The Ecotourism Revolution


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Presentation by Martha Honey from the Center for Responsible Travel at Northwestern University in the Fall of 2012.

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The Ecotourism Revolution

  1. 1. The Ecotourism “Revolution”:Origins, Trends & GrowthMartha Honey, Ph.D., Co-DirectorCenter for Responsible Travel (CREST)The Center for Global EngagementNorthwestern University’ BriefingNovember 8, 2012, 2009iversiCenter for Responsible Travel
  2. 2. Ecotourism…Who Owns Paradise?1999 2008
  3. 3. Mid-19th century:Beginning of the Tourism RevolutionRailroads
  4. 4. Early 20th Century:The Tourism RevolutionHenry Ford & Model TAutomobilesFamily Vacations
  5. 5. 20th Century:International Tourism RevolutionPassenger ShipsQE2 ~ 1969Oasis of the Seas ~ 2009(6,000 passengers)Titanic1912Sailing Ships
  6. 6. Mid - 20th Century:International Tourism RevolutionAirplaneWright Brothers1903 DC-31935Boeing 747 Jumbo Jet1960s – 1970sDreamliner2007
  7. 7. Growth in International Travel
  8. 8. Late 20th Century:The Ecotourism Revolution:Based on an Idea, not Technology 1970s: Emerged from global environmental movement 1990s: Fastest growing sector of tourism industry ~20% – 34%/year 2000: $156 billion in receipts 2002: UN’s International Year of Ecotourism Today: Nearly every country involved in tourism, alsopromoting ecotourism And impacting the entire tourism industry
  9. 9. Definitions TOURISM: Travel undertaken for pleasure. NATURE TOURISM: Travel to unspoiled places to experience andenjoy nature. ADVENTURE TOURISM: Nature travel which involves physical skills,endurance & degree of risk-taking. ECOTOURISM: “Responsible travel to natural areas which conservesthe environment and improves the welfare of local people.”-- The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: “Meets the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of the future generations to meettheir own needs.”–”Our Common Future,” The Bruntland Report, 1987
  10. 10. Components of Ecotourism“Responsible travel to natural areas thatconserves the environment and improves thewell-being of local people."Main principles:• Minimize impact.• Build environmental & cultural awareness and respect.• Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts.• Provide direct financial benefits for conservation.• Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people.• Raise sensitivity to host countries political, environmental,and social climate.
  11. 11. 3 Legs of EcotourismConservation Communities Education
  12. 12. New Terms ~ Same Principles Geotourism: Tourism that sustains or enhances thegeographical character of a place, its environment,heritage, aesthetics, and culture and well-being of itsresidents.(National Geographic) Pro-Poor Tourism: Tourism that results in increasednet benefits for poor people. (South Africa) Responsible Tourism: Tourism that maximizes thebenefits to local communities, minimizes negativesocial or environmental impacts, and helps localpeople conserve fragile cultures & habitats orspecies. (UK)
  13. 13. Origins of Ecotourism:Late 1970s Growth of global environmental movement. Increasing tourist dissatisfaction with masstourism. Host countries finding few benefits fromconventional tourism. World Bank & IDB close their tourismdepartments. Conservationists alarmed by destruction ofrainforests and African wildlife.
  14. 14. Endangered Rainforest
  15. 15. Oil Drilling in Ecuador
  16. 16. Damaging Swaths of Rainforest
  17. 17. And Undermining Local CommunitiesOil company officials meet with Indians in Ecuador
  18. 18. Kapawi Ecolodge & ReserveEcuador Amazon ~ The Achuar
  19. 19. El Chalalan EcolodgeBolivia Amazon ~ The Quechua Tacana
  20. 20. Tambopata EcolodgePeru Amazon ~ The Ese’Eja
  21. 21. East Africa: Endangered WildlifePhoto by Hitesh Mehta
  22. 22. Illegal Ivory SeizurePhoto by Hitesh Mehta
  23. 23. Maasai Exploited for Tourism
  24. 24. Il Ngwesi in KenyaPhotos by Hitesh MehtaCommunity-Owned Ecolodges
  25. 25. Basecamp Masai Mara, Kenya
  26. 26. Photo by Craig SholleyGorilla Safaris, Rwanda
  27. 27. Ecotourism’s Global SpreadCosta RicaCosta RicaGalapagosAustraliaKenyaUnitedStatesTanzania
  28. 28.  Belize: "Mother Natures Best Kept Secret“ Costa Rica: “No Artificial Ingredients" Croatia: “The Mediterranean As it Once Was” Ecuador: “Life at its purest“ Guatemala: “Soul of the Earth” Indonesia: “Ultimate in Diversity” Montenegro: “Wild Beauty” Panama: “The Path Less Traveled” Peru: “Land of the Inkas”Tanzania: “The Land of Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar”Thailand: “Low Emission Tourism”Developing Countries:Marketing Nature & Culture
  29. 29. Trends in Ecotourism1. Strong Consumer Demand2. Deepening the Concept Travelers’ Philanthropy3. Transforming Conventional Tourism Sustainable Tourism for mainstream travel industry Sustainable Destinations4. Setting standards Green certification Eco-labels
  30. 30. Trends in Ecotourism1) Strong Consumer Demand &Out Performs Mass Tourism
  31. 31. Ecotourism remains strong…despite natural & economic disasters& downturns in the industry Ecotourists are more independent, bettereducated for whom travel is important. Eco-businesses use local resources. Ecotourism has remained an innovative &dynamic field.
  32. 32. Consumer Demand forEcotourism ¾ of tourists say their travel shouldnot damage environment. Majority say they want to learn aboutcustoms, geography, culture. At least 1/3 say they are willing to paymore to companies that benefit localcommunities and conservation.(National Geographic and TIA Geotourism Survey)
  33. 33. Ecotourism/Nature TourismCosta RicaGrowing 3 timesfaster **UN World Tourism Organization/2004**Travel Weekly/2007…than mass tourismAnd projected to grow to 25%of the market by end of 2012**
  34. 34. Costa Rica’s SuccessfulEcotourism ModelIn 2 decades: Arrivals increased 7 times Receipts increased 14 times Costa Rica doubled itsearnings/touristBy mid-1990s, ecotourism =top foreign exchange earner Costa Rica: Over 40% of tourist $stays in the country. (INCAE) Cancun: less than 10% stays in MexicoCosta RicaCosta Ricas Tourism GrowthYear 1986 1990 1995 2000 2007Arrivals (thousands) 261 435 792 1,088 1,980Gross receipts(millions US$) $133 $275 $718 $1,229 $1,895
  35. 35. Revenues Generated:Ecotourism versus Standard Tourism42% higher earning in Costa Rica
  36. 36. Cruise Tourism vs.Ecotourism in Costa Rica Arrivals: (2005): Cruise Ship visitors: 280,017 Overnight visitors: 1,659,165 6 times more Daily spending per tourist: Cruise passenger: $55 Overnight visitors: $120 More than double Total spending for visit: Cruise passenger: $55 Overnight visitors: $944 17 times more Contribution to local economy: Cruise Ships tourism: $18.9 million Overnight tourism: $2.1 billion 111 times more
  37. 37. Trends in Ecotourism2) Travelers’ Philanthropy
  38. 38. Travelers’ Philanthropy:Deepens Meaning of Ecotourism3 legs ofEcotourismBenefits toconservationBenefits tocommunitiesGuest educationTravelers’Philanthropy
  39. 39. What is Travelers’ Philanthropy? Civic-minded travelers and travel businesses giving“time, talent & treasure” to host community projects Growing form of corporate social responsibility(CSR) within the tourism industry New source of development aid to host communities Coalescing into more organized “best practices” Grown exponentially, with many millions flowing intocommunity projects Capturing media attention
  40. 40. “Travel philanthropy is now core tosustainability,” said David Krantz,program director for the Center forResponsible Travel (CREST).
  41. 41. Pioneered by EcotourismCompanies
  42. 42. Moving Toward Mainstream
  43. 43. Some Ways to Give Backto Host Communities & Conservation Tourism businesses or staff give in-kind orfinancial support, or provide expertise Guests contribute money or supplies to projectsselected by tourism businesses and the community Tourism company helps connect travelers with projects Visitors donate time on vacation: “Voluntourism” Donations incorporated into prices for tours &room nights Interaction with local projects integrated into tourism experience46
  44. 44. Why are Tourism CompaniesInvolved? Vanguard are ecotourism companies with strongsocial & environmental ethic Rising needs in poor countries ~ shrinkinggovernment budgets & donor aid “Insurance policy” ~ easier to do business inhost community Offers marketing differentiation Increases staff pride and commitment Growing consumer interest & demand
  45. 45. Visitor Support forTravelers’ Philanthropy More than 2/3 of U.S. and Australian travelers, and90% of British tourists, consider active protection ofthe environment, including support of localcommunities, to be part of a hotel’s responsibility. 46 million U.S. travelers chose companies that“donate part of their proceeds to charities.” 58% of Conde Nast Traveler readers say their hotelchoice is influenced by the support it gives to thelocal community. (2011 Readers Poll)
  46. 46. Voluntourism:Condé Nast Traveler Readers 47% interested in volunteer vacations. 3% regularly take volunteer vacations. 98% satisfied with their experience. 95% of those who have volunteeredwould do so again.Condé Nast Traveler Poll, February 2009
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Giving structure to growing movement…2nd International Travelers’Philanthropy ConferenceDecember 2008 ~ Arusha, TanzaniaDecember 2008 ~ Arusha, Tanzania... 230 participants from around the world . 230 participants from around the world
  49. 49. 3rd International TravelersPhilanthropy ConferenceJuly 2011 San Jose & Monteverde, Costa Rica150 participants
  50. 50. Travelers’ PhilanthropyToolkit Travelers’ PhilanthropyHandbook Experts Bureau Field studies, surveys &training: Destination-wideTravelers’ Philanthropy Documentary: “Giving Time,Talent and TreasureOsa Peninsula, Destination-Wide Worksh
  51. 51. Trends in Ecotourism3) Transforming Conventional Tourism:Emergence of “Sustainable Tourism”for Large Companies & Destinations
  52. 52. What is Sustainable Tourism?Tourism that “meets the needs of present tourists and host regionswhile protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future.”(Agenda 21 for Travel & Tourism Industry)“Sustainability principles should apply to all types of tourism activities,operations, establishments and projects, including conventional andalternative forms.” (UNWTO)
  53. 53. Types of TourismSun & SeaResort & CruiseUrban TourismNature-based TourismSustainable TourismEcotourismSource: Amos Bien
  54. 54. Greening the Travel IndustrySki resortsHotelsGolf CoursesConvention Centers BeachesAirlinesCruise Shipsin Galapagos
  55. 55. New Senior Positions Createdfor Sustainability Fairmont Marriott IHG Kimpton Accor Hilton TUI Vail Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines
  56. 56. Sustainable DestinationsGlobal Sustainable TourismCriteria (GSTC) Ashland, Washington Guanajuato, Mexico Isle of Skye, Scotland Mackinac Island, Michigan Coastal Fjords, Norway Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia Wachau Valley, Austria Chaco Culture NationalHistorical Park, New Mexico Northeast Kingdom, Vermont Grenada, West IndiesGeotourism
  57. 57. Trends in Ecotourism4) Setting Standards Certification based on environmental,social & economic impacts Eco-labels
  58. 58. Traditional Tourism CertificationProgramsMeasure Quality, Service & Price
  59. 59. Growth of Eco CertificationAfter 1992 Earth Summit
  60. 60. Types of “Green”CertificationSource: UNWTO, Voluntary Initiatives, 200268%18%7%5% 2%AccomodationsDestinationsTour OperatorsSports/Leisure FacilitiesTransportation
  61. 61. Eco certification programs:Measuring Environmental, Social & EconomicImpact
  62. 62. Marketing in Guidebooks
  63. 63. Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC):Launched in 2010 Housed within UNF, Washington, DC; Moving toUNWTO Widely endorsed by tourism industry, NGOs,governments & multilateral agencies Common set of 36 baseline criteria Accredit & harmonize certification schemes Drive demand for certified productso
  64. 64. Ecotourism:A Revolutionary Concept Set of principles & practices that haspotential to transform tourism industry. Measures for first time environmental, social& economic impacts -- & posits they can bepositive. Growing in significance: Demand from consumers, industry & destinations. New dimensions: Travelers’ Philanthropy. Sustainable tourism expands ecotourism’s reach. ‘Green’ certification & eco-labels set concrete standards.
  65. 65. Thank you!Center for Responsible Travel (CREST)Washington, DC:1333 H St, NWSuite 300, East TowerWashington, DC 20005Tel: (202) 347-9203Center for Responsible TravelStanford University:450 Serra MallBuilding 50, Rm. 51DStanford, CA 94305Tel: (650) &