. 61. Requirement of MIS• To provide an organized and efficient means of measuring, collection, verifying and qualifying data, reflecting the progress and status of operations on the project with respect to progress, cost, resources and quantity• To provide a standard against which progress and cost can be compared• To provide an organized, accurate and effectiveness means of converting the data from the operation into information. The information systems should be realistic should be realistic and should recognize – Means of processing the information – Skills available – Value of information compared with the cost of obtaining – Report the correct and necessary information – Identify and isolate critical information – To deliver the informationApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 61 Agrawal
  62. 62. Payment of Wages Act 1982 1. This act was introduced to regulate the payment of wages, imposition of fines, etc 2. The term Wages includes all remuneration including all allowances, bonus, notice pay, etc but doesn’t include house rent, water and electricity charges, travel allowance, medical allowance, pension, gratuity etc 3. Accordingly to Act, wages are to be paid promptly on a monthly basis and if any person is terminated from service, his wages should be settled within two days of the termination. 4. This Act is applicable to employees having a salary less then Rs. 1600 pmApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 62 Agrawal
  63. 63. Minimum Wages Act 1986 1. This act prevents the exploitation of the unorganized labour in the construction industry by the employers. 2. Accordingly to this Act, provision is made for the statuary fixation of minimum rate of wages in the establishment. 3. Wages to construction workers in India is paid either in time rate basis or piece rate basis 4. In the time rate basis, suitable rate of payment is fixed per unit of time that the worker is engaged for the work 5. Accordingly to this Act, different minimum rates can be fixed depending on the class of work, type of personal employed and depending on the location of work.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 63 Agrawal
  64. 64. Indian Contract Act 1872 • In this Act the following words and expressions are used in the following senses, unless a contrary intention appears from the context:- – When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal – When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted. A proposal, when accepted, becomes a promise – The person making the proposal is called the" promisor and the person accepting the proposal is called the It promise" – When, at the desire of the promisor, the promise or any other person has clone or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or to abstain from doing, something, such Act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promiseApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 64 Agrawal
  65. 65. Workmen Compensation Act 1. In case of death: 40% of the monthly wage of the deceased workman, multiplied by the relevant factor or Rs. 20,000; whichever is more. 2. In case of total permanent disablement: 50% of the monthly wage, multiplied by the relevant factor: or Rs. 24,000; whichever is more. 3. In case of partial permanent disablement: The compensation is a percentage of that payable in the case of total permanent disablement. The earning capacity is determined by a qualified medical practitioners. 4. In case of (total or partial) temporary disablement" A sum equal to 25% of the monthly wages of the workman shall be paid half-monthly. • The minimum rate of compensation is proposed to be raised from 50,000 to Rs. 80,000 for death and from Rs. 60,000 to Rs. 90,000 in case of permanent/total disablement. State Government appoints Commissioners to investigate and solve every case for workmens compensation. The appointed Commissioners tribunal has some of the powers of a civil court. An appeal against any order of the Commissioner can be filed in the High Court. This must be done within 60 days of the order or decision of the Commissioner.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 65 Agrawal
  66. 66. Preparation for the Construction Interview 1. Personal characteristics : such as physical appearance, health, sense of humor, Self confidence, cultural level, alertness, manners, general working habits. 2. Technical Competency : information about the exams passed, grades obtained, awards and honors and extra- curricular activities. 3. To find the initiative, common sense and general smartness 4. Ability to inspire confidence by sustained effort without super-vision , level making ability, originality and initiative. 5. Capacity to work in team-by knowing about his family, community interests and his type of friends. 6. Potential for growth-long range aspirations of the applicant – whether he is a drifter or one who would exploit every possible chance to develop his potential to the maximum. 7. Having Details of construction done in nearby area he is leaving.April 18, 2013 Construction Management 66 Agrawal
  67. 67. Form work removing periods • Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams – 24 to 48 hours may be decided by Engineer-in-charge • Slabs (Prop left under ) 3 day • Beam soffit (Prop left under ) 7 days • Removing of props to slabs – Spanning less then 4.5m = 7 days – Spanning over 4.5m = 14 days • Removing of props to beams and arches – Spanning less then 6m = 14 days – Spanning over 6m = 21 daysApril 18, 2013 Construction Management 67 Agrawal
  68. 68. April 18, 2013 Construction Management 68 Agrawal