Routes of drug administrations : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations

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Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations

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Routes of drug administrations : Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations

  1. 1. DR.RAHUL PHARMACOLOGY
  2. 2. The route of administration (ROA) that is chosen may have a profound effect upon the speed and efficiency with which the drug acts Important Info
  3. 3. OralInjection RectalRespiratoryCutaneous
  4. 4. - Drug placed directly in the GI tract: • Sublingual - Placed under the tongue • Oral - Swallowing (p.O., Per os) • Rectum - Absorption through the rectum
  5. 5. Some drugs are taken as smaller tablets which are held in the mouth or under the tongue. • Examples 1. Nitroglycerine 2. Isoprenaline 3. Clonidine
  6. 6. • Disadvantages • Inconvenient • Small doses • Unpleasant taste of some drug • Advantages • Rapid absorption • Drug stability • Avoid first-pass effect
  7. 7. • Convenient • Self-administered • Pain free • Easy to take • Absorption - Takes place along the whole length of the GI tract • Cheap - Compared to most other parenteral routes
  8. 8. • Sometimes inefficient - only part of the drug may be absorbed • First-pass effect - drugs absorbed orally are initially transported to the liver via the portal vein • Irritation to gastric mucosa - nausea and vomiting
  9. 9. • Destruction of drugs by gastric acid and digestive juices • Effect too slow for emergencies • Unpleasant taste of some drugs • Unable to use in unconscious patient
  10. 10. • The hepatic metabolism of pharmacological agent when it is absorbed from the gut and delivered to the liver via the portal circulation. • The greater the first-pass effect, the less the agent will reach the systemic circulation when the agent is administered orally
  11. 11. • Unconscious patients and children • If patient is nauseous or vomiting • Easy to terminate exposure • Absorption may be variable • Good for drugs affecting the bowel such as laxatives • Irritating drugs contraindicated
  12. 12. • Intravascular (IV, IA)- placing a drug directly into the blood stream • Intramuscular (IM) - drug injected into skeletal muscle • Subcutaneous - Absorption of drugs from the subcutaneous tissues • Inhalation - Absorption through the lungs
  13. 13. Routes of Drug Administration common abbreviations… • PO = per os = oral • IV = Intravenous = into the vein • IM = Intramuscular = into the muscle • SC = Subcutaneous = between the skin and muscle • IP = Intraperitoneal = within the peritoneal cavity
  14. 14. Oral Administration Intestines Liver Intravenous Administration Metabolism
  15. 15. • Absorption phase is bypassed (100% bioavailability) • Precise, accurate, almost immediate onset of action • Large quantities can be given, fairly pain free • Titration of dose possible. • Response is accurately measurable • Greater risk of adverse effects • High concentration attained rapidly • Risk of embolism • OOPS factor or !@#$%
  16. 16. • Very rapid absorption of drugs in aqueous solution • Slow release preparations • Pain at injection sites for certain drugs • Most common sites : • Gluteus • Deltoid
  17. 17. • Slow and constant absorption • Absorption is limited by blood flow affected if circulatory problems exist • Concurrent administration of vasoconstrictor will slow absorption • Only small volumes can be injected. • Self inj. Possible
  18. 18. • This is accomplished by injecting a local anesthetic into the peridural space, a covering of the spinal cord
  19. 19. • Here, the local anesthetic is injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord
  20. 20. 1.Gaseous and volatile agents and aerosols 2.Rapid onset of action due to rapid access to circulation A.Large surface area b.Thin membranes separates alveoli from circulation c.High blood flow Particles larger than 20 micron and the particles impact in the mouth and throat. Smaller than 0.5 micron and they aren't retained.
  21. 21. •Skin a. Dermal-rubbing in of oil or ointment (local action), paste, powder, cream, dressing, spray, etc b. Transdermal - absorption of drug through skin (systemic action) i. stable blood levels ii. no first pass metabolism iii. drug must be potent or patch becomes to large
  22. 22. • Mouth And Pharynx- Paints, Lozynges, Mouthwash, Gargles. • Eyes, Ear, Nose- Drops, Ointments, Irrigation, Spray. • Git- Nonabsorable Drugs Given Orally. • Bronchi And Lungs- Inhalations, Aerosols. • Urethra- Jellys • Vagina- Peseries, Vaginal Tablets, Cream. • Anal Canal- Ointments.
  23. 23. • Physical and chemical properties of drugs. • Site of desired action • Rate and extent of absorption of drug from different routes. • Effect of digestive juices and first pass metabolism. • Rapidity with which response is desired. • Condition of patient. • Accuracy of dosage required.
  24. 24. • Intravenous 30-60 seconds • Intraosseous 30-60 seconds • Inhalation 2-3 minutes • Sublingual 3-5 minutes • Intramuscular 10-20 minutes • Subcutaneous 15-30 minutes • Rectal 5-30 minutes • Ingestion 30-90 minutes • Transdermal (topical) variable (minutes to hours) Route for administration -Time until effect-
  25. 25. The ROA is determined by the physical characteristics of the drug, the speed which the drug is absorbed and/ or released, as well as the need to bypass hepatic metabolism and achieve high conc. at particular sites Important Info
  26. 26. No single method of drug administration is ideal for all drugs in all circumstances

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