6/15/2014Rahul
 What is Pharmacology?
 Why do we need to take Pharmacology?
6/15/2014Rahul 2
It is the science that deals with
the study of drugs and its
effect on biological system.
6/15/2014Rahul 3
….
Drug is any substance or product used or
intended to be used to modify or explore
the physiological state or pathologic...
Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics
What the body does to drug What the drug does to body
Pharmacotherapeutics Pharmacocogno...
Is what the body does to the drug ?......
6/15/2014
Rahul 6
6/15/2014Rahul 7
Pharmacokinetics
What the body does to the drug
t1/2 (Half-Life)
- the time required for the plasma concentration of a
dru...
6/15/2014
Rahul 9
Interaction of drugs with cellular
proteins, such as receptors or enzymes,
to control changes in physiological
function of...
6/15/2014Rahul 12
- Based on the chemical structure
- Based on the main effect (e.g.
analgesics).
-Based on the therapeutic use (e.g.
antide...
mical name - *Generic name - Trade
Chemical Name: 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-propionic acid
Generic Name: ibuprofen
Trade Names:...
6/15/2014Rahul
15
Sources Details Examples
Plants Berries (seeds) , bark, Leaves
Resin from trees, roots
Morphine
Qunine
Digitalis / Digoxin...
6/15/2014Rahul 17
Exudates of plants.
used as emulsifying
agents
› Ex. Gum acacia
 Resins :
Polymers of
volatile oil
› Ex. Benzoin
Nonpheno...
 From the leaves
of this plant was
isolated the
cardiac
glycoside
Digitalis, a drug
still used today
to treat heart
failu...

6/15/2014Rahul 21
 The eastern herb used
in China since antiquity
to treat fevers, is the
source of the modern
drug qinghaosu, which
shows ...
6/15/2014Rahul 23
6/15/2014Rahul 24
6/15/2014Rahul 25
Plant Part Drug Use
Chinchona Bark Quinine Anti malarial
Purple
Foxglove
Leaves Digitallis Congestive
cardiac
failure
Papp...
Animal Part Drug Use
Cow Pancreas Insulin Antidiabetic
hormone
Fish Sperms Protamine
sulphate
Antidote of
heparin
Pig inte...
 Pethidine Cotrimoxazole
6/15/2014Rahul 28
Minerals Drugs Uses
Magnesium Milk of magnesia constipation
Iron Ferrous sulphate Anaemia
Zinc Zinc oxide
ointment
Calamin...
Microbes Name Drug
Fungi Penicillium notataum Penicillin
Actinomycetes Streptomyces Venezuela
Streptomyces aurefaciens
Chl...
 Recombinax HB (hepatitis B Vaccine)
 Human erythropoetin
 Human Insulin
 Abciximab
6/15/2014Rahul 31
 Dosage: Amount of drug to be administered
usually based on weight.
Example: mg/kg
 Concentration: How the drug is formu...
Drug Formulation
examples……
VERY SIMPLE FORMULATION:
A rat needs to be administered a dosage of 50mg.
The drug is in a liq...
Drug Formulation
examples……
SIMPLE FORMULATION:
The rat weighs 350 g.
The maximum volume to be injected IP in a rat is 1ml...
Drug Formulation
examples……
SIMPLE FORMULATION:
The rat weighs 350 g.
The maximum volume to be injected IP in a rat is 1ml...
6/15/2014Rahul
37
Introduction to pharmacology and sources of drugs:Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations
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Introduction to pharmacology and sources of drugs:Dr Rahul Kunkulol's Power point preparations

  1. 1. 6/15/2014Rahul
  2. 2.  What is Pharmacology?  Why do we need to take Pharmacology? 6/15/2014Rahul 2
  3. 3. It is the science that deals with the study of drugs and its effect on biological system. 6/15/2014Rahul 3
  4. 4. …. Drug is any substance or product used or intended to be used to modify or explore the physiological state or pathological condition for the well being of the recipient 6/15/2014Rahul 4
  5. 5. Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics What the body does to drug What the drug does to body Pharmacotherapeutics Pharmacocognosy The study of the use of drugs Identifying crude materials as drugs Toxicology 6/15/2014Rahul 5
  6. 6. Is what the body does to the drug ?...... 6/15/2014 Rahul 6
  7. 7. 6/15/2014Rahul 7
  8. 8. Pharmacokinetics What the body does to the drug t1/2 (Half-Life) - the time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to be reduced by 50% ED50 (effective dose) - The dose of a drug that is effective for 50% of the population exposed to the drug LD50 (lethal dose) - the dose at which death occurs in 50% of subjects
  9. 9. 6/15/2014 Rahul 9
  10. 10. Interaction of drugs with cellular proteins, such as receptors or enzymes, to control changes in physiological function of particular organs.  Drug-Receptor Interactions  Signal Transduction  Dose-Response 6/15/2014Rahul 10
  11. 11. 6/15/2014Rahul 12
  12. 12. - Based on the chemical structure - Based on the main effect (e.g. analgesics). -Based on the therapeutic use (e.g. antidepressant). -Based on mechanism of action (e.g. serotonin agonist).
  13. 13. mical name - *Generic name - Trade Chemical Name: 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-propionic acid Generic Name: ibuprofen Trade Names: Advil, Aches-N-Pain, Brufen, Emodin, Haltran, Medipren, Midol 200, Motrin, Nuprin, Rufen, Trendar, Wal-Profen *preclinical nomenclature = company abbrev-123456 (e.g. WAY-100635, MK-869)
  14. 14. 6/15/2014Rahul 15
  15. 15. Sources Details Examples Plants Berries (seeds) , bark, Leaves Resin from trees, roots Morphine Qunine Digitalis / Digoxin Gum acacia Minerals Earth & soil Iron, sulfur, potassium, silver & even gold Animals Glands, organs & tissues Pork insulin Synthetic Man made Meperidine, sulphonamides Microbes Fungus Streptomycets Bacteria Penicillins Erythromycin Bacitracin 6/15/2014Rahul 16
  16. 16. 6/15/2014Rahul 17
  17. 17. Exudates of plants. used as emulsifying agents › Ex. Gum acacia  Resins : Polymers of volatile oil › Ex. Benzoin Nonphenolic nitrogenous derivatives. Used as astrigents. › Ex. Tinc,. Catechu 6/15/2014Rahul 18
  18. 18.  From the leaves of this plant was isolated the cardiac glycoside Digitalis, a drug still used today to treat heart failure. 6/15/2014Rahul 20
  19. 19.  6/15/2014Rahul 21
  20. 20.  The eastern herb used in China since antiquity to treat fevers, is the source of the modern drug qinghaosu, which shows great promise as a modern anti-malarial compound. 6/15/2014Rahul 22
  21. 21. 6/15/2014Rahul 23
  22. 22. 6/15/2014Rahul 24
  23. 23. 6/15/2014Rahul 25
  24. 24. Plant Part Drug Use Chinchona Bark Quinine Anti malarial Purple Foxglove Leaves Digitallis Congestive cardiac failure Pappaverous somniferous Poppy seeds (opium) Morphine Codeine Opioid Analgesic antitussive Artimisia annua Quinghousu Artimisinin derivatives Antimalarial Atropa Leaves Atropine OPPs 6/15/2014Rahul 26
  25. 25. Animal Part Drug Use Cow Pancreas Insulin Antidiabetic hormone Fish Sperms Protamine sulphate Antidote of heparin Pig intestine Heparin anticoagulants Ox lungs Heparin anticoagulants 6/15/2014Rahul 27
  26. 26.  Pethidine Cotrimoxazole 6/15/2014Rahul 28
  27. 27. Minerals Drugs Uses Magnesium Milk of magnesia constipation Iron Ferrous sulphate Anaemia Zinc Zinc oxide ointment Calamine lotion Calcium Calcium sulphate Osteoporosis Gold Gold salts Rheumatoid arthritis6/15/2014Rahul 29
  28. 28. Microbes Name Drug Fungi Penicillium notataum Penicillin Actinomycetes Streptomyces Venezuela Streptomyces aurefaciens Chloramphenicol Tetracycline Bacteria Bacillus subtilis Bacitracin 6/15/2014Rahul 30
  29. 29.  Recombinax HB (hepatitis B Vaccine)  Human erythropoetin  Human Insulin  Abciximab 6/15/2014Rahul 31
  30. 30.  Dosage: Amount of drug to be administered usually based on weight. Example: mg/kg  Concentration: How the drug is formulated into a solution . Example: mg/ml  Injection Volume: A liquid measurement based on weight . Example: ml/kg 6/15/2014Rahul 32
  31. 31. Drug Formulation examples…… VERY SIMPLE FORMULATION: A rat needs to be administered a dosage of 50mg. The drug is in a liquid form of concentration 25 mg/ml. What volume of the solution needs to be injected?
  32. 32. Drug Formulation examples…… SIMPLE FORMULATION: The rat weighs 350 g. The maximum volume to be injected IP in a rat is 1ml/kg. The dose to be administered is 10mg/kg. The dose is in a liquid concentration of 10mg/ml. What volume of the solution will be injected into the rat?
  33. 33. Drug Formulation examples…… SIMPLE FORMULATION: The rat weighs 350 g. The maximum volume to be injected IP in a rat is 1ml/kg. The dose to be administered is 10mg/kg. The dose is in a liquid concentration of 10mg/ml. SIMPLE ANSWER: 1. Transform weight: A 350 g. rat = 0.35 kg. 2. Determine max. vol.: 0.35 kg X 1ml/kg = 0.35 ml volume
  34. 34. 6/15/2014Rahul 37

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