Day 5 tekes wb training program_palmberg


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Day 5 tekes wb training program_palmberg

  1. 1. *This presentation draws on ’Finnish Finnish Impact Framework and Indicators for Science, Technology, and Innovation’ held byTarmo Lemola in Budapest on April 27th, 2009 and Luoma et al. 2011. ’Better results, more value’. Tekes Review 288/2011 Public RDI systems – Rationale, indicators and impact assement* Christopher Palmberg Chief advisor, Ph.D Tekes Strategic Intelligence Copyright © Tekes
  2. 2. Structure of presentation1. What are public RDI systems and how are they legitimized?2. What are RDI indicators, why are they needed and which are the challenges?3. Examples of impact assement models and indicators – the case of Tekes DM 02-2012 Copyright © Tekes
  3. 3. 1. What are public RDI systems and howare they legitimized? DM 02-2012 Copyright © Tekes
  4. 4. The Finnish public RDI system PARLIAMENTResearch and GOVERNMENT Innovation Council Ministry of Ministry of Other Employment Education and ministries and the Culture and their Economy institutes Academy of Sitra Tekes Finland Finnvera plc Finpro Finnish Universities VTT Industry Investment Ltd Regional ELY Centres Copyright © Tekes
  5. 5. R&D investments in some countriesPercentage of GDP 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators DM 36109 and 36054 09-2011 Copyright © Tekes
  6. 6. Public sector’s share of total R&D fundingin 2009 %Source: Eurostat DM 36109 and 36054 11-2011 Copyright © Tekes
  7. 7. Tekes R&D funding by sectors – from technologytowards services and intangibles Million eurosConstruction is included in the industrial figures. DM 906697 and 607668 01-2012 Copyright © Tekes
  8. 8. Why are public RDI policies needed –how are they legitimized?Traditional arguments Market failure • Informationl assymetries, knowledge spill-overs, externalities, over- exploitation of commons New arguments…in response to societal challenges? Structural system failures • Infrastructural , institutional, network, capabilities failures Transformational system failures • Directionality, demand articulation, policy coordination, reflexivity failures Source: Weber & Rohracher,forthcoming in 2012. Copyright © Tekes
  9. 9. 2. What are RDI indicators, why are theyneeded and which are the challenges? Copyright © Tekes
  10. 10. What is an Research, Development andInnovation (RDI) indicator? “Indicators are quantitative representations that might reasonably be thought to provide summary information bearing on the scope, quality, and vitality of the science and engineering enterprise. They are intended to contribute to an understanding of the current environment and to inform the development of future policies” Modified from NSB/NSF Science and Engineering Indicators Copyright © Tekes
  11. 11. Why are RDI indicators needed? Importance of science, technology and innovation for social and economic progress – a stylized fact Continuous pressure to increase resources to RDI to compete globally Pressure to ascertain effective use of public resources such as taxes Need to legitimate risky RDI investmnents characterized by uncertainty Need to understand dynamics of scientific and technological progress Need to build an evidence-base for policy © Advansis Oy 2006 08.06.12 Copyright © Tekes
  12. 12. Criteria for RDI indicators2. Clear connection to research and innovation3. Clear connection to the phenomenon and impact area it represents4. Clear policy connection5. Transparency6. Intuitive and easily understandable7. Internationally comparable8. Easy and regular updating, basis for regular statistics gathering9. Statistically reliable10. Good temporal, sectoral and geographical coverage11. Clear message on the direction and distance to the target state12. Based on solid theories or coherent frameworks 12 Copyright © Tekes
  13. 13. Basic framework for assessing impacts of RDI Traditional and well-studied role of RDI in creating preconditions for economic growth and renewal - other objectives and impacts known in less detail… Input-activity-output model most common framework The chain from research and innovation to socioeconomic benefits is not linear but involves several feedback loops that provide new inputs to the process at various stages 13 Copyright © Tekes
  14. 14. Key challenges in RDI impact assessment  Causality: the relationships between research and innovation inputs, activities, outputs, and impacts are often unclear or nonlinear.  Attribution: it is difficult or even impossible to separate the impact of research and innovation from other inputs and activities – the additionality problem  Internationality: the impacts of research and innovation are international by nature – activities and value chains are global, and both positive and negative spillovers exist.  Time scale: the impacts are realized both in the short and long-term.  Breakdown of impacts to particular socio-economic target: how to define e.g. impact on environment, public welfare or culture. 14 Copyright © Tekes
  15. 15. Indicator sources – some examples U.S. National Science Board/National Science Foundation: Science and Engineering Indicators Other national indicator publications, including statistical agencies OECD: Main Science and Technology Indicators • Indicator manuals: Frascati and Oslo manuals, Patent Statistics Manual etc. EU: European Innovation Scoreboard International competitiveness reports (WEF, IMD) Copyright © Tekes
  16. 16. Top 10 traditional RDI indicators1. R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP2. Publications3. Citations4. Patents5. New products and processes6. International trade and trade balance in high-tech products7. Young innovative companies8. Mobility of researchers9. Science and technology labor force10. Growth in productivityBut we also need ’blue-sky indicators, e.g. based on www Copyright © Tekes
  17. 17. 3. How are RDI impacts being assessed –the case of Tekes? Copyright © Tekes
  18. 18. *Developed jointly by Finnish Academy and Tekes in collaboration with externalexperts Copyright © Tekes
  19. 19. Economy and economic renewal  Observes the effects that research and innovation activities have, or should have, on the development and renewal of the economy and the opportunities and challenges arising from this  Perhaps the most common and the furthest elaborated impact area of research and innovation activities, which also provides a good basis for international comparison 19 Copyright © Tekes
  20. 20. Hierarchy of phenomena related to economyand economic renewal National Productivity of High growth Foreign DirectImpacts prosperity the economy enterprises Job creation Investments Strengthening of intangible Position in global valueOutputs assets networks Continuous improivement Collaboration, networksActivities of competitiveness and knowledge flows Capability to innovate Human resources for General conditions andInputs Investments in R&D&I R&D&I incentives for R&D&I 20 Copyright © Tekes
  21. 21. Indicators related to economy and economicrenewal Phenomenom Indicators National prosperity GDP per capita Overall productivity of the economy Total Factor Productivity TFP Productivity renewal indicator Foreign Direct Investments Share of Foreign Direct Investments per GDP Strengthening of intangible assets Share of new innovative products and services from business turnover. Volume and share of intangible investments Position in global value-networks Exports of knowledge-intensive sectors Continuous improvement of competitiveness Development of turnover in knowledge intensive sectors (or alternatively in KI jobs) Collaboration, networks and knowledge flows Share of public and private organisations having collaborated in innovation projects Capability to innovate Development of patenting, registered trademarks and designs (EPO / USPTO / TRIAD) Investments in R&D&I Share of R&D&I expenditure in business turnover Government direct & indirect support to business R&D Foreign direct investments in Finnish R&D&I Human resources for R&D&I Availability of highly educated workforce General conditions and incentives for R&D&I GDP share of VC investments at different growth stages … 21 Copyright © Tekes
  22. 22. Environment  Many of the causality chains from the inputs of research and innovation to the impacts on the environment are at least partly known based on the knowledge on natural sciences and technologies  Environmental issues often have a global character – impacts are transnational  Environmental issues are integrated to most of the activities in business and public sectors  Energy is a remarkable part of this impact area as it drives economic activities and well-being in addition to its impact on the state of environment, climate change, and use of natural resources  The operational environment is often playing a significant role in increasing the interest to innovate and use innovations 22 Copyright © Tekes
  23. 23. Hierarchy of phenomena related toenvironment Sustainable State of the Finnish Impacts environment Climate change Biodiversity consumption of natural resources New information and Environmentally Consumers attitudes Outputs knowledge related to positive innovations Green business and behavior environment Cooperation within environment related R&D&I activities directed Activities towards environment value networks and strengthening of skill flows R&D&I investments in Operational environment Inputs sectors vital to environment Skills and human resources supporting the aims 23 Copyright © Tekes
  24. 24. Indicators related to environment Phenomenom Indicators State of the Finnish environment Water systems ecological state Climate change Green house gas emissions in Finland Biodiversity Endangeredness of Finnish species Sustainable consumption of natural Share of renewable energy in energy production resources New information and knowledge related Scientific environmental publications among the top 10% most cited publications to environment worldwide as % of total scientific publications of the country Use of environmental information in political decision making Environmentally bening innovations International patents/forwarded references of patents in the environmental sector Green business Revenue of companies in energy and environment sector Private sector energy efficiency Consumers attitudes and behavior Household energy efficiency R&D&I activities directed towards Companies with innovation operations in the energy and environmental sectors environment (quality, challenges, extent) Amount of environmental R&D&I activities in research institutions Cooperation within environment related Cooperation between private sector, universities and research centers in value networks and strengthening of skill environment sector flows R&D&I investments on environment Private R&D&I expenditure on environment Public R&D expenditure on environment Venture capital directed towards environment Skills and human resources No relevant indicator so far Operational environment supporting No relevant indicator so far environmentally benign actions 24 Copyright © Tekes
  25. 25. Summing up The focus of public RDI systems is broadeding, Finland being a good example of this RDI indicators remain important but RDI impact assessment is increasingly challenging There is also a need for new types on real-time ’blue- sky’ indicators Emerging and developing countries also need public RDI systems • What kind of systems? • Where should they focus? • How could their impacts be assessed? Copyright © Tekes
  26. 26. Thank you! For further Copyright © Tekes