RAHADEN LINGGA BHUMI
Semester / 21414016
A construction is an ordered arrangement of grammatical units forming a larger unit.
Different usages of the term construction include or exclude stems and words.
• [subject + verb + object] forms a clause
• [determiner + noun] forms a noun phrase
• [adjective + noun + plural marker] forms a compound noun
The Kinds of Construction:
A phrase is a syntactic structure that consists of more than one word but lacks the subject-
predicate organization of a clause.
Allowance may be made on a theory-specific basis for single-word, minimal instances of
Example: A noun as a minimal instance of a noun phrase.
The Kinds of Phrases:
1. Adpositional phrase is a phrase that has an adposition as its head.
Postpositional phrase is an adpositional phrase in which a postposition is the head.
The postposition follows its complement. The phrase is an exocentric construction that
functions as an adjectival or adverbial modifier. The complement to the postposition is
typically one of the following: Noun, Noun phrase, and Pronoun.
Prepositional phrase is an adpositional phrase in which a preposition is the head. The
preposition precedes its complement. The phrase is an exocentric construction that
functions as an adjectival or adverbial modifier. The complement to the preposition is
typically one of the following: Noun, Noun phrase, and Pronoun. Examples: on the
bus, to town, on the other hand.
2. Noun phrase is a phrase that has a noun as its head. A noun phrase generally includes on or
more modifying words, but allowance is usually made for single-word minimal noun phrases
that are composed only of a noun or pronoun.
Nominalization is a noun phrase that has a systematic correspondence with a clausal
predication which includes a head noun morphologically related to a corresponding
verb. Example: The noun phrase refusal to help corresponds to he refuses to help.
The head noun refusal is morphologically related to the verb refuse.
3. Pronominal is a phrase that functions as a pronoun. The term pronominal is also used as an
adjective to mean "of, constituting, or resembling a pronoun." Example: That’s not the one I
4. Verb phrase
In traditional terminology, a verb phrase is a phrase that
• Has the syntactic role of a simple verb, and
• Is composed of a main verb and auxiliary verbs or verbal particles related
syntactically to the verb.
in generative grammar, a verb phrase is a syntactic unit that correspond to the predicate.
In addition to the verb, this includes auxialiries, objects, object complements, and other
constituents apart from the subject.
A clause is a grammatical unit that
• includes, at minimum, a predicate and an explicit or implied subject, and
• expresses a proposition.
Examples: It is cold, although the sun is shining.
The main clause is it is cold an the subordinate clause is although the sun is shining.
The Kinds of Clauses:
1. Adverbial clause is a clause that has an adverb like function in modifying another clause. An
adverbial clause is likely to be distinct in its syntax or verb morphology. Example: He kept
quiet in order to avoid trouble.
2. Coordinate clause is a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses which are not
syntactically dependent one on another, and are joined by means of a coordinating conjuction, a
connective, or parataxis. Examples: 1.
I will go home and he will go to work. 2.
hamburgers, but Mary prefers hot dogs. 3.
We might go to Seattle, or we might go to California.
3. Equative clause is a clause which describes a feature of its subject. It contains a subject
complement and, typically, a copula. Examples: 1.
He is a doctor. 2.
She is the queen.
4. Existential clause is a clause, having a distinctive grammatical structure, which expresses the
real or imagined existence of an entity. An existential clause often introduces an entity into a
discourse. Example : The clause construction “there + verb [typically be] + noun phrase”
forms an existential clause, as in: There was a man.
5. Final clause is the last clause in a clause chain. It is distinguished from medial clauses by a
difference in verb morphology.
6. Finite clause is a clause with a finite verb.
7. Main clause is a clause that may stand as a complete sentence, and expresses the focal
predication when occurring in a complex sentence.
8. Marking clause is a clause, in a language with the grammatical category of switch reference,
that contains an indication as to whether or not one of its arguments is coreferential with an
argument of a reference clause. The indication is often provided by a verbal affix. The
argument is typically the subject.
9. Medical clause is any clause in a clause chain which is not the final clause, and is
distinguishable from the final clause by a difference in verb morphology. Also known as:
10. Nominal clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun phrase. Examples: 1.
that he is here. 2.
From where I stood, I saw the horse.
Complement clause is a notional sentence or predication that is an argument of
a predicate. The term complement clause is extended by some analysts to include
clauses selected by nouns or adjectives.
• Examples: 1.
I heard the evidence that he did it. 2.
I am sure that he did it. 3.
not certain what we did. 4.
We thought that you were coming. 5.
For you to come
would be a mistake. 6.
I wonder whether you are coming.
• Nonexamples: 1.
Elsie fled to escape the hurricane. (a purpose clause that is not
an argument of a predicate). 2.
Milton came on stage juggling balls. (a manner
clause that is not an argument of a predicate). 3.
The mouse ate the cheese that
was laying out. (a relative clause that modifies a noun and is not itself an
argument of a predicate). 4.
The plumber arrived who we had called
earlier. (who we had called earlier is a relative clause—see the discussion).
• Relative clauses are not complement clauses. Relative clauses modify a noun
phrase, whereas complement clauses are arguments which are selected by a
verb, noun, or adjective. In some languages, relative clauses have a gap--a
missing NP argument--which is understood to refer to the NP that the relative
clause modifies. For instance, in "the person that saw you," the subject of the
clause "saw you" is missing, but is understood to be "the person" that the NP as
a whole refers to. Complement clauses do not usually have such a gap. For
instance, in "the fact that he saw you," the clause "he saw you" does not have
any missing arguments. This distinction, however, cannot be used in languages
in which it is possible to omit the subject or other clausal arguments freely. This
distinction is also not useful in languages which have internally headed relative
• Adverbial clauses are also not complement clauses. Adverbial clauses may
modify any verb phrase or sentence, provided they fit semantically, and fill the
same role that a purpose, manner, locative or temporal adverb would fill;
whereas complement clauses are specifically selected
as complements (arguments) by verbs, adjectives or nouns.
11. Nonfinite clause is a clause with a nonfinite verb.
12. Reference clause is a clause with an argument that, in a marking clause elsewhere in the
sentence, is signaled as being coreferential or not to the argument of the marking clause. In a
language having a switch reference system, a reference clause is a clause with an argument,
which is typically the subject.
13. Relative clause is a clause which describes the referent of a head noun or pronoun. It often
restricts the reference of the head noun or pronoun. A relative clause is not necessarily
a constituent of the noun phrase containing the head noun it modifies. Examples: 1.
arrived who we had called earlier. (Who we had called earlier has been extraposed from its
normal position after plumber and is not a member of the noun phrase containing plumber). 2.
The man who went. 3.
Passengers leaving on Flight 738.
External relative clause is a relative clause whose head noun phrase is outside the
relative clause. Also known as: External-headed relative clause. This type of relative
clause is a modifier of a separately stated head noun. It does not take the place of the
head noun, as does an internal relative clause. Example: In the following construction,
the head noun phrase every student is outside the relative clause: Every student whom
Internal relative clause is a relative clause whose head noun phrase occurs within the
relative clause itself. Also known as: Internal-headed relative clause. This type of
relative clause, which occurs only in SOV languages, takes the place of a regular noun
phrase argument in the main clause. The meaning of an internal relative clause may be
ambiguous in languages that do not grammatically indicate which of the noun phrases
within the relative clause is the head noun phrase.
[kan kwitsa -man kwintu -ta willa -shka -ka] llapa
You girl to story ACCUSATIVE Tell NOMINALIZER TOPIC very
This example means either ‘The girl to whom you told the story is very pretty’ or ‘The
story that you told to the girl is very pretty’.
Nonrestrictive relative clause is a relative clause that does not aid in the identification
of the referent of its head noun, but only provides information about it. A nonrestrictive
relative clause is formally distinguished in some languages. Example: John, who passed
the test, was elated.
Restrictive relative clause is a relative clause that helps to identify the referent of the
word that it modifies. In some languages, a restrictive relative clause is formally
marked. Example: The man that you see.
14. Subordinate clause is a clause that is embedded as a constituent of a matrix sentence and that
functions like a noun, adjective, or adverb in the resultant complex sentence.
A sentence is a grammatical unit that is composed of one or more clauses.
The meaning of the term sentence may be expanded to include elliptical material and nonproductive
• After lunch. (in reply to When do you start?)
• I am reading a book.
The Kinds of Sentence:
1. Complex sentence is a sentence which includes at least one main clause, and at least one
subordinate clause. Example: The man whom you see is my brother.
Cleft sentence is a complex sentence in which a simple sentence is expressed using a main
clause and a subordinate clause. In English the prototypical cleft sentence has the following
form: it + be + X + subordinate clause X can be a constituent of one of many varieties. X
and the subordinate clause together carry the same meaning as their corresponding simple
sentence. However, the primary focus of the cleft construction is on an element, often
marked by intonation, that introduces new information. This element appears either as X or
in the subordinate clause.
• Example: No, it is his callousness that I shall ignore. Its corresponding simple
sentence is No, I shall ignore his callousness. The primary focus of the cleft
sentence may be marked by intonation, as in following sentences: 1.
No, it is
his callousness that I shall ignore. 2.
No, it is his callousness that I shall ignore.
Pseudo-cleft sentence is a kind of cleft sentence in which the subordinated clause is
a relative clause headed by an interrogative pro-form. In English they are of the form: wh-
relative clause + be + X X can be a constituent of one of many varieties. The so-called
'inverted' pseudo-cleft sentence reverses the order of the two constituents: X + be + wh-
Pseudo-cleft Inverted pseudo-cleft
What John gave to Mary
Flowers were what John gave to Mary.
2. Compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more coordinate clauses.
3. Matrix sentence is a sentence in which a clause has been embedded as a constituent. The
clause may or may not be an immediate constituent, but it must be embedded by means other
than coordination. Example: In the following sentences, the dog died is the matrix sentence:
• After eating the raw fish, the dog died.
• The dog that ate the raw fish died.
4. Simple Sentence is a sentence containing one main clause and no subordinate clauses.
A discourse is an instance of language use whose type can be classified on the basis of such
factors as grammatical and lexical choices and their distribution in main versus supportive materials,
theme, style, and the freamework of knowledge and expectations within which the addressee interprets
The Kinds of Discourse:
1. Compound discourse is a discourse that contains sections belonging to two or more kinds of
discourse. Example: In the Bible, Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians contains both expository
discourse and hortatory discourse.
Dialogue discourse is a compound discourse that contains both narrative
discourse and repartee discourse.
2. Expository discourse is a discourse that explains or describes a topic. It does not primarily
present contingent events or focus on a performer of actions, but rather tends to present the
following kinds of propositions: Existential, Stative, Equative.
• Features: 1.
Information is logically oriented around a theme. 2.
Third person pronoun
forms are used. 3.
Texts are not oriented around a specific agent.
• Parts: Problem, Solution, Supporting argumentation, and Evaluation of the solution.
• Examples: 1.
Explanations of cultural norms. 2.
Explanations of legal matters. 3.
Explanations of the teachings of the forefathers.
3. Hortatory discourse is a discourse that is an attempt to persuade the addressee to fulfill
commands that are given in the discourse. A hortatory discourse typically consists of one or
more commands that are logically related to each other, and expressions offering motivation in
support of the respective commands.
• Features: 1.
Commands are supported by reasons. 2.
Second person pronoun forms are
Text are oriented toward an agent. 4.
Tests are not organized chronologically.
• Examples: 1.
Guidelines for newlyweds. 2.
A political speech. 3.
Warnings to children. 4.
4. Narrative discourse is a discourse that is an account of events, usually in the past, that
employs verbs of speech, motion, and action to describe a series of events that are contingent
one on another, and that typically focuses on one or more performers of actions.
• Features: 1.
Events are organized chronologically. 2.
First or third person pronoun forms
are used. 3.
The text is oriented around a specific agent or agents.
o Stories about real or imagined ancestors, often containing supernatural elements.
o Stories or accounts about the social and political history of the world and its
contacts with the rest of the world.
o Stories explaining origins, natural phenomena, or social and religious customs,
often involving the supernatural.
o Accounts of significant events in the life of the narrator or the community.
• Parts: Exposition or setting, Inciting moment, Developing conflict, Climax,
Denouement, Final Suspense, and Conclusion.
5. Procedural discourse is a discourse that is used to tell the addressee how to do something,
presents a series of steps leading to a goal, and centers on events that are contingent one on
another, rather than focusing on the performer of the events.
• Features: 1.
The steps of the procedure are often organized chronologically. 2.
or second person pronoun forms are usually used. 3.
Text is not oriented around a
• Examples: 1.
Directions on how to get somewhere. 2.
Instructions on how to make
• Parts: Problem or need, Prepatory procedures, Main or efficient procedures,
Concluding, often utilization procedures.
6. Repartee discourse is a discourse that is used to recount a series of speech exchanges.