Strategic and Inclusive Enterprise Architecture Apr 2011 v 1.1
Strategic and Inclusive Enterprise Architecture<br />With Deployment Scenarios in the Emerging Industry of <br />Multi-Channel Multi-Partner Physical-Digital Retail<br />By:<br />RahmanMokhtar<br />Enterprise and Business Change Architect and Management Consultant<br />Document Reference: <br />Mokhtar, R. (April 2011). “Strategic and Inclusive Enterprise Architecture: With Deployment Scenarios in the Emerging Industry of Multi-Channel Multi-Partner Physical-Digital Retail”. Bangkok, Thailand. <br />
Content<br /> Slide#<br />Executive Summary 3<br />Challenges 4<br />Model – Adopting Consumer-Centricity 5<br />Architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise 6<br />Human Needs and Socio-Cultural Behaviour 8<br />Mapping Consumption Space to Needs 9<br />Consumer Life-time Value (CLV) 10<br />Strategy 11<br />Consumer Segment Experience 19<br />Benefits, Risks, Measures, Financial Model 26<br />Products, Services, Channels and Industries 29<br />End-to-End Business Process “Big Picture” 30<br />A Channel’s “Manage Selling” Business Process 31<br />Organisational Roles and “RACI” 32<br />Requirements (Functional and Non-Functional) 34<br />Technology Design 38<br /><ul><li>IT Processes 38
Technology Architecture: Applications, Data, Information and UI, Security, Integration, and Infrastructure 43</li></ul>Technology Realisation, Training, and Deployment 57<br />Managing Programme and Projects 58<br />Managing Change 59<br />Review, and Development of Insights to Worth-Creation 60<br />Architecture Organisation and Governance 61<br />User Roles Associated to Architecture 62<br />Discussions 63<br />Summary 64<br />References 65<br />About the Author 67<br />
Executive Summary<br />In a world of globalisation of supply and demand, where availability and pricing of products and services, are impacted by boundary-less changes in market, economic, supply-chain, political, and global weather patterns, businesses are compelled to re-think their strategic engagement of consumers, along the lines of:<br />Who are our consumers. <br />What are their needs.<br />How can we maintain relationships with consumers in a sustainable and meaningful manner.<br />How can we influence consumer willingness to pay for the price of our products and services, convenience, choices, and for us to sustainably generate business growth and margins. <br />Why are we doing business, the way we do today, and are we creating optimal ‘worth” (i.e. wealth and well-being) for our governance, stakeholders, customers, and consumers.<br />How can we manage our business better and maintain the agility to deal with change, in our governance-people-processes-technology.<br />At the heart, of all these, as discussed in this work, is the need for mindset, philosophy, empathy for, and visibility of consumer-centricity – its comprehension and embedment in organisational culture and ways of working, and its explicit traceability to worth-creation activities in the business.<br />The composite of business, consumer, and their inter-relationships, is discussed as an enterprise (holistic and inclusive), one that is mindful of consumer-centric model and approach. <br />Consumer-Centricity, as a theme, reinforces the notion of “consumer comes first”, and we leverage this in developing insights, organisational mobilisation, and deployment of governance-change-strategy-processes-people-technology, to deliver value and worth-creation activities.<br />Throughout the discussion here, we illustrate this theme, in the context of an Architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise, and in various scenarios for Multi-Channel, Multi-Partner Physical-Digital Retail – an emerging Industry, that typifies an environment of multiple expectations, viewpoints, requirements, and changes. <br />
Challenges<br />Today, businesses are simply not adequately identifying and targeting consumers in their product and service offerings, in a manner that is sustainable for businesses and meaningful for the consumers, across the end-to-end business-consumer engagements.<br />Some challenges, from a Business perspective, that reflect the above:<br /><ul><li>Unable to adequately identify consumers, and their trends, preferences, and patterns of consumption and leverage these in mobilising the organisation.
Unable to retain existing consumers and acquire new consumers, in an effective manner.
Unable to adequately provide the convenience, experience, and meaningful care required by consumers.
Unable to leverage internal processes-people-technology and investment, in an optimised manner and meaningfully tuned to consumers and their segment needs.
Unable to cost-effectively manage marketing and campaigns, consumer relationship, planning and constructing product and service offerings, delivery of these offerings, and supporting supply chain.
Unable to explicitly integrate and extend internal supply chain, business units, categories, formats, channels, partners (communities and alliances), in order to achieve worth in consumer’s shopping life-cycle for products and services, throughout his/her life-time, and life-event needs.
Unable to ensure that the right information, flows to wherever it's required, throughout the business-consumer engagements.</li></ul>Page 4. <br />
Model: Adopting Consumer-Centricity<br />Our Consumer-Centric model or approach, in essence, necessitates that every element and component of the model is aligned to the needs and mindset of Consumers.<br />Learnings, from primarily psychology (humanities and cognitive aspects), anthropology (socio-cultural and consumer aspects), individual and organisational change management, their theories, findings, observations, and analyses, form a fundamental influence in the development of our Consumer-Centric model and abstraction.<br />End-to-End Business processes, enabling technologies, as well as organisational structure and ways of working are shaped, designed, realised, and managed to conform to “consumer-centric” mindset, in yielding and perpetuating worth-creation activities. These activities are consistently reviewed (from perspectives of risks, measures, insights, refinements, change and their management), against evolving business constraints, offers of products and services, and operational channels and partners.<br />Collectively treated, as a business-consumer enterprise, this is charted out as an explicit architecture and management of information entities and their inter-relationships, in traceable levels of details. <br />
Architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise<br />With the focus, mindset, and start-point on the consumers, the architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise, provides the framework, guidance, processes, and techniques for specifying and managing the definition and inter-relationships of information entities . The goal being to sustainably and explicitly guide and align the enterprise and its product and service offerings, to meet evolving needs of the consumers. <br />The information entities and inter-relationships represent:<br /><ul><li>consumers and their socio-cultural behaviours, and needs.
business strategies, consumer segment experiences, and constraints.
business benefits, risks, measures, and financial models.
governance, and end-to-end review of information entities and inter-relationships, and development of insights to value and worth-creation.</li></ul>Consumers, Socio-Cultural Behaviors, and Needs<br />Strategies, Consumer Segment Experiences, and Constraints<br />Benefits, Risks, Measures, and Financial Models<br />Products, Services, Channels, and Partners<br />Governance, Review and Development of Insights to Worth-Creation<br />Business Processes<br />- Process Architecture and Management<br />Change & Programme Management<br />Organisational Roles and “RACI”<br />Requirements<br />- Functional and Non-Functional<br />Technology Design (Logical and Physical) <br />– Application, Data, Information, UI, Security, Integration, Infrastructure<br />Technology Realisation, Training, and Deployment<br />Page 6. <br />
Architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise<br />Unlike other enterprise-level architecture frameworks, our holistic and inclusive architecture, prioritises the mindset of “consumer-first” in the review (discourse, evaluation, learnings, alignment, and refinement) and development of value and worth-creating insights.<br />The architecture emphasises on:<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of consumers, their behaviours, and significance of their lifetime consumption needs and socio-cultural changes.
Relationships with consumers, including meaningful support and care provided to consumers.
Alignment of offerings and merchandising of products and services, as well as that of marketing and campaigns to meaningfully engage consumers.
Every interaction with consumers, as a key concern to the business that feeds-in to insights, benefits, and measures for sustainability of the business-consumer enterprise.
Pertinent opportunities for stakeholders to strategise and leverage on all the above – in order to sustainably: sell products and services, at a price and experience, that consumer segments are willing to pay for, and for business to generate profits.</li></ul>In this presentation, a sub-set of components of the architecture are deliberated further in the scenario of multi-channel multi-partner physical-digital retail - an emerging industry, that typifies an environment of multiple expectations, viewpoints, requirements, and changes. <br />Page 7. <br />
Human Needs and Socio-Cultural Behaviour<br />The theoretical basis for understanding needs and motivation have been reflected upon, since early 1940s. In what is termed as Humanistic Psychology, it charts out the key viewpoints of needs (as compared to wants), and how motivation to work, and enriching life-journey relate to those needs.<br />We refer to the theoretical work of (late) Professor Abraham Maslow as a starting point, and there have been theoretical follow-ups and refinements to Maslow’s work, in underpinning our consumer-centric approach.<br />The likely distribution of needs being met, is tapering to Self-Actualisation, as indicated by the pyramid model, outlined by Maslow.<br />Interesting to note that, today’s socio-cultural sense of connectedness, and hence belongingness is manifested, in one form, through technology-enabled platform, such as social networks.<br />Leveraging social networks in human endeavours such as retail and consumption space, will be seen as an important influence to worth-creation. <br />Another area to leverage on is multi-channel and multi-partner alliances in support of wider, meaningful choices, convenience, and pervasive business-consumer brand engagement. <br />Consumer adoption of technology-enabled platforms and devices such as websites and mobiles, and their meaningful integration to support physical-digital retailing environment, will equally be an important enhancing approach to consumption and information space.<br />
Mapping Consumption Space to Needs<br />What Variables in Consumption - Localised and Global? What Learnings, Challenges, and Findings from Observations, Surveys, and Researches? What areas of inadequacies (its size, intensity, distribution), in relation to Consumption and Needs Spaces? What emerging Business Opportunities?<br />Products and Services<br /><ul><li>Physical / Digital</li></ul>Socio-Cultural Needs<br />(Example Ref. Maslow)<br />Product-Service Information and Care Support<br />Counselling/ Advice and Guidance<br />Education/ Informational and Knowledge Interests <br />Fuel and Utilities: Oil, Gas, Electricity, Water<br />Self-Actualisation<br />Transport/ Hospitality/ Reservation/ Ticketing/ Bill-payments<br />Financial Services - Loans, Insurances, Mutual Funds, Bonds<br />Self-Esteem<br />Health/ Wellness /Entertainment<br />Love and <br />Belongingness<br />House/ Furniture/ Garden<br />Electronics/ Telecommunications/ IT – Hardware/Software<br />Safety and <br />Security<br />Apparel/ Fashion/ Lifestyle<br />Physiological<br />Food/ Non-Food<br />INFANT<br />KID<br />TEEN<br />YOUNG<br />ADULT<br />MID-AGE<br />OLD-AGE<br />Page 9. <br />“Cradle-to-Grave” Lifecycle<br />
Consumer Life-time Value (CLV)<br />What does CLV looks like in India, and Proportion of GDP that goes into in-country Retail and Consumption Space? What insights for enriching the business-consumer enterprise in meeting to demands in the Consumption Space?<br />1B Consumers<br />$1000 Spend/Year<br />$1Trillion/Year<br />Products and Services<br /><ul><li>Physical / Digital</li></ul>Socio-Cultural Needs<br />(Example Ref. Maslow)<br />Product-Service Information and Care Support<br />Counselling/ Advice and Guidance<br />Education/ Informational and Knowledge Interests <br />Fuel and Utilities: Oil, Gas, Electricity, Water<br />Self-Actualisation<br />Transport/ Hospitality/ Reservation/ Ticketing/ Bill-payments<br />Financial Services - Loans, Insurances, Mutual Funds, Bonds<br />Self-Esteem<br />Health/ Wellness /Entertainment<br />Love and <br />Belongingness<br />House/ Furniture/ Garden<br />Electronics/ Telecommunications/ IT – Hardware/Software<br />Safety and <br />Security<br />Apparel/ Fashion/ Lifestyle<br />Physiological<br />Food/ Non-Food<br />INFANT<br />KID<br />TEEN<br />YOUNG<br />ADULT<br />MID-AGE<br />OLD-AGE<br />Page 10. <br />“Cradle-to-Grave” Lifecycle<br />
Strategy<br />At a high level, we should prioritise and optimise reach-out to Consumer Segments. What are the Benefits?<br />Increase in Number of Consumers<br />Increase in Number of Visits<br />Increase in Consumer Spends<br />Meaningfully Help Consumers – Reward and Care<br />Wider Categories, Channels , Partners (Alliances)<br />Increase Consumer Delight and Experience Level<br />Attain Cost-Effective Operation and Increase Margins, through a re-usable, scalable business-consumer model<br />Products and Services<br /><ul><li>Physical / Digital</li></ul>Socio-Cultural Needs<br />(Example Ref. Maslow)<br />Product-Service Information and Care Support<br />Counselling/ Advice and Guidance<br />Education/ Informational and Knowledge Interests <br />Fuel and Utilities: Oil, Gas, Electricity, Water<br />Self-Actualisation<br />Transport/ Hospitality/ Reservation/ Ticketing/ Bill-payments<br />Financial Services - Loans, Insurances, Mutual Funds, Bonds<br />Self-Esteem<br />Health/ Wellness /Entertainment<br />Love and <br />Belongingness<br />House/ Furniture/ Garden<br />Electronics/ Telecommunications/ IT – Hardware/Software<br />Safety and <br />Security<br />Apparel/ Fashion/ Lifestyle<br />Physiological<br />Food/ Non-Food<br />INFANT<br />KID<br />TEEN<br />YOUNG<br />ADULT<br />MID-AGE<br />OLD-AGE<br />Page 11. <br />“Cradle-to-Grave” Lifecycle<br />
Strategy<br />Global Market Trend Analysis provides useful business insights to emerging developments and influences on consumption of products and services.<br />India’s Mobile-to-Internet user penetration ratio is 9-to-1, highest in the world. Mobile, as an integrating channel in India consumer shopping, will be an important facet of Retailer’s pan-India Strategy.<br />2010 data on internet and mobile users population and rate of uptake of pertinent technology, suggest the need for business strategies that leverages on the mobile device adoption by the general populace.<br />In our analysis, our strategy is to take the mobile device adoption to an enhanced worth-creation goal through Multi-Channel Multi-Partner (industry) Physical-Digital retail: bricks and mortar, e-commerce, m-commerce as well as social network and consumer presence-sensing (location-based) . Strategy will offer the business enterprise a wider reach-out, to society-strata-consumer segments, with viable, meaningful offerings of products, services, consumer rewards, and care.<br />
Strategy<br />Mobile-Commerce Convergence (i.e. technology maturity and en masse user adoption) offers a huge business opportunity and benefits in Physical-Digital Retailing and shaping Consumption Space.<br />1. In the Store, Consumer desires …<br />Completely<br />Meeting Consumer<br />Needs<br />Locate and Navigate <br />Product/Service<br />Consumer/Expert Community <br />Add-Value Advice and Guidance<br />Product/Service<br />Information <br />On Demand <br />Personalized<br />Recognition and <br />Reward<br />Availability, <br />All The Time<br />No Stop <br />Checkout<br />Great Consumer Service and Help Desk <br />Page 14. <br />
Strategy<br />2. How Mobile-Commerce can help increase satisfaction and meet these Consumer desires.<br />With a well designed Mobile-Commerce application, Consumer is able to:<br /><ul><li>Receive personalized and contextual messages and rewards (promotions, discount, currency points, pre-paid, etc.), near-store, in-store, at home, office. Context is also dependent on consumer presence-sensing (i.e. via location-based technology, available on the mobile).
Can specify category or product name, follow through Store Map and Direction (information includes number of products available); and if product is unavailable, consumer is suggested on nearest partner/Alliance store or link to an E-Commerce website.
Place special order/delivery (if bulk or group/segment-based buying, Consumers can be offered with unique rewards).
Capture Product Identifier (such as Barcode, via his/her mobile camera or a recognition technology), at Store:
Gather more information on an item, including information from product manufacturers, experts, and websites.
Refer to Social Networks/User Communities (this platform can also be made available by the Retailer/Alliance) for scoring/blog/forum on item, pricing, satisfaction level, etc.
Mobile’s audio/visual interface is leveraged to reach-out for help and bi-directional engaging discussion.
Add to basket and present this at any checkout points – basket items and values, avail rewards and apply discounts, interim invoice and receipts, are formulated by the mobile application – made available for cashier or sensing systems to process.
Items not accounted for (placed in the Basket), will raise an exception at Point of Sale (POS).
Note: POS will have to be enabled for dealing with product recognition and Mobile-Commerce based transactions.</li></ul>Page 15. <br />
Strategy<br /><ul><li>Use Mobile-based payment – prepaid/gift, credit/debit , electronic-wallet (i.e. forms of cashless e-payment), etc. – and perform this at strategic points in the Store, besides the usual payment lane (i.e. No-Stop Checkout).
Amend/Confirm personal details and manage his/her rewards “account”.
Respond to Consumer Surveys or provide feedback to the business (Retailer/Alliance/Supply Chain).
View Consumer’s own historical information - rewards, basket volume and value, payment ... (e.g. In the last 3 month of visits).
One-Click for Store Help Desk (for physical assistance), anywhere in the Store.
Note: Consumer Presence Sensing, will provide:
In the One-Click for Store Help Desk scenario above, location information (such as, “Consumer ABC requires physical assistance. Consumer is currently at Floor 1, Electronics Section, Aisle 2”) for local clientelling agents or Store Help Desk to locate and engage the Consumer.
Marketing with access to Mobile as a channel, for location-based , time-specific, and personalised messages, including promotions and availability of rewards, in-store and near-store, at Home, or Office.
With knowledge of collected rewards in hand and its history of avails amongst Consumer Segments, Marketing can leverage that, to communicate to consumer s(e.g. in-store and near-store), and entice them to make additional purchases of products and services, and their up-sells and cross-sells. </li></ul>Page 16. <br />
Strategy<br />Example Consumer Scenario - Young, Aspiring, Adult: <br />Educated, Employed, Craze for a lifestyle of latest Fashion, Mobiles, Fast Bikes, Travels<br />No Stop Checkout<br />- No Queues, at last! I can checkout anytime, anywhere. Hmm... I can use my mobile, with prepaid , to pay here... <br />Customer Help Desk and <br />Passion to Help and Guide<br /><ul><li>Great Service!!! I wanted delivery to my office tomorrow. It will be elegantly wrapped. </li></ul>I will be showing these off!!! <br />Visual Merchandising <br />and Digital Media <br />- Convenient layout and display; I can easily go to the right area. The media messages and adverts are relevant for me... I can easily find out where the products are located, using my mobile<br />Completely Meeting My Needs<br />– I can buy a slim leather jacket here, <br />besides the great range of mobiles... <br />Now that's an interesting value for money... <br />An up-sell package - leather jacket, boots, helmet. This is Great!!!<br />Personalized Recognition and Rewards<br /><ul><li> Hey, how do you know my name and my interests?
Wow, here's another SMS on promotions – What? Rewards for air-travel, too!!!
Wow, a reward that I can immediately avail while I am still in Store</li></ul>Virtual Community<br />- I can connect up with the Biker's Blog for advice... Makes me feel confident and empowered about my intended purchase.<br />Availability, All The Time<br />- Fashion range here is fresh and always available. <br />Wow, this makes me feel very good!!!<br />Multi-Channel, Multi-Industry (Partner) Benefits<br />- I will use these benefits, later, for my on-line shopping from home... First, to stop and spend some of these rewards at that restaurant, and travel agent. Errr, I just remembered, Mum wanted a new washing machine for her birthday. I should be able to forward these rewards to Mum, and let her avail them, at an Alliance Electronic Store.<br />Information On Demand<br /><ul><li> As a registered consumer, I can use my mobile to compare prices </li></ul>and product information, and gather views from others.<br />Page 17. <br />
Strategy<br />Scope and Baseline Strategy<br />“Deliver Business-Technology Ways of Working to reach-out and provide wider offerings of products and services to Consumer Segments in support of Sustainable, Meaningful Consumption, across Physical and Digital Channels and Partners (Alliances).”<br />DRIVEN BY:<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of Consumers and Behaviours.
Human desire and aspiration to achieve “self-actualisation”.
Delivering real-time to every rightful needs and experiences of the Consumer.</li></li></ul><li>Consumer Segment Experiences<br />Model/Hypothesise viable Consumer Segments/Groups and refine Consumer Models, Strategies, and Benefits.<br />Consider the following Scenario:<br />Khrish<br /><ul><li>Age 24 yrs.
They would always like to do a ‘little more’ for their mother. And there is an innate desire in them to give back, something to society.</li></li></ul><li>Consumer Segment Experiences<br />How does Business supports and engages Consumer Segment Experiences?<br />“Spend to Save, and Save to Spend” - A Socio-Cultural-Empathy Approach to Enriching Consumer Experiences<br /><ul><li>Wider product and service offerings available (through business alliances) for consumers, and able to collect and avail meaningful rewards off purchases (promotions, offers, discounts, currency points, pre-paid, etc).
Realign its processes, people, technology to support such socio-cultural-empathy platform.
Profile Consumers as individuals and/or members of a household or community.
Rewards (including immediate gratification) can be pooled together, as part of household/community, with benefits for “Group Buying”.
Access via multiple channels – Mobile, Websites, Kiosks, TV, Store Customer Services/Help Desk, and Call Centre.
Mobile, available as a convenient prepaid and e-payment medium, as part of its role as an interface to electronic-based transactions and meaningful information delivery, to meet needs of a business-consumer enterprise.
Supported by social network/community/expert advice and guidance on products/services/price comparison/location-based information.
Safe, secured, trust-worthy and rewarding transactions, supported by a robust real-time 24x7 information delivery.
Sustain Consumer Lock-in through, “Spend to Save, and Save to Spend”, in any Alliance channels.</li></li></ul><li>Consumer Segment Experiences<br /><ul><li>Current/Deposit account in Alliance banks and collect rewards every time they transact with the banks.
Collect rewards every time they purchase fuel at an Alliance petrol station.
Collect rewards whenever they purchase from Alliance stores/outlets or buy any Alliance brands.
Collect rewards every time they reload their prepaid mobile – with Alliance mobile service providers.
Make mobile-based availing of rewards (at moment of purchase).
Rewards accumulated by the siblings are available to their mother, and can be availed when she visits her neighbourhood Alliance store.
Rewards can include discounts, prepaid, top-ups, specific product categories immediately available for collection, interchange and collection in points-based value approach, etc. </li></ul>Page 22. <br />
Consumer Segment Experiences<br />Channel Access to Pre-paid/Gift/E-Payment<br />Mobile/Web/Kiosk/dTV/Store Consumer Help Desk/Call Centre.<br />Enter/Confirm Details<br /><ul><li>Information pre-populated, where appropriate
Consumer Messages: </li></ul> “Happy Birthday Mommy, You have available to spend $200 on anything you want... A great washing machine is on offer at Alliance ABC Store, you may want to go for that.<br /> Love from K&D”.<br />SMS Received<br /><ul><li>Confirmation on pre-paid Gift and Consumer Messages sent to intended mobile user.
Rewards and Promotional Message.</li></ul>SMS Received<br /><ul><li>Pre-paid Gift and Consumer Message.
Promotional Message, including Near-Store/In-Store/at Home, context-based.</li></ul>At Store<br /><ul><li>Arrive, Browse, Select, Purchase Washing Machine (avail Pre-paid Gift at POS).
Book and Confirm delivery.</li></ul>SMS Received<br /><ul><li>Confirmation on Pre-paid Gift based Transaction.
Effectiveness of Brand-Building Marketing, Campaigns, and Segmentation.
Consumer satisfaction survey – Product/Services, Help and Care, Consumption and Experiences.</li></li></ul><li>Benefits, Risks, Measures, and Financial Models<br />Management Reporting in Measuring and Steering Corporate Growth<br />Review and Set Corporate KPIs<br />Map Corporate KPI Targets to Divisional Targets<br />Communicate KPI Targets<br />Align performance to KPI Targets<br />Gather feedback and measure performance at Corporate and Divisional Levels<br />Support improvements, Growth, Corporate Social Responsibilities; Sustainably and meaningfully reward employee performance<br />Consumer<br />Operations<br />People<br />Finance<br />Potential role here for technology support of payments for employee services (i.e. Salaries, Performance Rewards, etc.) – in the form of prepaid and “electronic wallets”.<br />Page 27. <br />
Benefits, Risks, Measures, and Financial Models<br />How is Worth perceived? And from whose perspective: Business, Consumer, Relationship?<br />Illustrate the value/wealth part of Worth – in terms of effectiveness and savings for the Business:<br />Time spend to complete a Process<br />Cost of a Process – Resources (such as People – full-time/part-time, Materials and Depreciation of Materials)<br />Quality of Products and Services (i.e. Mitigating defects within expectations)<br />What does it mean to “live with” defects within expectations, and loss of opportunities.<br />For the Business, typically, the following parameters are of interests:<br /><ul><li>Sell Price of a product or service.
Sales = Revenue = Top Line = Sum of actual Sell Price over all Products and Services Bought.
Bottom Line = Sum of all Costs (including corporate taxes, etc.)
Margin = Top Line – Bottom Line.</li></ul>Illustrate How, on the Consumer-side that Well-Being part of Worth is measured through surveys of HappYness/Satisfaction, that embodies the acknowledgement of Conveniences, Choices, Trusts, and Rewards. <br />What relative increase in the number of returning and purchasing Consumers (existing and new), and the revenue involved, due to such relative increase in Well-Being?<br />Page 28. <br />
Products, Services, Channels, Industries<br /><ul><li>Map out Products, Services, Channels, Industries (Partners) – How do these compare between “As-Is” and desired “To-Be”.
How can the reach-out strategy be delivered through these.
These will be contributing drivers for marketing and integration – e.g. when deploying Alliance-level Planning, Forecasting, Marketing and Campaigns, Rewards Management etc., throughout the Business-Consumer Enterprise.
How will these be managed, reviewed for improvements, and made meaningfully consistent to Consumer Segments and their Experiences, in developing the Alliance brand. </li></ul>Product-Service Space<br />Channel Space<br />Industry (Partner) Space<br /><ul><li>Mobile.
End-to-End Business Process Big Picture<br />With, varying details and traceability between Process Views, in-placed, the End-to-End Business Processes allows stakeholders to grasp understanding of Organisational Processes “As-Is”, and opportunities for process improvement and designing the “To-Be”. For example, Business processes impacted, due to multi-channel needs, in transforming a “brick and mortar” business, include, Planning, and Business-Supplier Collaboration, through to Differentiated Promotions and Pricing processes.<br />
A Channel’s “Manage Selling” Business Process<br />Note - Platform would need to provide capabilities:<br />Segmentation and predictive analytics for targeted campaigns with information delivered in real-time<br />Inter-Alliance Bidding, Negotiation, and Approval, for placing content, supporting the promotions/related messages.<br />Placement Delivery to Channels:<br /><ul><li>In-Store/Near-Store.
What Consumer Segments</li></ul>Note - Consumer Details could be pre-populated.<br />Note – Would need a ready pervasive device – such as Mobile - as a Channel and aid to Shopping in Store.<br />Note: Individual Processes as part of the Enterprise–Level Business Processes, are consistently defined, change managed, and communicated – providing a reference for shaping the performance and improvement of the Organisation, End-to-End. <br />Page 31. <br />
Organisational Roles and “RACI”<br />Organisational Roles and RACI are designed from perspective of processes to be undertaken.<br /><ul><li>What Roles, necessary from a process-oriented view? How are these grouped and managed in terms of units, departments, and services?
What dependency on other roles and who are “Responsible”, “Accountable”, “Consulted”, “Informed” (i.e. RACI)?
What outcomes between roles and how are these communicated?
What time-cost-quality effectiveness of flow of the work, against enterprise-level process expectations (i.e. Plan-Buy-Make-Move-Sell-Service-Support)?
What Key Performance Indicators, Performance Measurement and Rewards processes and what Governance and Management of these, are in-placed?
How are effectiveness of the Organisation and Roles monitored, improved, and changes managed?
How are Consumer-centric value and worth-creation mindset embedded in organisational culture and what management and explicit training to “stickiness”, deployed?
How are all the above be consistently managed, against a backdrop of the wider Alliance coalition and strategy?</li></ul>Page 32. <br />
Organisational Roles and “RACI”<br /><ul><li>Adopt approach to consistently Model, Re-factor, and Re-Use, in defining Role, RACI, Process, and Workflow.
Consider Hierarchical, Matrix, Service-based Relationships and how this is managed, reviewed, improved, and scaling to needs.
Consider also Time, Work-Volume, Cost, Quality Expectations.
Consider what Corporate Belief Systems and Meaningful Values, to consistently shape, influence, and motivate the multi-channel multi-partner business-consumer enterprise. </li></ul>Alliance Manager<br />Industry A<br />Industry B<br />Partner A.1<br />Partner A.2<br />Partner B.1<br />Role A.1.1<br />Role A.1.2<br />Role A.2.1<br />Role B.1.1<br />Role B.1.2<br />Role and RACI Deployment Definition Library<br />Strategy<br />Library<br />KPI/ Measures <br />Library<br />Process and Workflow Deployment DefinitionLibrary<br />Contraints<br />Library<br />Document/ Artefacts<br />Library<br />Risks and Criticality <br />Library<br />Benefits<br />Library<br />Time/Volume/ Cost/Quality<br />Library<br />Training and SOP<br />Library<br />Technology Design, and Deployment<br />Library<br />Page 33. <br />
Requirements – Functional <br />“What functions will technology systems deliver”<br />Requirements , both functional and non-functional, for Technology enablement of Business Processes, are documented and referred to, when selecting Technology Vendors. See also section on Technology Solutioning - Vendor Selection.<br />Page 34. <br />
Requirements – Non-Functional <br />“How well the system performs the functions”<br /><ul><li>WAN Connectivity
Real-time, 24x7, High Resilience, High Performance.
Hardware - Number and Types of CPU, Memory, Storage and Network Hardware.
Software/OS - Type of Software and Deployment Platform.
Database - Types and what applications running on these, and database optimisation and maintenance.
Speed - Amount of time to complete task/process.</li></ul>Page 35. <br />
Requirements – Non-Functional <br />“How well the system performs the functions”: OTHERS (Continued)<br /><ul><li>Safety Critical - Risk of possible damage.
Accuracy - Desired accuracy of generated results
Up-time - Availability of product or service.
Capacity - Volume of data being handled/stored.
Scalability - Growth in usage that product must be able to handle.
Operational Support - Management and Levels of problem resolution (L1/L2/L3).
Ease of Change - Time necessary to make specified changes.
Maintainability - Release Cycle schedule and form.
Data Integrity - Policies and lifecycle management of Data.
Audit - Auditing and logging technology operations.
Cultural/Global Consideration - Product acceptability for global markets.
Language/Multi-Lingual - Support for languages and any related user interface needs.
Legal - Country/State-based legal requirements that apply to product, eg. taxation rates.
Compliance to Standards - National/International/Corporate standards applicable to product, eg. UI Design Policies, GS1, ARTS, etc.</li></ul>Page 36. <br />
Requirements – Logical Modelling with Use Cases<br />Use Case Technique provides a logical view of requirements, where the collective use cases (the named ovals) can be refined further in its description, to achieve benefits of re-using and re-factoring amongst the use cases.<br />Actor: User<br />Pre-Condition: <br />User is connected on-line to System<br />Post-Condition: <br />Profile is created and updated.<br />Basic Steps:<br />1. User provides an identifier – mobile#, loyalty card#, or credit card#.<br />2. System authenticates and populates the fields of the profile – Name, Address, Date of Birth, Contact Number.<br />3. System prompts User to verify and amend as appropriate.<br />4. User verifies, amends as appropriate, and confirms updated profile.<br />
Technology Design – IT Processes<br />IT ways of working are equally charted out in the Architecture of the Business-Consumer Enterprise.<br />Key Traits:<br /><ul><li>Plan
Technology Design – Principles<br />SOA : We will reuse, first-time and every-time, any technology components that are compliant to SOA, Service-Oriented Architecture. This enables us to perform data exchange, application development, and integration, in a much effective manner. For example, POS developed to SOA enables better communication with a centrally architecturedpromotions engine and services.<br />Lean Architecture : In this architecture for the Store/front-end, we will ensure that server-based processing is carried out centrally or away from the Store, in a manner that Store devices, e.g. POS, can still be fully functional.<br />Scalable : We will design scalable systems so that they can handle growing amounts of work in an effective manner. For example, a scalable POS, is one that allows its database resources be increased in an effective manner to deal with high volumes of information.<br />Inherently Secure : We will design systems to be inherently secure in order to mitigate numerous vulnerabilities and threats against confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.<br />Resilient : Resilience will be designed across people-process-technology, in order for the systems to quickly return to normality after encountering trouble. For example, a resilient magnetic card swiping process at POS, requires support team availability, data backup, and risks mitigation to in-store practices, such as, keeping magnetic materials away from checkout areas.<br />Page 39. <br />
Technology Design – Principles<br />High Availability : We will ensure that systems are highly available for users to access to, whether to submit new work, update existing work, or collect the results of previous work. For example, POS is a business-critical system. It needs to be available at least 99.99% of the time. (This is equivalent to a down-time of 1 min a week). <br />Performance : This refers to behaviour of systems and what makes them fast or slow. We will ensure that processes and systems are optimised to deliver to a performance expectation. For example, POS is expected to perform an average checkout time of 3 minutes per customer (for an average basket of 30 items). Processes and systems related to POS will need to be optimized to deliver to this expectation.<br />Data Management : Ownership of Master Data is with a single authoritative body, in order to ensure consistency and maintenance of confidentiality, integrity, security, and availability of data. Using open, accessible, and adaptable database management systems, we provide a centralized data management services of authentication, search, creation, update, read, archival, delete. <br />XML : By designing systems to the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard, structure and content of data, are explicitly described and designed so as to be independent of each other, and be easily and consistently shared/consumed between different applications, integration layers, and organizations.<br />Page 40. <br />
Technology Design – Principles<br />UML : By designing systems in Unified Modelling Language (UML), our models of systems are explicitly captured; consistently interpreted and communicated across various stakeholders – Business, Design, Build, Operations; and enables efficient applications and integration development activities. <br />Browser-based : Browser-based systems work on all operating systems and provide a familiar and consistent “look and feel” to users. For example, a Browser-based POS system, makes it easy and familiar for Cashiers to select options (such as, drop-down list and menus) and trigger a system process. Training for Cashiers on the Browser-based POS becomes much more effective. <br />Web 2.0 : This is the Internet, made more robust and secure. Using the richer functionality of Web 2.0, we can compose new applications that offer better collaboration over the web for users.<br />Java : We can develop an application in the Open Source Java language once, and run the same application on any devices – Kiosk, Mobile, PDA, POS, PC, etc. The devices' operating systems today, are Java-friendly.<br />Delivery Model : “Buy” is preferred to “Build”, on condition of clear vision, processes, requirements, IP ownership, and on the basis of the following economics-driven criteria: i) support and maintenance, ii) design and architectural compliance, iii) level of open-source, iv) Cloud Computing compliance, v) software development life-cycle practices vi) technology roadmap.<br />Page 41. <br />
Payment Schedule and Charges.</li></li></ul><li>Technology Design with “Sequence Diagram”<br />Logical illustration of sequence of activities and flows between POS-Client systems and the Platform.<br />Page 43. <br />
Applications Architecture<br />Note: Logical Applications and their Interfaces (and connecting lines) are first charted out. The subsequent stage of modelling to a physical abstraction, would include the systems and interfaces being named and specified.<br />Page 44. <br />
Applications Architecture<br />Predictive Analytics<br /><ul><li>Generic Goal: Supports and Influences Retailing and Consumption Space.
Functionality for providing actionable insights off Predictive Analytics, is an important facet in any Business-Consumer Applications Architecture.
Inputs to Analytics, from static and dynamic data: Consumer Segment lifecycle, Demographic, Psychographic, Basket Volume and Value, Presence and Experiential-based, and Consumer Relationship Management lifecycle.
Analysis done on data, with “Consumer Master Data” as universal reference system.
Computational processing and provision of results, done in real-time or otherwise, to following key recipient systems (which themselves provide results/information to other systems, such as supply chain, as part of the end-to-end business work-flow and feedback):
Planning of Products and Services - Category Planning and Demand Forecasting.
Marketing, Campaigns, and Messaging (e.g. Timely, Personalised, Contextual).
Retail Banking Products and Services in support of wider choices.
Rewards, Loyalty Management, across Channels and Partners.</li></ul>“Great Benefits, Great Care” <br />Mobile Message for Khrish!!!<br />Khrish, your Shopping Basket Value is currently INR500, at Alliance Store ABC. <br />As a frequent shopper with us, if you shop beyond INR750 while in-Store now, you will be uniquely rewarded with a top-up discount of 5% in value!!!<br />Page 45. <br />
Applications Architecture<br />Predictive Analytics<br />“What” are the viable Customer Segments ?<br />“Why” these Segments ? <br />“How” to better serve these Segments profitably ?<br />Consumer & Transactional Data<br />Analytics Approach<br />Possible Insights<br /><ul><li>65% of frequent visitors buy accessories vs. only 35% of infrequent visitors
80% of high spenders spend more on women’s wear compared to men’s wear
65% of single men between 20 – 35 buy Men’s Casuals
27% of married women between 20 – 35 buy Women’s western
If “LCD TV” & “Furniture” then “Home and Travel Insurances”
High Performance.</li></ul>Gas/Petrol Agencies<br />Hotel/ Entertainment<br />Education/ Hospital Services<br />Acquirer-Issuer Processor<br />Railways/ Buses/ Air<br />Manufacturers/ Raw Material Suppliers<br />Media Owner and LOBs<br />Gateway<br /><ul><li>Orchestrate Brokering and Processing of Payments.
Interfaces with EAI in providing/receiving services with internal/external applications, such as Loyalty, Analytics, Rewards, and Channel Management.</li></ul>Telcos/ Utilities<br />Channel Manager<br />EAI<br />WAN/MPLS<br />Website, Mobile, POS, DTV, Kiosks, ATM, IP Devices.<br />Transceiver<br />Business-Consumer Touch-points<br />Mobile<br />Page 48. <br />
Data Architecture<br />Services for Data Lifecycle Management (authenticate-search-create-read-update-archive-delete) can be initiated at anytime to meet needs of information provision and flow, within the Business-Consumer Enterprise. Maintenance of Integrity of Data and its Model is critical in Multi-Channel, Multi-Partner Physical-Digital Retailing – an environment of multiple expectations, viewpoints, requirements, and changes. <br />Example Business Scenarios and Needs on Data concerning Consumers and associated Rewards:<br /><ul><li>Targeted Campaigns are designed at individual, household, community level and to specific Consumer segments. E.g. Railway commuters (Consumer of a service) of a certain demographic, psychographic segment, are given a targeted offer of rewards.
Consumer avails rewards and earns points when purchasing, Railway tickets. Points can be shared with his/her household, in a collective “pot” of points, enticingly redeemable at outlets of the Alliance.
During a “care call”, Consumer (identified as) belonging to a viable and “profitable” segment, can be equally engaged for targeted direct-selling. Besides Credit/Debit Cards, prior collected rewards can be availed in completing a purchase off direct-selling.
Consumer phones in Call-Centre. Personal details are verified, and his/her query on cumulative rewards (individual, household, community), is resolved.
Consumer presents a Mobile-based Payment at POS, this is validated, and any discounts approved and rewards availed. Rewards are further earned on completion of Purchase, and a targeted web/on-line up-sell offer is made to the Consumer via SMS and E-Mail.
Consumer goods return workflow can be initiated via his/her Mobile: Triggering updates and timely orchestration of processing in a range of back-end systems: verify consumer, purchase details, and pertinent rewards, as well as inventory, logistics (collection services), distribution (storage) and relationship management.</li></ul>During a “care call”, customer with viable and “profitable” segment, can be equally engaged for targeted direct-selling. Besides Credit Cards, Points can be usdfor the transaction too.<br />
Define and maintain systems data lifecycle services for Authenticating, Searching, Creating, Reading, Updating, Archiving, Deleting Consumer Data.
Ensure that services are available at enterprise-level, and their performance robust.
Business Applications across the Enterprise, such as POS, Kiosk, Mobile, Inbound/Outbound Management, make a Service Call (service discovery) for the Data Lifecycle Services.
A data change history is updated. Results of the Service Call is returned to the Application.
Conditional workflow and validation rules can apply to Service Calls – e.g. can only delete data, after its archival.</li></ul>Page 50. <br />
Data Architecture<br />Illustration of Data Model – with “Class Diagram”<br />Note: Classmodelling technique provides a view of key concepts in the business, such as Consumer and Order, and how these concepts and their roles, inter-relate to each other – it helps Technology Designers to optimise the design (supports refactoring and reusability) of Data and Applications.<br />Page 51. <br />
Data Architecture<br />Applications<br />Enterprise Applications Integration<br />Master Data Life-cycle Management and Services: Authenticate, Search, Create, Read, Update, Archive, Delete<br />Item: Product, Service<br />Consumer<br />Employee<br />Vendor<br />Sites – Store, DC, Office<br />Tax<br />Price<br />Integrity of centralised Master Data, such as that of the Consumer, is maintained throughout the data life-cycle, in a complex environment of multiple Consumer touch-points, i.e. across Channels and Partners.<br />Page 52. <br />
Information Architecture and UI Design<br />Illustration for Mobile Channel Device<br />What Design Needs?<br /><ul><li>Deliver to Consumer Expectations
Text, Voice, Picture, Video, Music, Web, Touch-screen, Battery, Near Field Communication, Bluetooth, RFID, Recognition and Semantics, Storage and Communication Ports, Network Protocol 3G/4G, and Bit-rate.
Nanotechnology, composites and wireless applications in: enhancing power source, bandwidth, and processor effectiveness; indentations, emissivity, personalization; size, weight, molding technology, …</li></ul>Page 54. <br />
Information Architecture and UI Design<br />Conceptualise, at a High Level, the Information Delivery and UI Scenario, against Key Requirements.<br />Hey, Rahman. What’s the weather like in Thailand… <br />I’m in Bangalore… now doing late night shopping… <br />It’s an Alliance Store, just like the one in my home-town Kochi…<br />So, what do you think of this DVD?... <br />I can use all those Rewards collected, when I last visited Thailand, and avail them here…<br />
Security, Integration, Infrastructure<br />SECURITY<br /><ul><li>Monitor, Prevent and Remedy Denial of Service, and all forms of Threats to Systems.
Safeguard Critical Business Data including Consumer Master Data.
Ensure Policy/Regulatory Compliance, including Privacy, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Information Access and Availability.
Verify Integrity of messages and flows between systems
Raise Exceptions.</li></ul>Inclusive Multi-Channel System<br /><ul><li>Bricks & Mortar, E-Commerce, M-Commerce, Social Network, ATM, Kiosk, dTV, Clientelling/Face:Face with PDA, Inbound-Outbound and Store Help Desk Interfaces, IP Tele-Conference.</li></ul>CONNECTIVITY STORE-CENTRAL<br /><ul><li>24X7.
Cloud Computing Delivery Model, with Back-up and Redundancy Management.
Management and Charging Model - Subscription or “Pay-To-Usage”.
Payment Orchestration and Gateway – Charging for Transactions.
Service Level Agreement.</li></ul>Note: Infrastructure abstraction (at logical and physical level) would include detailed specifications of environment-centric systems – Server Hardware/Software, OS, Processor, Speed, Performance, Resilience, Redundancy, Volumetric/Load Requirement, Storage Sizes and Types, Bandwidth, etc.<br />
Technology Realisation, Training, Deployment<br />Technology Realisation includes: Environments and Ways of Working, around Development and/or Configurations (Code Generations), Systems Tests and User Acceptance (Requirements-centric Tests).<br />Training needs are identified at an early stage – in terms of training strategy, process, organisational support, methods in engaging users, measures of success, etc.<br />Stakeholders to Training and supporting care may include the Consumers.<br />Training should be engaged at the Change Management level – as the goal of training is not just to empower the user, but also to ensure that new ways of working are truly sticky.<br />Training materials should always be complemented with illustrations that are meaningful and contextual to real situations, including guides to dealing with exceptions, else the materials will quickly render themselves, useless to users.<br />Expert Users should be identified and be available for sustaining and supporting Training.<br />Deployment includes production set-up, monitoring, maintenance, support (including production environment issue resolutions), trend-based pre-emptive resolutions, and needs capture.<br />As an engagement interface, it should be seen as a relationship management activity – where empathy of user and consumer experience becomes paramount. <br />Page 57. <br />
Managing Programme and Projects<br />Plan, Monitor, Communicate, Motivate, Influence, Manage Change, Measure, Deliver, Celebrate<br />Clarity of Corporate/ Programme Vision and Objectives<br />Stakeholders<br />Namaste Team… We go that way!!!<br />Portfolio Change Management<br />Project 1<br />Scope, Resource, Time, Quality, Risk<br />Project 2<br />Scope, Resource, Time, Quality, Risk<br />Business Case<br />Project 3<br />Scope, Resource, Time, Quality, Risk<br />Scope: What will be covered and not covered<br />Resource: What can be used to meet the scope.<br />Time: What tasks are to be undertaken and when.<br />Quality: Spread or deviation allowed from a desired expectation.<br />Risk: defines in advance what may happen to drive the plan off course, and what will be done to recover the situation.<br />Organisation Change Management and Training:<br />Ensure Stickiness to new ways of working – around Process, People, Technology<br />
Managing Change<br />Change need is real – Illustrate simple compelling business problem<br />Business Sponsor. Change User Champion. Users. Change Facilitator.<br />Motivate and Mobilise the Hearts: Celebrate short-term wins, as a team.<br />Form an inclusive governance-structure. Change is to be owned by the People<br />Up-heave the emotions in change as a new ways of working, owned by the People<br />Communicate. Communicate. Communicate. <br />Leverage a balance of cognition and meaningful, heart-felt emotions<br />Communicate vision in a “Once upon a time, …” stories and journeys<br />Describe and train users on new processes and technology, available support and measures of success, and what it means to People and Organisation<br />“...ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.” <br />John F. Kennedy, 1961.<br />Allow people to express their feelings. Empathise with these. Align tone of discussion; permeate positivity all the time<br />Motivate and Mobilise the Hearts: Share A Quote A Day. Team makes time to reflect and discuss. <br />Meaningful story-telling with characters representing Consumer, People, Organisation.<br />
Review and Develop Insights to Worth-Creation<br />Perform an Inclusive Review<br />across Architecture Viewpoints and Inter-relationships<br />Attain clarity of overall Worth, Vision, Objectives<br />“Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.”<br />Albert Einstein<br />Higher Worth<br />(Wealth + Well-being)?<br />Impacts to Consumer Behavior and Consumption Space?<br />Impacts to Business?<br />Holistic and Inclusive?<br />Sustainable?<br />Meaningful?<br />Plan, Monitor, Communicate, Motivate, Influence, Manage Change, Measure, Deliver, Celebrate<br />Update Change and Versioning in Architecture <br />Page 60. <br />
Architecture Organisation and Governance<br />MD/ CEO<br />Board<br />Chief EA<br />Chief Technology<br />Chief Human Resources<br />Chief Marketing<br />Chief Business Development<br />Chief Operations<br />Chief Consumer Relationship<br />Enterprise Architect<br />Psychologist/ Anthropologist/ Sociologist<br />Solutions Integrity<br />Strategist<br />Change and Programme Manager<br />Business Architect & Business Analyst<br />Office of Enterprise Architecture, is essentially an Office of the MD or the CEO. It is a strategic-centric secretariat organisation, delivering value and worth-creating visions, objectives, deployments, and changes. Holistic and inclusive, in its principles, Office of Enterprise Architecture, collaborates and liaises with business and technology roles, to collectively develop and manage architecture of a business-consumer enterprise. <br />
User Roles Associated To Architecture<br />Illustration of User Roles associated to Architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise<br />Board/ MD/ CEO<br />Heads – EA, Business, Technology<br />Project Charter & Plan<br />Change Log<br />Consumer Champion<br />Consumers, Socio-Cultural Behaviors, and Needs<br />Policy, Principles and Guidance<br />Issues Log<br />Risks Log<br />Strategies, Consumer Segment Journeys, and Constraints<br />Project Management/ Change Lead<br />Psychologist<br />Project Change Log<br />Benefits, Risks, Measures, and Financial Models<br />Enterprise Integrity Reviewer<br />Requirements Analyst<br />Products, Services, Channels, and Partners<br />Channel and Alliance Strategist<br />Solutions Architect/ Technology Architect<br />Business Processes<br />- Process Architecture and Management<br />Specs – Systems and Training-related<br />Organisational Roles and “RACI”<br />Business Development Manager<br />Development Lead<br />Realised Systems & Infrastructure<br />Tests & UAT<br />Requirements<br />- Functional and Non-Functional<br />Issue Resolution & Maintenance<br />Deploy Training<br />Release & Monitoring<br />SOPs<br />Organisational Change and Programme Lead<br />Test/ UAT/ Release Lead<br />Governance, Review, Development of Insights to Worth- Creation<br />Technology Design (Logical and Physical)<br />Change & <br />Programme Management<br />Authentication of Role-based Access, based on:<br /><ul><li>Modes (Read-Write-Delete-Archive-Versioning).
Levels of Abstraction (Conceptual-Logical-Physical).</li></ul>Technology Realisation, Training, and Deployment<br />Business Architect/ Business Analyst<br />Training Lead<br />
Discussions<br /><ul><li>The strategic and inclusive Enterprise Architecture (as a Framework), is not directed to any specific industry. The illustrations used are based on views relating to the emerging industry of multi-channel multi-partner, physical-digital retail.
Change management pertinent to adopting an inclusive Enterprise Architecture:
Business Analyst role would be part of Office of Enterprise Architecture, while Requirements Analyst role would continue to remain in IT. This is compared to existing/traditional practises, whereby both roles are combined and accountable to the Technology Division.
Similarly, Programme and Change Managers are resources within Office of Enterprise Architecture. However, Project Managers are resources of Divisional/Project Environments, such as IT-based Projects.
“RACI” and Performance Measurements of all Enterprise Architecture-related roles, services, and involvements, will need to be defined.
At a high level, Enterprise Architecture could be measured in terms of % improvement in business time-to-market, cost-effectiveness, quality of products and services, business revenue, and consumer satisfaction. That is, Office of Enterprise Architecture would be reflecting the CEO’s measures, but possibly to frame these to the whole challenge of Value and Worth-creation.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based techniques and automation, can play an additional role as part of enriching an inclusive Enterprise Architecture.
Here, it is envisioned, that the structure and services of software agents can support elicitation, persona-based constraints, population and development of viewpoints in the Enterprise Architecture.
Ontology-based specifications (semantics) and semiotics, will be important requirements in such automation of information discovery and communication. </li></li></ul><li>“A man may die, nations may rise and fall, but an idea lives on”<br />John F. Kennedy<br />Summary<br />Consumer-Centric Model<br />Architecture of a Business-Consumer Enterprise<br />Consumers, Socio-Cultural Behaviors, and Needs<br />Strategies, Consumer Segment Journeys, and Constraints<br />Project Charter & Plan<br />Change Log<br />Benefits, Risks, Measures, and Financial Models<br />Policy, Principles and Guidance<br />Issues Log<br />Risks Log<br />Products, Services, Channels, and Partners<br />Project Change Log<br />As Mindset and Philosophy, that drive and underpin the Architecture of Business-Consumer Enterprise<br />Business Processes<br />- Process Architecture and Management<br />Organisational Roles and “RACI”<br />Requirements<br />- Functional and Non-Functional<br />Governance, Review, Development of Insights to Worth- Creation<br />Technology Design (Logical and Physical)<br />Change & <br />Programme Management<br />Specs – Systems and Training-related<br />Technology Realisation, Training, and Deployment<br />Realised Systems & Infrastructure<br />Tests & UAT<br />Issue Resolution & Maintenance<br />Deploy Training<br />Release & Monitoring<br />SOPs<br />Page 64. <br />
References<br />Alderfer, C. P. (1969). "An empirical test of a new theory of human needs". Organizational Behavior and Human Performance Volume 4, Issue 2, May 1969, Pages 142-175.<br />Biyani, K., Basishya, D. (2007). "It Happened In India: The story of Pantaloons, Big Bazaar, Central and the Great Indian Consumer." ISBN_PB: 9788129111371.<br />Frederick, H. (1959). "The Motivation to Work". New York: John Wiley and Sons.<br />Fretwell, L., Stine, J. (2011). "Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group, Point of View: My Shopping, My Way". National Retail Federation 100th Annual Convention and Expo. New York. USA.<br />Levitin, D. J. ed. (2002). “Foundations of Cognitive Psychology - Core Readings”. The MIT Press.<br />Maslow, A. (1970). “Motivation and Personality (2nd ed.)”. New York: Harper & Row.<br />Maslow, A. H. (1943). “A Theory of Human Motivation”. Psychological Review 50, 370-96.<br />Mokhtar, R. (2011). “The Consumer Is The Business”. http://www.slideshare.net/rahmanmokhtar/<br />Mokhtar, R. (2011). Commentaries at LinkedinGroups: Multi-Channel Business, Retail Professional International Network, NationalRetailFederation, European Retail Group Consumer Electronics, Harvard Business Review, OrganisationalChangePractitioners, Societology, ConsumerAnthropology, Enterprise Architecture Network, Digital Marketing, E-Commerce Network, Pre-PaidProfessionals, Mobile PaymentStrategy, ThePsychology of Creativity.<br />Mokhtar, R. (2011). “Consumer-Centric Enterprise Architecture: WithExampleDeploymentScenario in Multi-ChannelMulti-PartnerPhysical-Digital Retail”. Bangkok, Thailand.<br />Mokhtar, R. (2010). “Corporate Governance, Change and Programme Management in support of PLC Incorporation”. Touch Group Holdings, Malaysia. <br />Mokhtar, R. (2009). “Programme and Architecture for Digital Marketing and Connected Commerce”. Cisco, USA.<br />
References<br />Mokhtar, R. (2008). “Future Group One-by-One Programme: Consumer Lock-in Strategy, Design, and Solutioning”. Mumbai, India.<br />Mokhtar, R. (2007). “Delivering Awesome Consumer Experiences, by Design”. International Business Process Management Conference. Singapore.<br />Mokhtar, R., Stine, J. (2007). “Next Generation Consumer-Centric Enterprise Architecture”. Next Generation Architecture Workshop. San Jose, California, USA.<br />Mokhtar, R., et al. (2005). “Tesco Simpler Office Programme”. Tesco PLC, UK <br />Mokhtar, R. (2004). “Tesco Mapping and Off-Shoring Business Processes”. Tesco PLC, UK. <br />Mokhtar, R. (2003). “Tesco Next Generation Clubcard Loyalty Programme – Business Processes”. Tesco PLC, UK.<br />Mokhtar, R. (2002). “Tesco Solutions Framework”. Tesco PLC, UK.<br />Mokhtar, R. (2001). “Strategy-Processes-ECommerce Implementation at Ocado.com, with Intershop’sEnfinity Platform”. Intershop, UK. <br />Mokhtar, R., et al. (2000). “A Framework for Engineering Enterprise Agility”. Third International Symposium on Tools and Methods for Competitive Engineering, TMCE 2000, Delft, The Netherlands. P235-248.<br />Seijts, G. H., Crim, D. (2009). “The combined effects of goal type and cognitive ability on performance”. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 343-352. <br />Seijts, G. H., Gandz, J. (2009). “One-teaming: Gaining a competitive edge through rapid team formation and deployment”. Organizational Dynamics, 38, 261-269.<br />Zaltman, G., Zaltman, L. (2008). “Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About the Minds of Consumers”. Harvard Business School Press. <br />Zaltman, G. (2003). “How Customers Think: Essential Insights into the Mind of the Markets”. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.<br />
About the Author<br />RahmanMokhtarhas over 26 years of career experience, in various capacities of leadership-strategy-processes-technologyimplementation-business change and programme management, with global players, corporations, and clients:<br /><ul><li>Governance-Level Advisory on Retail Strategy-Processes-Technology Implementation, Al-Tayer Group (UAE).
Corporate Advisor (Corporate Governance & Strategic Acquisition) to Board of Directors, Touch Group Holdings (Malaysia).
Board-level Advisory on Strategic Business Planning and Leadership Recruitment (at CEO and Business Heads-level), Reliance Retail (India).
Director-Level Advisory on End-to-End Business-Technology Architecture for Digital Marketing and Connected Commerce, Cisco (USA).
SVP and Chief Business and Technology Design, Future Group (India).
VP Business Process Management, Reliance Retail (India).
Lead Business Architect and Operations Development, Tesco (UK & Thailand).
Senior Lecturer and Researcher – E-Commerce, Enterprise Re-Engineering, Ontologies and Computational Semantics - Liverpool John Moores University (UK).</li></ul> <br />A British-educated Nuclear Physicist and Computer Scientist by formal studies and research, Rahmanbrings to his “audience and consumers”, fresh, innovative and insightful approach to designing and deploying business change and the “incidental” role (as he describes it) of technology. <br />In his life-journey, he passionately implores others to think and reflect, in a holistic manner, on “why we do things, the way we do them today, and what should tomorrow be”, in designing meaningful, sustainable, worth-creation business. <br />He maintains professional interests in a range of topics, including:<br /><ul><li>Deployment of Consumer Lock-in Strategy and Loyalty in Multi-Channel, Multi-Partner Physical-Digital Retail.
Balancing Cognition and Emotions in Delivering Sustainable Organisational Change.
Defining Worth, as a composite of Wealth and Well-Being, in Econometrics.
Nanotechnology applications in energy generation.</li></ul>Rahman contributes to social network discussions at Linkedin Groups: <br />: Multi-Channel Business (Rahman is the Group Owner), Harvard Business Review, Societology, Consumer Anthropology, The Anthropology Network, Enterprise Architecture Network, Retail Professional International Network, National Retail Federation, European Retail Group Consumer Electronics, Organisational Change Practitioners, Digital Marketing, E-Commerce Network, Pre-Paid Professionals, Mobile Payment Strategy, The Psychology of Creativity.<br />Rahman resides in Thailand, with hiswife and child. <br />