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Adjustment, conflict and frustration

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Adjustment, conflict and frustration

  1. 1. Razieh Rahmani Scholar student in Education University of Mysore, India
  2. 2. Adjustment • Process by which living organism maintain a balance between it’s need and the circumstances • Continual process by which a person varies his behavior to produce a more harmonious relationship between himself and environment • Psychological survival in much the same way as biologist uses the term adaptation to describe physiological survival
  3. 3. • Adjustment is a continual process by which a person varies his behavior to produce a more harmonious relationship between himself and environment( Gates, Jersild and others, 1970) Meaning of adjustment
  4. 4.  Adjustment is a continual is the outcome of the individual’s attempt to deal with stress and meet his needs also his efforts to maintain harmonious relationships with the environment.  Psychological survival in much the same ways as biologist uses the term adaption to describe physiological survival( vonhaller, 1970)
  5. 5. • Adjustment is a process that takes us to lead a happy and well- contented life • It helps us to keeping balance between our needs and the capacity to meet these needs. • Adjustment persuades us to change our way of life according to the demands of the situation. • Adjustment gives us strength and ability to bring desirable changes in the conditions of our environment
  6. 6. Characteristics of Adjustment • Adjustment helps us to keep balance between ours needs and the capacity to meet these needs. • Adjustment implies changes in our thinking and way to the demands of the situation • It gives us ability and strength to desirable changes in the state of our environment • Adjustment is phsychosociological as well as psychological • It is multidimensional • Adjustment learn us happiness and contentment.
  7. 7. Well Adjusted person • Free from physical ailment. • Psychological comfort. No psychological diseases or depression, anxiety • Social acceptance • Self understanding about assets & limitation • Self respect • Balanced level of aspiration • Strong will power • Healthy attitude and interest • Emotionally controlled • Intellectually developed
  8. 8. Well Adjusted Person • Physically adjusted • Awareness of one’s own strengths and limitation • Flexibility of his behavior • Satisfaction of the basic needs • Does not process critical or fault- finding attitude • Capable of struggling with odd circumstances • Realistic perception of the world • Feeling at home with his surroundings • An adequate philosophy of life
  9. 9. Maladjustment • Maladjustment is degree of disharmony between the individual and the environment. Mal adjustment results from frustration and conflict. • Individual struggles between his abilities and capacities and his environment. • It indicates the failure of the individual to adjust to a situation.
  10. 10. • Nervous disorders : fear, anxiety, phobia • Habits disorders: speech, asleep • Behavioral disorders: unmanageable, aggression, truancy • Educational: backwardness, indiscipline, concentration, inability to keep jobs. Symptoms' of Maladjustment
  11. 11. Process of Adjustment • An adjustment mechanism is a device used by the individual to achieve satisfaction of the need indirectly. This helps reducing tension and stress in maintaining self respect. • Compensation: individual attempt s to cover up his weakness in one area by exhibiting his strengths • Identification: individual attempts to identify himself with successful person.to hide his own failures, a student identify himself with his father and talk about his success.
  12. 12. • Rationalization: shifting of responsibility for • Projection: tendency to push out upon another person ones’ own unrelated, frustrated ambitions. • Day- dreaming: imaginative fulfilment of life Process of Adjustment
  13. 13. Adjustment program in school • Achievement testing, interpretation, follow-up • Diagnostic testing • Identification & analysis of adjustment behavior. • Varity in instructional methods. • Individual & remedial work. • counselling
  14. 14. Spheres of Adjustment • Personal adjustment - Adjustment to physical development and health - Adjustment with regard to mental development and health - Emotional adjustment - Sexual adjustment - Adjustment with raspectn to the individual needs
  15. 15. • Social adjustment - Home and family adjustment - Adjustment with friends and relatives - Adjustment with neighbors and other members of the community Spheres of Adjustment
  16. 16. Occupational adjustment • No regret about the choice of work or occupation • Demonstrate of job satisfaction through the performance of duties • Satisfied with working condition • Get along well wit colleagues and official world • Positive attitude towards the work • Engaging in bringing necessary improvement and modification in in work
  17. 17. Frustration • Condition of being thwarted in the satisfaction of motive • Emotional tension resulting from the blocking of a desire or need • The feeling of being blocked thwarted in satisfying a need of attaining a goal that individual perceives as significant • Frustration accurse when goals is blocked • Frustration lies both in the individual and his environment. • Frustration results from in mental tension.
  18. 18. Causes of frustration 1- External or environmental - Natural calamities: - Social factors: norms and rules of society - Economics factors: poverty, wage… - corruption
  19. 19. 2- internal or personal • Physical defeat and abnormality • Mental deficiency • Conflicting desires • Moral values • High level of aspiration Causes of frustration
  20. 20. Conflict • A painful emotional state which result from a tension between opposed and contradictory • A stage of tension brought by the presence in the individual of two or more opposing desires. • State of affairs in which two or more incompatible behavior trends are evoked that cannot be satisfied fully at the same time • Conflict is usually a clash of motives.
  21. 21. Type of conflict • Approach- approach conflict
  22. 22. Type of conflict • Avoidance avoidance conflict
  23. 23. Type of conflict • Approach- aviodance conflict
  24. 24. Defense or mental mechanism • Tend to resort to certain mechanism for defending our inadequacies of anxiety • When psychological equilibrium is threated by severe emotional trauma, the mind resorts to a variety of protective subterfuges and debtors.(page, 1976) • A device resorted to in order to achieve an indirect satisfaction of a need so that tension will be reduced and self respect maintained.(carroll, 1967)
  25. 25. Defense or mental mechanism • Certain pattern of behavior that are employed for protection against threat or anxiety.( arkoff, 1968) • A strategy, unconsciously utilized, that serves to protect the ego from anxiety( Davison, 1978)
  26. 26. • They are devices in the form of a certain pattern of behavior. • Provide protection against whatever threatens our ego or self- steam • They help us defended ourselves from possible injury in delicate moments. Nature of Defense mechanism
  27. 27. Important defense mechanism Rationalization - Trying to give socially acceptable reason for unacceptable social behavior - Interpreting behavior in acceptable and reasonable way. - a student might blame a poor exam score on the instructor rather than his or her lack of preparation.
  28. 28. Projection - Taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. - example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you. - Projection works by allowing the expression of the desire or impulse, but in a way that the ego cannot recognize, therefore reducing anxiety Important defense mechanism
  29. 29. Denial • describe situations in which people seem unable to face reality or admit an obvious truth (i.e. "He's in denial."). • Denial functions to protect from things that the individual cannot cope with. While this may save us from anxiety or pain, denial also requires a substantial investment of energy. Because of this, other defenses are also used to keep these unacceptable feelings from consciousness. • We refuse to accept reality because it hurts, or we don’t like it Important defense mechanism
  30. 30. Repression - Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. - these memories don't just disappear; they continue to influence our behavior. For example, a person who has repressed memories of abuse suffered as a child may later have difficulty forming relationships. Important defense mechanism
  31. 31. Regression - Going backward or returning to the past - Retreat for an individual from the complexities of the present to an earlier and simpler form of behavior or a more fortunate and pleasant period of life - Example: a man failing in his love fair resort to regression when he exhibits his love for a doll. • Our fear to act like adults and our wish to return to our childhood where everything was taking care of magically. • Important defense mechanism
  32. 32. Displacement - Displacing or shifting of thought from one person or situation to another - Transferring emotion from situation to other situation Important defense mechanism
  33. 33. Fantasy and daydreaming Withdrawal of one’s self in a private and satisfying world of imagination. Thus instead of facing the realities he may become satisfied with unreal, imaginary success or satisfaction Important defense mechanism
  34. 34. Sublimation • t’s when we transform our negative emotions or instincts, mainly, to acceptable behavior and positive actions. For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration. • sublimation is a sign of maturity that allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways. Important Defense Mechanism
  35. 35. Intellectualization • thinking about events in a cold, clinical way. • allows us to avoid thinking about the stressful, emotional aspect of the situation and instead focus only on the intellectual component • example, a person who has just been diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the situation. Important Defense Mechanism
  36. 36. • Greg learns that he has cancer. He begins to learn everything he can about the illness, reading books, journal articles, and the latest experimental research. Greg's response to his diagnosis is what type of defence mechanism? Intellectualization Regression Sublimation Repression
  37. 37. Which defense mechanism is a sign of maturity? Repression Displacement Sublimation Regression
  38. 38. • Bill's friends and family believe that he has a drinking problem. When Bill is confronted by his loved ones, he claims that his drinking is not problematic. What type of defense mechanism is Bill's response? Repression Rationalization Denial Displacement
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