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Homoeopathy- Acid Medicines

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Homoeopathy- Acid Medicines

  1. 1. . Definition of acid  Any of a class of substances whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts.  Substance that yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.  A substance that can act as a proton donor.  A substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
  2. 2. Physical properties of acids  It has a sour taste.  It turns blue litmus to red.  It turns methyl orange to red.  Acids are electrolyte.  Strong acids destroy fabric.  Strong acids cause burn on skin.
  3. 3. Chemical properties of acids 1. Neutralization An acid when reacts with a base, salt & water are produced. This reaction is called neutralization   HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O 2. Reaction with carbonates Acid and carbonates are combined to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide   MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
  4. 4. Contd.. 3. Reaction with Bicarbonates Acid and bicarbonates are combined to produce salt, water and carbon  dioxide  NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + CO2 + H2O 4. Reaction with Metals With Zinc:   Zn + 2HCl Zncl2 + H2
  5. 5. Common signs and symptoms  Burning sensation in Mouth, Throat, Oesophagus, Stomach & Abdomen followed by intense thirst;  Difficulty in swallowing;  Continuous retching & vomiting of shreddy blood, stained material;  Vomit may be acidic or alkaline;  Tongue swollen or shriveled;  Urine scanty;  Stool –constipated;
  6. 6. Contd..  Dyspnoea due to oedema of glottis;  Chilly ++ Sensitive to cold, drafts (cold in general) (Exception: Fluoric acid);  Haemorrhagic tendency;  Weakness +3;  Over sensitive to external impressions;  Destruction, ulceration, Septicaemia;  Poor memory, lack of concentration and destruction of all thinking power;  Irritability ;
  7. 7. Contd..  Over sensitiveness;  Syphilitic qualities like :  Hateful  Vindictive  Irritable  Destructive qualities / activities  "Self" egoism and attention towards pleasure seeking inputs  Depression, listless, dejection
  8. 8. Doctrine of signature  As acid produces an irritability of fibers together with weakness and prostration so same is the nature of people from acid group of medicine…….
  9. 9. Irritability Prostration Weakness
  10. 10. List of medicines 1. Acetic acid 2. Flouric acid 3. Lactic acid 4. Picric acid 5. Tartaric acid 6. Benzoic acid 7. Tannic acid 8. Muriatic acid 9. Sarco lactic acid 10. Uric acid 11. Boracic acid 12. Gallic acid 13. Nitric acid 14. Phosphoric acid 15. Camphoric acid 16. Hippuric acid 17. Nitro-mur. Acid 18. Sulphuric acid 19. Carbolic acid 20. Hydrocyanic acid 21. Oxalic acid 22. Sulphurous acid 23. Chromic acid
  11. 11. 1. Acetic acid Common name – glacial acetic acid  Clinical       Anemia Croup Diabetes Hemorrhage Vomiting Corns  Constitution  Physical makeup-pale, lean , person with lax flabby muscles;  Face -pale waxy;  Thermal Sensitive to cold  Temperament  Irritable  Diathesis  Hemorrhagic  Miasm  All three miasms
  12. 12. Guiding symptoms  Great burning thirst but no thirst in fever  Great prostration According to kent Patients who have been weak for many years  Who have inherited phthisis, emaciation, weakness, anemia, loss of appetite, burning thirst n copious pale urine are a combination called for acetic acid
  13. 13. Contd..  Sensation of heat with pulsation, coming and going, like orgasms, chlorosis in youngs girls, dropsical conditions in general, bad effects from stings, bites have been cured by this remedy  Great emaciation especially of the face, hands & thighs  Hectic fever
  14. 14. Contd..  Skin dry and hot  red spot on left cheek and drenching night sweat  Diarrhoea  copious, exhausting with great thirst  Mind:  Irritable  confusion of mind; does not know her own children
  15. 15. Contd..  Complaining  Forgets what has recently happened  Constantly broods as if some thing is going to happen  Particulars  Abdomen     in the abdomen there is great pain, distension, flatulence or dropsy, sore to touch Diarrhea, thin, bloody or pure blood, profuse bleeding from piles, Chronic diarrhea. Violent burning pain in stomach and chest followed by coldness of skin and cold sweat on forehead
  16. 16. Contd..  Urinary symptoms  copious watery urine;  it has cured diabetes, with sugar in the urine or without, where there is great thirst, weakness and pallor and loss of flesh.  Dropsy  dropsy associated with diabetes and GIT disease.  Genital  weakness with seminal losses;  relaxed genitals and swollen feet;  uterine haemorrhage, copious menses or menstrual flow; scanty menses with chlorosis.
  17. 17. Contd..  Larynx and chest  weakness of larynx, croup, diptheria  it has cured many cases of laryngeal diptheria, hoarseness, with pale mucous membranes  chronic dry hacking cough in sickly  According of Kent: All substances abused as food become great remedies, such as vinegar, coffee, common salt, etc. we should look to them oftener than we do for the stubborn chronic cases.
  18. 18. Relation  Antidotes:  Anesthetic vapours  Fumes of charcoal and gas  Follows well:  after cinchona  in hemorrhage  after digitalis  in dropsy
  19. 19. Contd.. Compare:  marasmus of children: Abrot  Acet ac  Arg. Nit  Bacillinum  Calc.phos  Sarsp.  Sulph.
  20. 20. Contd..  Lying on abdomen ameliorates:  Acet ac. Am carb  Dropsy general(anasarca)       Apis Apocynum Blatta orientalis China Lachasis Ars. Album lycopodium
  21. 21. Contd..  In early months of pregnancy can lie comfortably on stomach :  Acet ac Sulphuric acid  Dose:  Third to thirteen potency Not to be repeated too often except in croup
  22. 22. 2. Hippuricum acidum  Common name: Hippuric acid  Prover: Dr. Wm. B. Griggs  Sphere of action: External tissues of eyes & nasal pharynx;  Joint surfaces;  Liver & mucous membranes;  Specially affect right side;  General muscular weakness.
  23. 23. Contd.. Particulars:   Eyes:   pain over the right eyes; dull constant pain; < warm room.  Throat:  Sore, raw, with dysphasia, halitosis; Gummy exudates  Female : menstrual flow for three weeks with complete relief of muscular and joint pains
  24. 24. Contd..  Backache:    extending down the hips; pain in the shoulder and extremities; pain in the middle of the thigh . Skin:     Itching; Burning; papules looking like goose flesh on the chest.
  25. 25. 3. Picric Acid  Common name:  Trinitrophenol  Prover:  T.F. Allen  Introduction:  It exists as bright yellow glistening crystal. It has sour odour, but it has a very bitter taste. It is one of the important medicines for diseases of spinal origin.  Sphere of action:  It acts on spinal cord, blood, genito-urinary system and skin.
  26. 26. Pathogenesis  It causes degeneration of spinal cord with PARALYSIS. It produces a fair picture of NERVOUS FRUSTRATION.
  27. 27. Constitution  MAKE-UP:  Suited to dark complexioned persons with dirty appearance about knuckles; anaemic, cachetic persons, worn out persons, who are overtaxed mentally and physically.  RELATION WITH HEAT AND COLD:  The patient is better by cold air and cold water.  MIASMS:  Psoric, Sycotic and Syphilitic
  28. 28. Clinical         Anaemia Boils Brain fag Burns Debility Headache Lumbago Myelitis       Neurasthenia Paralysis Priapism Self abuse Spinal diseases Writer’s cramp
  29. 29. Guiding Symptoms  Progressive weariness from a slight feeling of fatigue on      motion to complete paralysis. Like all acids, profound weakness and debility run through the whole drug. Burning along spine and great weakness of spine and back, softening of cord. Brain fag: of literary or business people. slightest excitement, mental exertion or over work brings on headache. Headache: of students, teachers and over worked businessmen, from grief or depressing emotions, occipitocervical region. Ameliorated by: tight bandaging
  30. 30. Contd..  Heaviness, numbness, formication and weakness are the     words which are the keynotes of this drug. It is also a medicine for progressive pernicious anemia. Priapism, with spinal disease there is violent and long lasting erection. Penis is painfully distended. Great sexual desire with emissions leading to impotency. Small painful boils-especially in external auditory meatus; also in other parts of the body. Dr. Thery of Paris recommends picric acid very highly for burns of first and second degree.
  31. 31. General Modalities  Aggravation from: Least mental exertion, motion, study, wet weather.  Amelioration from: cold air and cold water
  32. 32. 4. Sulphurosum Acidum  Common name:  Sulphurous acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Clinical  Tonsilitis  Acne rosacea  Ulcerative stomatitis  Pityriasis versicolor
  33. 33. Guiding Symptoms            Anxious, furious, disposed to fight. Headache better by vomiting. Ringing in ears. Ulcerative inflammation of mouth. Tongue red or bluish red coated. Loss of appetite Obstinate constipation Persistent choking cough with copius expectoration. Hoarseness, constriction of chest. Difficult breathing. Female:  Fluor albus (leucorrhea), Debility.
  34. 34. Dose  As a spray in tonsilitis. According to Ringer, ten to fifteen minims taken ten minutes before each meal will remedy pyrosis and prevent fermentation and flatulence.It also removes thrush.  Homoeopathically, third attenuation.
  35. 35. 5. Nitric Acid  Common name: Aqua Fortis  Prover: Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction: It is a polycrest remedy for many diseases covering almost all symptoms. Total 1425 symptoms are proven.
  36. 36. Sphere of action  It has a marked affinity for the margins of the outlet especially of the throat, anus and mouth.  In addition, it affects glands, liver, prostate and salivary.
  37. 37. Constitution  Sycotic remedy  Thin persons of rigid fibres,dark complexion,black hair     and eyes,the brunette rather than blonde. Person suffering with chronic disesase who take cold easily and are easily disposed to diarrhea. Old people with great weakness. Thermal:- Chilly patient Miasm:- all three miasms
  38. 38. Guiding Symptoms  Selects for its special seat of action the outlets of the body     where the mucous membrane and skin meet; these pain as from splinters. Sticking pains. Marked improvement of all symptoms while riding in a carriage. Acts best on the dark complexioned and past middle life. Syphilis, after abuse of Mercury. Pains appear and disappear quickly.
  39. 39. Contd..  Blisters and ulcers in mouth, tongue, genitals; bleed        easily. Fissures, with pain during stool, as if rectum were torn. All discharges very offensive, especially urine, faeces, and perspiration. Persons who have chronic diseases, and take cold easily and disposed to diarrhoea. Excessive physical irritability. Cachexia, due to syphilis, scrofula, intermittent fever with liver involvement and anaemia, etc. Gravel ; arthritis. Capillary bleeding after curettage.
  40. 40. Particulars  Mind     Irritable, hateful, vindictive, headstrong. Hopeless despair. Sensitive to noise,pain,touch,jar. Fear of death.  Head  Sensation of a band around head .  Headache from pressure of hat; full feeling; worse from street noises.  Hair falls out.  Scalp sensitive.
  41. 41. Contd..  Ears  Difficult hearing; better by riding in carriage or train.  Very sensitive to noise, as the rattle of wagons over pavements.  Cracking in ears when chewing.  Eyes  Double vision; sharp, sticking pains.  Ulceration of cornea.  Gonorrhoeal ophthalmia, photophobia, constant lachrymation.  Syphilitic iritis.
  42. 42. Contd..  Nose  Ozaena.  Green casts from nose every morning.  Coryza, with sore and bleeding nostrils.  Tip red.  Stitches, as of a splinter in nose.  Caries of mastoid. Nosebleed, with chest affections.  Chronic nasal catarrh, with yellow, offensive, corrosive discharge.  Nasal diphtheria, with watery and exceedingly excoriating discharge.
  43. 43. Contd..  Mouth  Putrid breath.  Salivation.  Bleeding of gums.  Painful pimples on the sides of the tongue.  Tongue clean, red and wet with center furrow.  Teeth become loose; gums soft and spongy.  Ulcers in soft palate, with sharp, splinter-like pains.  Salivation and fetor oris.  Bloody saliva.
  44. 44. Contd..  Throat     Dry. Pain into ears. Hawks mucus constantly. White patches and sharp points, as from splinters, on swallowing.  Stomach Great hunger, with sweetish taste. Longing for indigestible things-chalk, earth, etc. Pain in cardiac orifice. Dyspepsia with excess of oxalic acid, uric acid and phosphates in urine and great mental depression.  Loves fat and salt.    
  45. 45. Contd..  Abdomen  Great straining, but little passes, Rectum feels torn.  Bowels constipated, with fissures in rectum.  Tearing pains during stools.  Violent cutting pains after stools, lasting for hours.      Haemorrhages from bowels, profuse, bright. Prolapsus ani. Haemorrhoids bleed easily. Diarrhoea, slimy and offensive. After stools, irritable and exhausted. Colic relieved from tightening clothes.
  46. 46. Contd..  Urine  Scanty, dark, offensive.  Smells like horse's urine.  Cold on passing.  Burning and stinging.  Urine bloody and albuminous.  Alternation of cloudy, phosphatic urine with profuse urinary secretion in old prostatic cases.  Male  Soreness and burning in glans and beneath prepuce.  Ulcers; burn and sting; exude, offensive matter.
  47. 47. Contd..  Female  External parts sore, with ulcers.  Leucorrhoea brown, flesh-colored, watery, or stringy, offensive.  Hair on genitals falls out. [Natr.m. , Zinc.]  Uterine haemorrhages.  Menses early, profuse, like muddy water, with pain in back, hips and thighs.  Extremities  Fetid foot-sweat, causing soreness of toes, with sticking pain; chilblains on toes.  Sweating of palms, hands; cold, blue nails.  Offensive sweat in axillae at night.
  48. 48. Contd..  Respiratory  Hoarseness.  Aphonia, with dry hacking cough, from tickling in larynx and pit of stomach.  Soreness at lower end of sternum.  Short breath on going upstairs. Cough during sleep.  Skin  Warts, large jagged; bleed on washing.  Ulcers bleed easily, sensitive; splinter-like pains; zigzag, irregular edges; base looks like raw flesh.  Exuberant granulations.  Black pores on face, papules worse on forehead.
  49. 49. Modalities  Worse, evening and night, cold climate, and also hot weather.  Better, while riding in carriage. [Reverse : Cocculus.]
  50. 50. Relations  Complementary : Ars.; Calad.; Lac can.; Sepia.  Inimical : Lach.  Compare : Merc.; Kali.; Thuja; Hepar; Calc.
  51. 51. Dose  Sixth potency. As the nitric acid patient begins to improve skin symptoms may appear for a time, a favourable indication.
  52. 52. 6. Tartaricum Acidum  Common name:  Sulphurous acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:  Found in grapes, pineapple, sorrel and other fruits. It is an antiscorbutic antiseptic stimulating the mucous and salivary secretions.
  53. 53. Clinical  Dyspepsia  Dullness and lassitude  Diarrhoea  Pain in heels  Vomiting
  54. 54. Guiding Symptoms  Excessive thirst, continuous vomiting causes burning in the throat and stomach.  Dyspepsia with copious secretion of mucus.  Pain around the umbilicus and in the region of loins.  STOOL:  Coffee ground in colour (worse at night) with a brown and dry tongue and dark green vomiting.
  55. 55. Dose  Third trituration. The pure acid, 10-30 grains dissolved in water.
  56. 56. 7. Carbolic Acid  Common name:  Glacial carbolic acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:  Carbolic acid is a great antiseptic and powerful irritant  Sphere of action:  It acts on nervous system, skin, all mucous membranes, especially of mouth, throat, gastro-intestinal tract and urinary organs
  57. 57. Constitution  Physical make-up:  There is no particular constitution for this drug. Persons of any and every constitution are susceptible to this remedy. The patient is however, VERY CHILLY, having SYPHILITIC and PSORIC background and is of irritable temperament.
  58. 58. Pathogenesis  It acts primarily on nervous system and produces deadly paralysis of respiratory centers' and various consequent reflex symptoms. It causes much debility and weakness. It also produces inflammation of the skin resulting in ulceration and manifestation of all mucous membranes and gastro-intestinal tract, in addition to vomiting, dysentery etc.
  59. 59. Clinical  Abdominal affection  Gangrene  Burns  Headache  Carbuncles  Leucorrhea  Cholera  Skin affection  Diabetes  Dyspepsia  Small pox  Uremia  Flatulence  Urinary affection  Fever  Ulcers
  60. 60. Guiding Symptoms  DEBILITY and WEAKNESS are persistently present throughout.  Pains come suddenly, last for a short time and disappear      suddenly. Pains are burning, pricking and stitching. The whole surface of body is bathed in cold sweat with prostration and collapse. Sensation of band around the forehead, with dull and heavy frontal headache. Ulceration all over the body and in internal parts, such as mouth, nose, throat, nostrils, rectum, vagina from which a discharge comes out which is very offensive and putrid. Great longing for whisky and tobacco.
  61. 61. Contd..  It has cured cases of cancer of stomach and has apparently cured epithelioma of cheeks and nose with hemorrhage.  Constipation with HORRIBLY OFFENSIVE BREATH.  In dysentery, stool contains scraping of intestine.  Carbolic acid 30 is of great help in uterine displacement with or without discharge. COOPER regards it specific in influenza in 3x potency for attack and 30 potency for resulting debility.
  62. 62. Contd..  General Modalities:  Aggravation from cold in general  Relations:  Compare:  In burns with ARSENIC and KREOSOTE.  In ulcers with unhealthy offensive discharge with MERCSOL and SULPHUR.  Antidote:  Dilute cider vinegar either internally or externally, when acid has been swallowed accidently or taken for suicidal purposes.
  63. 63. 8. Gallicum Acidum  Common name:  Gallic acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:  Should be remembered as a remedy in phthisis. It checks the morbid secretions, give tone to the stomach and increases the appetite. Passive hemorrhages when pulse is feeble and capillaries relaxed, cold skin.
  64. 64. Clinical  Hemophilia  Headache  Itching  Photophobia  Pyrosis  Respiratory troubles  Urinary disturbances
  65. 65. Guiding Symptoms  MIND:  Wild delirium at night; very restless, jumps out of bed; sweats;is afraid to be alone; is rude and abuses everyone.  Pain in the back of head and neck.  Photophobia with burning of lids.  Thick stringy discharge from the nose. Epistaxis.  Copious stools; anus feels constricted. Faint feeling after stools. Mucoid discharges.
  66. 66. Contd..  Kidneys painful, distress along the ureters upto the bladder. Dull heavy pain in the bladder, directly over the pubis. Urine loaded with thick, cream coloured mucus.  Pain in lungs; pulmonary hemorrhage; excessive expectoration. Accumulation of mucus in the throat, in the morning. Dry at night.
  67. 67. Contd..  Relationship:  Compare: Arsenic; iodum; phosphorus  Dose:  First trituration and pure acid, to grain doses.
  68. 68. 9. Oxalic Acid  Common Name: Sorrel Acid  Prover: Dr. C. Hering  Introduction: It is a constant constituent of vegetables, but poisonous when taken internally and produces- gastro-enteritis, motor paralysis, collapse, stupor and death.
  69. 69. Clinical             Angina pectoris Backpain Bed wetting Chest disorders Cholera infantum Convulsions Deltoid rheumatism Gastrodynia Hernia Indigestion Meningitis Myelitis  Neuralgia  Neurasthenia  Oxaluria  Paralysis  Pregnancy sickness  Spasms  Spermatic cord neuralgia  Tetanus  Testes pain  Tongue disorders  Altered voice
  70. 70. Guiding symptoms  Influences the spinal cord, and produces motor paralysis.  Pains very violent, in spots , worse, motion and thinking of them.  Periodical remissions.  Spasmodic symptoms of throat and chest.
  71. 71. Particulars  Head  Sense of heat.  Confusion and vertigo.  Headache, before and during stool.  Stomach  Violent pain in epigastrium, discharge of flatus relieves.  Gastralgia, pyrosis, sensation of coldness below epigastrium.  Burning pain, extending upwards; slightest touch causes excruciating pain.  Bitter and sour eructation, worse at night.  Cannot eat strawberries.
  72. 72. Contd..  Abdomen  Pain in upper part and region of navel two hours after eating, with much flatulence- Stitches in liver.  Colic.  Burning in small spots in abdomen.  Diarrhoea from coffee.  Urinary  Frequent and copious.  Burning in urethra and pain in glans when urinating.  Must urinate when thinking of it.  Urine contains oxalates.
  73. 73. Contd..  Respiratory  Nervous aphonia with cardiac derangement.  Burning sensation from throat down.  Breathing spasmodic, with constriction of larynx and chest.  Hoarseness.  Left lung painful.  Aphonia.  Paralysis of the tensors of vocal cord.  Dyspnoea; short, jerking inspirations.  Sharp pain through lower region of left lung, extending down to epigastrium.
  74. 74. Contd..  Heart  Palpitation and dyspnoea in organic heart disease; worse, when      thinking of it. Pulse feeble. Heart symptoms alternate with aphonia, angina pectoris; Praecordial pains which dart to the left shoulder. Aortic insufficiency. Extremities       Numb, weak, tingling. Pains start from spine and extend through extremities. Drawing and lancinating pains shooting down extremities. Backache; numb, weak, Myelitis. Muscular prostration. Wrist painful, as if sprained.
  75. 75. Contd..  Lower extremities  blue, cold, insensible.  Sensation of numbness.  Skin  Sensitive, smarting and soreness, worse shaving; mottled, marbled in circular patches.  Perspires easily.
  76. 76. Modalities  Worse:  left side; slightest touch; light; shaving.  Aroused about 3 a.m. with gastric and abdominal pain.  All conditions made worse by thinking about self  Better:  Rest  After stool  Open air
  77. 77. Relations Oxaluria Shaving aggravation  Nit ac  Puls.  Caust.  Carbo-an.  Kali s.  Ph-ac.  Lyco.  Phos.  Nat mur  Ant-c.  Nat phos.  Ox-ac.  Mur ac.  Ter.
  78. 78. 10. Benzoic Acid  Prover:- Dr. Jeanes  Clinical:  asthma  bladder affection of cough  diarrhoea  gonorrhea  gout  rheumatism  prostrate enlargement
  79. 79. Sphere of action  kidneys  urinary bladder  Joints  respiratory and digestive tracts
  80. 80. Constitution  Physical makeup:  gouty or the uremic or the lithaemic constitution  Thermals:  chilly patient  Miasm:  all three miasms  Diathesis:  Rheumatic,gouty,or uric acid
  81. 81. Guiding symptoms  Urine :- dark brown and the urinous odour, highly intesified  Urine smells strong like a horse  Inclined to dwell on unpleasent things  If saw anyone deformed, it made him shudder  Sadder  Anxiety while sweating  Child cross  Gouty concretons  Arthritis Vega:- affects all the joints, especially the knee, cracking on motion
  82. 82. Contd..  Enuresis nocturna of delicate children  Dribbling urine of old men with enlarged prostate  Sense of smell :-diminished  Pain of nasal bone  Extensive ulcerations of tongue, with deeply chapped or fungoid surface  Stool :-copious watery  This is true in summer diarrhea that has come on suddenly “excessively offensive”  Slightly elevated, wart like round surfaces around anus,cough with expectoration of green mucus
  83. 83. Contd..  Pain:  Tearing, stitching in large joints of big toe, redness and swelling of joints gout < at night  Modalities:  Aggravation:- motion, open air, uncovering at  Amelioration:- by heat night,
  84. 84. 11. Boricum acidum  Common name: Boracic acid  General characteristics: used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, since it arrests fermentation and puterifaction ;  pain in the region of ureters, with a frequent urging to micturate;  Diabetes  Tongue dry, red & cracked;  Cold saliva
  85. 85. Contd..  FEMALE: Climacteric flushing;  vagina –cold as if packed with ice;  frequent micturination.  Skin: multiform erythema of the trunk and upper extremities;  Oedema of tissues around the eyes.
  86. 86. 12. Lacticum Acidum  Common name:  Lactic acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Clinical  Diabetes  Rheumatism  Problem in the breasts  Morning sickness  Tuberculous ulceration of vocal cords
  87. 87. Guiding Symptoms  Fullness or lump in the throat like a puff ball. Keeps     swallowing. Constricted low down. Tongue dry, parched. Thirst; voracious hunger. Canker, copious salivation and water brash. Nausea; morning sickness, especially in pale, anaemic women. Hot, acrid eructation. Nausea; better, eating. Burning, hot gas from the stomach to the throat, causing profuse secretion of tenacious mucus, worse smoking.
  88. 88. Contd..  Large quantities of urine passed, frequently.  Pain in the breasts, with enlargement of axillary glands, and pain extends into hand.  Rheumatic pain in the joints, shoulders, wrists, knees with much weakness. Trembling of the whole body while walking. Limbs feel chilly.
  89. 89. Relations  Compare:  Sarcol-ac;  Lith-c;  Ph-C  Dose:  Third to thirtieth potency. Six to ten drops in a small glass of water in acute gastroenteritis.
  90. 90. 13. Muriatic Acid  Common name: Hydrochloric acid  Prover: Hahnemann  Introduction: Like all acids it produces the peculiar debility and irritability. It has 574 symptoms in Hahnemann’s Materia Medica Pura. It irritates and corrodes the mucus membranes, leading to ulceration. It causes low febrile condition and hence becomes useful in cases of typhoid. It produces sour excretions and make them acrid.
  91. 91. Clinical  Prolapse of anus  Diphtheria  Diarrhoea  Enteric fever  Haemorrhoids  Hemiopia  Heart troubles  Mouth and tongue affection  Typhoid
  92. 92. Sphere of action  Blood  Gastro intestinal tract  Anus  Urinary organs  Mucous membranes  Skin.
  93. 93. Constitution  It is adapted to  Person with black hair, dark eyes and dark complexion.  Persons who are of irritable and peevish temperament  For chilly patients  Muriatic acid is psoric in its background.
  94. 94. Guiding symptoms  Ailments are from sun’s heat.  Great debility, slides down in bed. Even the lower jaw hangs       down. His eyes close as soon as he sits down. According to Clark: burning is great feature of its symptomatology eg, ulcers, eruptions, piles, stomach and abdomen. Malignant affections mouth: Mouth studded with ulcers which are deep perforating and having a black or dark base. Offensive secretions and foul breath from mouth in fevers of all kinds. Patient cannot bear the thought or sight of meat. Tongue – coated at edges, shrunken, dry, leather like and paralysed; beefy tongue. Pulse, especially in typhoid, intermits at every third beat.
  95. 95. Contd..  Anus is very sensitive, with or without piles; sore during menses.  Piles protrudes while the person urinates. Involuntary stools while passing urine.  Palpitation of heart is felt in the face.  Cannot bear the least touch not even of the bed sheet on genitals.
  96. 96. Particulars  Head  Vertigo; worse lying on right side; occiput heavy as if filled with lead.  Sound of voice is intolerable.  Pain as if brain were crushed.  Mouth  Tongue, pale, swollen, dry, leathery, paralyzed.  Deep ulcers on tongue.  Hard lumps in tongue.  Epithelioma; edges bluish-red. [Carbol. ac.]  Aphthous mouth.  Gums and glands swollen.  Fetid Breath.  Sordes on teeth.
  97. 97. Contd..  Stomach  Cannot bear sight or thought of meat.  At times, ravenous appetite and constant desire to drink.  Achlorhydria and fermentation of food.  Rectum  Tendency to involuntary evacuations while urinating.  Haemorrhoids most sensitive to all touch ; even sheet of toilet paper is painful.  Anal itching and prolapsus ani while urinating.  Haemorrhoids during pregnancy; bluish, hot with violent stitches.  Heart  Pulse rapid, feeble, and small. Intermits every third beat.
  98. 98. Contd..  Female  Menses appear too soon.  Leucorrhoea.  During menses, soreness of anus .  Ulcer in genitals.  Fever  Cold extremities.  Heat without thirst.  Typhoid types, stupid.  Haemorrhages.  Restlessness.  Involuntary discharges.  Bed-sores.  Pulse rapid and feeble.  Excessive prostration.
  99. 99. Modalities  Worse, in damp weather, before midnight.  Better, lying on left side.
  100. 100. Relations  Compare  Phos. ac.  Ars.  Bapt.  Follows well after  Bry.  Rhus.  Antidote  Bryonia.
  101. 101. 14. Citric Acid  Common name:Citricum Acidum  Prover:Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:All forms of dropsy and swellings are benefited with Citric acid and lemon juice, tablespoonful every 3-4 hours. Pain from cancer of tongue.
  102. 102. Clinical  Scurvy  Connective tissue defect  Increased capillary fragility ptechial haemorrhage.  Subperiosteal hemorrhage  Deformed teeth  Impaired wound healing
  103. 103. Guiding Symptoms  It is an important remedy for scurvy, scrobutus and hemorrhage.  Given to relieve the pains of cancer.  Convulsions: epileptic, red face during convulsion.  Mental General:  Frightened easily  Indolence- aversion to usual house work
  104. 104. Relation  Compare:   Citrus Limon Citrus Vulgaris
  105. 105. 15. Camphoric Acid It is not a well proved drug, however, few clinical symptoms are prominent.
  106. 106. Therapeutics  Cystitis  Catheter fever  Night sweats
  107. 107. Relations  Compare:  Cystitis:       Acon. Canth. Equis. Lyco. Merc. Nit ac.  Catheter fever:  Acon.  Petros.
  108. 108. 16. Chromic Acid  Common Name: Chromicum Acidum (CrCO3)  Prover: Drysdale and Dr. Henry Duffield  Introduction: It is a powerful anticeptic which has been used for disinfecting purposes to arrest fetid discharge and correct fetid odors “foul smelling, bloody lochia” is an indication.
  109. 109. Clinical  Angina pectoris  Ranula  Brain inflammation  Rheumatism  Cough  Stiff neck  Diarrhoea  Sore throat  Eye disorders  Syphillis  Gangrene  Toothache  Gout  Trismus  Haemorrhoids  Tuberculosis  Lumbago  Ulcers  Lupus  Warts
  110. 110. Guiding Symptoms  Diphtheria, post-nasal tumors, and epithelioma of the tongue have been benefited by this drug.  Bloody, foul-smelling lochia.  Symptoms come and go suddenly, and return periodically; offensive discharges.  Nose     Ulcer and scabs in nose. Offensive smell. Corrosive pain. Ozaena.
  111. 111. Contd..  Throat  Diphtheria; sore throat. Tough mucus, with inclination to swallow it; worse, causing hawking.  Post-nasal tumours.   Extremities     Uneasiness in limbs. Pain in shoulder-blades and back of neck. Pain in knees and balls of feet. Drawing pain in soles while walking.
  112. 112. Relation  Compare:  Nasal polyp          Lemna-m. Kali-nit. Teu-m. Hippozaen. Sang-can. Sang-nit. Calc-iod. Form-r. Thuja
  113. 113. 17. Fluoric Acid  Common name:  Hydrofluoric acid  Prover:  Dr .HERING  Introduction:  Fluoric acid is a colorless liquid obtained by distillation. It is a strong irritant and causes burns. It is a DEEP and LONG ACTING remedy.  It is the constitutional remedy for warm blooded persons who are worse from heat, warm room, warm air, and drinks  Sphere of action: skin, deep tissue, veins bones
  114. 114. Constitution  Make-up of the body:  Premature old age.  Young people too old.  Relation with heat and cold:  NEITHER HOT NOR CHILLY.  It indicates PENDULUM like character between heat and cold. He is less affected by the excessive heat of summer or cold of winter.  However, his troubles are aggravated by warmth and relieved by cold
  115. 115. Clinical  Abscess  Haemorrhoids  Alcoholism  Hair falling of  Bone affection  Hands perspiring  Cicatrix  Headache  Eye affection  Fistula  Locomotor ataxia  Nose affection  Goitre  Ulcers  Gonorrhea
  116. 116. Guiding Symptoms  Fluoric acid is especially suited to old people and complaints      of old age; of YOUNG PEOPLE WHO LOOK OLD and attain premature old age. Burning, unusual heat and acridity are the words that qualify a great many symptoms.. Even the sweat is acrid. PROFOUND WEAKNESS AND DEBILITY Syphilitic gummatous ulcers Beginning stage of gonorrhea
  117. 117. Contd..  Venous trouble:  Varicose vein Hemorrhoids  Feebleness of circulation Numbness  Indolent ulcers  Necrosis and gangrene formation  Fistula of anus  Dentition   Mental and nervous debility from vicious practices
  118. 118. Contd..  Caries of spine  Sycotic disease: Deformed nails  Falling of hairs  Fig warts  Gleet  Offensive  Acrid discharge from ears  Offensive ozaena
  119. 119. Contd..  The patient is less affected by excessive heat of summer or          cold of winter For vicious bone diseases, in necrosis, caries, fistulous openings, fistula lachrymalis fistula in ano in calcareous degeneration Ailments from:Syphilis, abuse of mercury or silica.
  120. 120. Relations  Complementary to:  silicea  coca:
  121. 121. Contd..  Remedies that precede well  Arsenic  In ascites of drunkards  Kali c.: In hip diseases  Coffea & staph: In sensitive teeth  Silicea & symphytum: In bone diseases
  122. 122. Contd..  Remedies that follows well:   Graphitis Nitric acid Sulphur  Comparison:     Goitre:Brom, iod, kali carb, spong
  123. 123. Relation  Varicose vein: Arnica  Calc. carb  Carbo veg  Cantharis  Indifferent even in ones family: Phosphoric acid  Sepia
  124. 124. Modalities  Better: cold  While walking  Cool bathing  Rapid motion  Bending head back  Agg: Alcohol  Heat of room  Warm drink  Sour food
  125. 125. Dose  6th to 30th potency
  126. 126. 18. Hydrocyanicum Acidum  Common name:  Prussic acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:  One of the most toxic agents known. Convulsions and paralysis express the action of this remedy. Spasmodic constrictions in the larynx, feeling of suffocation, pain and tightness in the chest, palpitations, pulse weak, irregular. sinking sensation in the epigastrium.
  127. 127. Clinical  Cyanosis  Catalepsy  Cholera  Headache  Heart diseases  Respiratory troubles  Tetanus narcolepsy
  128. 128. Guiding Symptoms  Unconscious. Wild delirium. Fear of imaginary problems. Fears everything - horses, wagons, house falling etc.  Violent, stupefying headache. Brain feels on fire. Pupils motionless or dilated. Supra-orbital neuralgia, with flushing on the same side of face.  Jaws clenched in rigid spasm. Froth in the mouth. Pale, bluish lips.  Tongue cold. Drink rumbles through the throat and stomach. Gastralgia;worse when stomach is empty. Great sinking in the pit of the stomach. Pulsating pain in the precordial region.
  129. 129. Contd..  Noisy and agitated breathing. Dry, spasmodic, suffocative cough. Asthma with contraction of the throat. Whooping cough. Paralysis of the lungs. Marked cyanosis; venously congested lung.  Violent palpitations. Pulse weak, irregular. Cold extremities. Torturing pain in chest. Angina pectoris.  Yawning with shivering. Irresistible drowsiness. Vivid, incoherent dreams
  130. 130. Contd..  ANTIDOTES:  Camphor;  Opium  COMPARE:  Cic;  camphor  Dose:  Sixth and higher potencies
  131. 131. 19. Sacrolacticum acidum  Common name: Sacrolactic acid  Prover: W.Griggs  Clinical:     Addison’s disease Diabetes Influenza Myotonia Dysonea with myocardial weakness
  132. 132. Contd..  Sphere of action: Muscles  CNS  Constitution: Adapted to old age people  Miasm: Sycotic  Relation with heat and cold: Lack of vital heat  Diathesis: Cancerous
  133. 133. Guiding Symptoms  Feeling of laziness  Weakness  Dejection  Irritability  Become easily annoyed by the smallest things  Sedative palliation for GIT tumor  Tired feeling with muscular weakness  Agg: after any exertion
  134. 134. Contd..  Sore feeling all over  Agg:     in afternoon Restless at night Difficulty in getting sleep Tired feeling in the morning on getting up Throat:   Constriction in the pharynx Sore throat with tightness in naso –pharynx Tickling in throat
  135. 135. Contd..  Stomach: Nausea  Uncontrable vomiting  Back & extremities : Wrist tires easily from writing  Extreme weakness from climbing stairs  Stiffness of thigh & calves
  136. 136. Modalities  Worse: At night  From movement  From standing upright  “according to Dr.Kuhl lactic acid has an anti-cancerous preventive action and he recommends a special diet with an additional lacto –fermented products”
  137. 137. Relations  Comparison:  Eup- per: cracking sensation with acute pains in the bones  Bryonia: agg by motion  Arnica: muscular bruises
  138. 138. Dose  Potency: 3x to 30C  Dose:  Tincture in headache 6th potency In rheutamism
  139. 139. 20. Phosphoric Acid  Common name:  Glacial Phosphoric Acid  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:  Phosphoric acid is another of Hahnemann’s immortal legacies in MM Pura. It is an invaluable remedy well deserving the name “nerve tonic”, saves Dr. Hudges in his Pharmacodynamics.  Sphere of action:  It acts on brain, nerves, blood, kidneys, mucus membrane, sex organs and bones
  140. 140. Pathogenesis  It produces both mental and physical debility but the mental symptoms are first to develop.  The remedy runs from mental to physical, from brain to muscles.  It also produces hemorrhage, digestive disorders and inflammation of bones.
  141. 141. Constitution  Physical makeup:  It is best suited to persons of originally strong constitution, who have become debilitated by LOSS OF VITAL FLUIDS, sexual excess, violent acute diseases, chagrin or long succession of moral emotion, grief, care, or disappointed affection.  Thermals:  Chilly Patient  Miasm:  All three miasms  Temperament:  Mild disposition and yielding temperament.
  142. 142. Clinical  Asthma  Mental weakness  Brain fag  Perspiration  Cough  Disorders of pregnancy  Debility  Rheumatism  Diabetes  Spermatorrhoea  Diarrhoea  Urinary disorders  Enteric fever  Vertigo  Flatulence  Headache  Gout  Locomotor ataxia
  143. 143. Guiding Symptoms  Patient is listless, apathetic and indifferent to the affairs of his      own life; prostrated and stupefied with grief. Patient trembles, legs are weak; so stumbles easily makes missteps. Due to the bad effects of onanism, the patient is greatly distressed by the culpability of the act. Frequent profuse and debilitating emissions. Chest feels weak from talking and coughing in phthisis or from loss of vital fluids. Pains in the back of limbs as if beaten.
  144. 144. Contd..  Boring, drawing, digging pains in nerves of extremities,     necrosis in stump after amputations. Painless and non-debilitating diarrhoea is the striking feature of this remedy. Urine contains excessive phosphate. Profuse urination at night, of clear, watery urine. Desire for warm food, something refreshing, juicy things, milk and water. Aversion to coition, coffee, wine, beer and alcohol.
  145. 145. Mentals  Listless.  Impaired memory.  Apathetic, indifferent.  Cannot collect his thoughts or find the right word.  Difficult comprehension.  Effects of grief and mental shock.  Delirium, with great stupefaction.  Settled despair.
  146. 146. Particulars  Head:  Heavy; confused.  Worse, shaking or noise.  Crushing headache.  Pressure on top.  Dull headache after coition; from eye-strain.  Vertigo toward evening, when standing or walking.  Diarrhoea:  Causation: Fear or from acids or cholera  Character: painless and non debilitating, yellow or white, watery, passes involuntarily with flatus.
  147. 147. Contd..  Uro-genital system:  Causation: DM, DI, sexual excess, onanism, shock, operations, etc.  Character: urine looks like milk, mixed with jelly like bloody pieces, decomposes easily.  Profuse urination at night, urine is clear watery but it forms a white cloud at once due to the presence of excessive phosphates.  Constant urging to urinate or involuntary urination.  Few drops of white gleety discharge occur in the morning.  For DM of nervous origin, Phos-ac can be employed succesfully.
  148. 148. Contd..  Fever  Chilliness.  Profuse sweat during night and morning.  Low types of fever, with dull comprehension and stupor.  It is an excellent remedy for typhoid or typhus. Given in 2nd and 3rd week of typhoid.  Male  Emissions at night and at stool. Seminal vesiculitis.  Sexual power deficient; testicles tender and swollen.  Prostatorrhoea, even when passing a soft stool.  Eczema of scrotum.  Oedema of prepuce, and swollen glans-penis.  Herpes preputialis.
  149. 149. Modalities  Worse:  From mentals affections, loss of vital fluids- especially seminal, self abuse, sexual excess, talking.  Better:  Sitting, standing and warmth of bed.
  150. 150. Relations  Compare:  Debility from loss of vital fluids:      China Kali-c. Phos. Nat-m. Sep.  Craves juicy things:     Ant-t. Sab. Medo. Phos.
  151. 151. 21. Tannic Acid  Common name: Digallic acid (C14H10O92H2O)  Authorities are: M. Cavarra and Wien  Introduction: It is found in two forms- Gallo tannic acid derived from nut-galls and Querci-tannic acid derived from healthy leaves and bark of the oak. The former is most used. In olden days, taken for diarrhoea
  152. 152. Clinical  Obstinate constipation.  Pain and distension in abdomen.  Symptoms of ileus and vomiting of bilious substances.
  153. 153. Guiding Symptoms  It produces a state of leathery dryness of mouth and intestinal     canal. A condition like ileus and a very aggravated state of constipation. Hemorrhage from nose and kidney. Osmidrosis- corrects the foetor of perspiration. Intestine can be felt like cylindrical enlargements. Painless, bloody discharge with obstinate constipation.
  154. 154. Relations  Compare: Constipation:   Plum-met. Opium.
  155. 155. 22. Uric Acid  Common Name:  Uric Acidum  Prover:  Dr. Hahnemann  Introduction:  Uric acid has been used on inferential grounds in gouty conditions. Burnette gave it in 5th and 6th potency. It is most useful in cases where deposits persists, it stirs them up and helps to eliminate them.
  156. 156. Clinical  Gouty Eczema  Gout  Lipoma  Rheumatism
  157. 157. Keynotes  It is useful in gouty eczema where the eczema has been “the skin outlet for the constitution”.  With uric acid 3X Mersch cured a case of lipoma situated on the left side between abdomen and breast, “as large as a man’s head, only lengthened”. Relief was immediate; the tumor disappeared in a month.
  158. 158. Relations  Compare:  Urea, Urtica urens
  159. 159. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Lotus Materia Medica  A pocket manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica - Dr. R. Murphy -W. Boericke  Homoeopathic Materia Medica -H C Allens  Systemic Materia Medica -K N Mathur  Important and Neglected acid - L K Nanda  Lectures on clinical Matria Medica - Farrington  Dictionary of practical Materia Medica -Clark  Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica -J T Kent
  160. 160. Contd..  Comparative Materia Medica - Farrington  www.similima.com  Live Materia Medica

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