Centre of Excellence for Advanced Manufacturing
Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering
UniversitiTeknikal Malaysia Melaka
LE...
Page | 1
1. Introduction
In the competitive markets of 21st
century, most of the manufacturing environment
demands diversi...
Page | 2
2. Barriers to Lean Manufacturing
(a). Over focus on Lean tools
Lean is just a tool that can be used to optimizet...
Page | 3
supportiveto the lean program. Regularly the production supervisors or managersfeel
susceptible by the lean progr...
Page | 4
system, which the west call as 'leantools' such as SMED, JIT, Kaizen etc. but they have not
been adopted in isola...
Page | 5
REFERENCE
[1]. Punnakitikashem P, Somsuk N, Adebanjo D and Laosirihongthong T, A Review of
Theoretical Perspectiv...
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Lean manufacturing - Summary on Barriers and Improvement Needed

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Why Lean Manufacturing fail and How to Avoid it - summary of the research papers

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Lean manufacturing - Summary on Barriers and Improvement Needed

  1. 1. Centre of Excellence for Advanced Manufacturing Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering UniversitiTeknikal Malaysia Melaka LEAN MANUFACTURING RAGUNATH MUNIANDY Lecturer: PROF MADYA DR MOHDRIZAL BIN SALLEH
  2. 2. Page | 1 1. Introduction In the competitive markets of 21st century, most of the manufacturing environment demands diversity of products at controlled reduced cost, shorten lead time with higher or better quality products. This is major wake up call for the companies to implement the lean manufacturing. The lean manufacturing is suitable strategy that been recognized globally as efficient and effective manufacturing operations which allies with the waste elimination such as inventory, waiting, defects/rejects, unnecessary motion, over processing, over production and transportation whereby generally known as 7 type of lean manufacturing wastes [1]. The main objective of lean is to eliminate overall unnecessary activities and variations during manufacturing process and only focus on the continuous improvement to meet customers demand and requirements [2]. Even though some researcher claimed that the lean manufacturing wasadapted from Toyota Production System (TPS) which implemented by TaiichiOhno in Japan to suit on the western manufacturing systems but the implementation of the lean manufacturing was not fully success on Western companies [1], [2], [3]. The crucial idea of the lean manufacturing is lean thinking, which is far most persuasive intelligent architecture for the various systematic changes. Few world class companies such as Boeing, Ford and General Motors had benefits from the lean manufacturing while on other hand numbers of SMEs had failed on the implementation of lean manufacturing and also noted that there were many others who not yet ready or start the lean manufacturing environment[4]. Basically the lean manufacturing concepts failed on certain companies due to lack of understanding on the wide range of lean manufacturing, lack of organizational readiness, loss of the tribal knowledge which means employees with manufacturing process experience andknowledge, normalization of common tooling and subcomponents with value stream mapping [2]. Meanwhile Herron and Braiden, also found that the western thinking on the lean manufacturing is not the same as Japanese thinking or writings, the point are thatthe cultural variance between the originator of the concept (Japan) and the envisionedbeneficiary is a majorfactor in the latent success or failure of a lean manufacturing packages. That had made the techniques oflean manufacturing are unambiguous but have becomeconfused by re- classifications and the obviousdesire in the west to present solution packages.Whilst the basictools of manufacturing best practice are isolatedfor extremevalue and sustainability they aredependent on each other’s, which is frequently notrespected [3].
  3. 3. Page | 2 2. Barriers to Lean Manufacturing (a). Over focus on Lean tools Lean is just a tool that can be used to optimizethe overall productivity such as Single Minute Exchange of DIE (SMED), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), 5S Method, Work Signaling System (KanBan), Error & Mistake-Proofing (Poka-yoke), Level-Loading (Heijunka), Inventory Reduction, Kaizen Events (Kaizen Blitzes or Improvement Events), Continuous Improvement and Lean Culture Change. In order to achieve the best out of the lean manufacturing system, management support or the organization’s direction to train the employee for the new ways of thinking, working and communication is needed for the success of lean system. This will need the organization makes the workforce believe and fully understand the lean and held responsibility is their respective areas of work and it’s required massive transformation efforts by removing barriers, redesign the process, empowering people and integrating across organizations [6]. (b). Implement Kaizen without planning Generally Kaizen will referred as Continuous Improvement (CI) whereby continuously improving on the established processes or the system. Usually to have short and focused improvements easy to implement but to keep it going is the hardest part. This hurdle can be overcome with clear goals and focus from the organization [4]. (c). Insufficient programme for Lean by organization The organization need to be in full force to support the workforce by providing information, process knowledge and learning. The organization must have firm characteristic so set goals and objective to reach higher sustainable returns than competitors. The groups of resources need to be formed by combining unique talents and knowledge to have more competence in lean manufacturing [1], [2]. (d). Organizational behavior and thinking process Among any production system, there will be some level of operating procedure which developed or initiate by lean projects earlier but unable to sustain for longer terms once the project teams leaves or re-assign to new task. The needs for the procedure might change over the time and unless people clearly understand what to do for the new procedure, the continuance of the lean can’t be practiced and unless thesuperiors in respective area are
  4. 4. Page | 3 supportiveto the lean program. Regularly the production supervisors or managersfeel susceptible by the lean program if they not fully understand the new approaches. The study by Punnakitikashem et al. shows organizational behaviors could play a major role in understand, implementations and deployment of the lean manufacturing [1]. (e). Not setting and monitoringclear targets The core objective or goals of the lean is truly to phase out the waste and create process flow that initiated by customer demands. There were few questions discussed by Ross A and Francis D [7] which highlights whether i) Cost reduction should be key goal of the lean? ii) Should lean manufacturing be the root of the manufacturing company strategy? The obvious answer is ‘NO’ for the both questions since the lean ideas is driven by business organization with absolute belief on the targets to drive and measure the improvement till it achieve the desired goals set earlier. Often changes on the targets or goals will dampen the lean manufacturing performances overall. (f). Inappropriate tools or techniques used There is vast of tools or techniques can be adapted in the manufacturing management such as Six-Sigma (6Σ), Total Quality Management (TQM), Agile Manufacturing (AM), Theory of Constraints (TOC), and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), a part of Lean Manufacturing (LM). Each tool has its own strength and weakness depending on needs by the organizations [1], [2], [4], [5], [6], [8]. The lack of classification and inadequate understanding of lean tools had resulted in many misapplications, the common mishandling are i) wrong tools used to solve a problem, ii) use a single tool to solve all problems and iii) same group of tools used to solve all problems. To overcome these tools mishandling issue, the organization or the Project Lead for lean need to clearly understand since some of it might not be tools but just merely concept and it may overlap each other’s [3]. (g). Culture Variances The lean ideology originated from Japan back then 1940’s, where the cultural characteristics are considerably different from the Western countries. The cultural difference can be a key factor in possible success or failure of the revolution program in the organizations. When Western adopts the Japanese methods in lean, it might be re-classified or modified to suit the Western culture or the working environment which eventually didn’t turn out as same results as Japanese system. The researchers can identify the tools used in Japanese manufacturing
  5. 5. Page | 4 system, which the west call as 'leantools' such as SMED, JIT, Kaizen etc. but they have not been adopted in isolation and ultimately they weredeveloped for a reason, which was to support an overall strategy [3], [8]. Lean manufacturing methods have been established to fit within the Japanese society while to exploit them to the full inthe Western businesses, the diverse cultural norms in the West must be well-thought-out. 3. How to Overcome or Avoid Mistakes in Lean Manufacturing Lean manufacturing’s requirement are very clear, the changes will be happen with the support of all involved parties. The operations or manufacturing strategies for the lean manufacturing will not be completely dependent on the tools or techniques only, but also on the level of understanding of both remaining and future organizational manners. Apparently organization needs to illuminatethe concept of lean manufacturing and how it assists the firm to progress and survive in the economical markets[1]. Most of organizations lack a clear statement of mission, vision and values which leads to revolution being focused from the central of the organization and a substantial lack of incorporation makes lean manufacturing unable to sustain in certain organizations [7].Another key important element to consider is that a process is value added if the added process or the changes on physical materials able create additional customer value and meet or exceed customer expectations / specifications [2]. 4. Conclusion The ambiguity onLean Manufacturing that once led companies to hesitation whether it was suit for common manufacturing has long been vanished. As of today, is it widely accepted that lean is for everyone, it is not just limited to thecertain sector or for worldwideorganizations. It’s all now depends only to how well we can you do it? If it is not effectively applied, it will incur loss of income to the organizations and under-serving the customer’s requirements. The achievement of effectiveexecution of lean manufacturing is not only reliant on the correct usage of tools of lean manufacturing but establishing for lean manufacturing system and planning for its application is very vital. It is very important for top management and all others to understand lean thinking and lean principles.
  6. 6. Page | 5 REFERENCE [1]. Punnakitikashem P, Somsuk N, Adebanjo D and Laosirihongthong T, A Review of Theoretical Perspectives in Lean Manufacturing Implementation, Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management IEEE / IEEM International Conference, 2009, 1204 – 1208. [2]. Peter J.G, Shinn K and Fleener F, Lean Manufacturing Practices: Issues Created When Two Companies are Integrated and Quality Management Standards are Imposed, Technology Management in the Energy Smart World proceeding of PICMET, 2011, 1-7. [3]. Herron C and Braiden P.M, Defining the foundation of Lean manufacturing in the context of its origins (Japan), Agile Manufacturing IET International Conference on ICAM, 2007, 148-157. [4]. Aulakh S.S and Gill J.S, Lean Manufacturing – a Practitioner’s Perspective, Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management IEEE / IEEM International Conference, 2008, 1184- 1188. [5]. Gomes D.F, Pereira Lopes M and Vaz de Carvalho C, Serious Games for Lean Manufacturing: The 5S Game, TechnologiasdelAprendizaje IEEE RevistaIberoamericana de, 2013, Vol: 8, 191-196. [6]. Gurumurthy A and Kodali R, Performance Value Analysis for the Justification of Lean Manufacturing Systems, IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 2007, 377-381. [7]. Ross A and Francis D, Lean Is Not Enough, Manufacturing Engineer, 2003, Vol: 82, 14-17. [8]. Bon A.T and Rahman N.A, Quality Measurement in Lean Manufacturing, International Conference on Instrumentation, Communications, Information Technology and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI – BME), 2009, 1-7.

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