हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास

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Hindi Sahitya ka Itihaas

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हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास

  1. 1. V¥{V¶ df© H$bm [hÝXr àíZnÌ H«$.4 qhXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg
  2. 2. S>m°. amOZ doiyH$a Hw$cJwê$ _w§~B© {díd{dÚmc`, _w§~B©. S>m°. YZoída h[aM§XZ àmÜ`mnH$ Ed§ g§Mmc§H$ Xÿa Ed§ _w³V AÜ``Z g§ñWm, _w§~B© {díd{dÚmc`, _w§~B©. H$m¶©H«$‘ g‘Ýd¶H$ Ed§$ …- S>m°. g§Ü¶m Eg. JO} g§nmXH$ g‘Ýd¶H$, {hÝXr {df¶ Xÿa Ed§ _w³V AÜ``Z g§ñWm _w§~B© {díd{dÚmc`, _w§~B©. Aä¶mg coIH$ …- S>m°. nr. Ho$. Yw‘mi H$bm, dm{UÁ¶ Am¡a {dkmZ ‘hm{dÚmb¶, {edbo, Vm. ‘wa~mS>. …- S>m°. XÎmm ‘wê$‘H$a éB©¶m ‘hm{dÚmb¶, ‘mQy>§Jm, _§w~B© - 400 019. …- S>m°. ~mbmOr Jm¶H$dmS> {gÕmW© ‘hm{dÚmb¶, AmZ§X ^dZ, ’$moQ>©, _w§~B© - 400 001. {S>g|~a, 2010 V¥{V¶ df© H$cm- qhXr - àíZnÌ-4 qhXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg àH$meH$ …- àmÜ`mnH$ Ed§ g§MmcH$, Xÿa Ed§ _wº$ AÜ``Z g§ñWm _§w~B© {díd{dÚmc`, _§w~B© - 400 098. Aja OwiUr …- V¥ár J«m$sŠg² amYm{Zdmg, {’$amoOehm ‘ohVm amoS>, {dconmc} (nyd©), _§w~B© - 400 057 …- N>nmB©
  3. 3. AZwH«$_{UH$m H«$_m§H$ {df` 1. {hÝXr gm{h˶ : H$mb-{d^mOZ Ed§ Zm‘H$aU {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$m H$mb{d^mOZ 2. Am{XH$mc 3. ^{ŠV H$m CX²^d Am¡a {dH$mg 1. ^p³VH$mc 3-A g§V H$mì¶ 3-Am gy’$s H$mì¶ 3-B am‘ ^p³V H$mì¶ 3-B© H¥$îU ^p³V H$mì¶ 4. ar{VH$mb 5. AmYw{ZH$ H$mb 5-A ^maVoÝXw - ¶wJrZ H$mì¶ 5-Am {ÛdoXr `wJrZ- H$mì` 6. N>m`mdmX 7. àJ{VdmX 8. à`moJdmX 9. ZB© H${dVm 10.ZdJrV 11.CnÝ`mg 12.{hÝXr H$hmZr … CX²^d Am¡a {dH$mgboIH$ 13.{hÝXr ZmQ>H$ H$m {dH$mg 14.{hÝXr {Z~ÝY gm{hË` H$m {dH$mg n¥ð>. H«$‘m§H$ 1 11 40 43 47 58 66 74 85 102 115 127 139 163 186 210 235 257 287 297 311
  4. 4. T.Y.B.A. HIND PART - IV qhXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg (History of Hindi Literature) nmR>çH«$‘ Ho$ {bE {ZYm©[aV {df¶ 1. {hÝXr gm{h˶ … H$mc-{d^mOZ Ed§ Zm‘H$aU 2. Am{XH$mb … {gÕ gm{h˶, ZmW gm{h˶, O¡Z gm{h˶, bm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ Am¡a amgmo gm{h˶ H$s gm‘mݶ {deofVmE± 3. ^p³VH$mb … g§V H$mì¶, gy’$s H$mì¶, am‘ ^p³V H$mì¶ Am¡a H¥$îU ^p³V H$mì¶ H$s à‘wI {deofVmE± 4. ar{VH$mb … ar{V ~Õ, ar{V {gÕ Am¡a ar{V ‘w³V H$mì¶ H$s à‘wI àd¥{Îm¶m± 5. AmYw{ZH$ H$mb … (H$) AmYw{ZH$ {hÝXr H$[dVm H$m {dH$mg (^maVoÝXþ ¶wJ, {ÛdoXr ¶wJ, N>m¶mdmX, àJ{VdmX, à¶moJdmX, Z¶r H${dVm VWm ZdJrV H$s à‘wI àd¥{Îm¶m±) (I) {hÝXr JÚ H$s {dYmE± ([hÝXr Cnݶmg, H$hmZr, ZmQ>H$ Am¡a {Z~ÝY gm{h˶ H$m H«${‘H$ {dH$mg) ({hÝXr JÚ {dYmAm| Ho$ I§S> go ¶wJ-{d^mOZ AWdm ¶wJ {deof gå~§Yr àíZ Ano{jV Zht h¢&) {deof gyMZm - Bg àíZnÌ ‘| Mma àíZ {dH$ën g{hV nyN>o OmE±& nm±Mdo§ àíZ ‘| "H$' Am¡a "I' Xmo I§S> hm|& I§S> "H$' ‘| Xmo {Q>ßn{U¶m± nyN>r OmE± {OZ‘| go {H$gr EH$ H$m CÎma Ano{jV hmo Am¡a I§S> "I' Ho$ AÝVJ©V Xg dñVw{Zð> àíZ {ZYm©[aV àíZ gyMr ‘| nyN>o OmE±& g^r àíZm| Ho$ {bE 20 A§H$ {ZYm©[aV h¢&
  5. 5. {ZYm©[aV dñVw{Zð> àíZm| H$s gyMr 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ Ama§{^H$ ¶wJ H$mo "Am{XH$mc' Ho$ Zm‘ go {H$gZo A{^{hV {H$¶m h¡? - hOmar àgmX {ÛdoXr {hÝXr H$m àW‘ H${d {H$go ‘mZm J¶m h¡? - gahnmX "drgbXod amgmo' Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - Zan{V Zmëh "nS>‘ M[aC' {H$gH$s aMZm h¡? - ñd¶§^y Am{XH$mb ‘| I‹S>r ~mocr H$mo H$mì¶-^mfm ~ZmZodmbo àW‘ H${d H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - A‘ra Iwgamo {H$g H${d H$mo "‘¡{Wb H$mo{H$b' H$hm J¶m h¡? - {dÚmn{V gahnmX H$s gdm©{YH$ à{gÓ aMZm H$m¡Z-gr h¡? - XmohmH$mof {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ {H$g H$mb H$mo "{hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m ñdU©-¶wJ' H$hm J¶m h¡? - ^p³VH$mb "M§Xm¶Z' Ho$ aMZmH$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - ‘w„m XmD$X "XmXÿ' ^p³VH$mb H$s {H$g Ymam Ho$ H${d h¡? - {ZJw©U "H${dVmdbr' Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - VwbgrXmg "^«‘aJrV' Ho$ aMZmH$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - gyaXmg VwbgrXmg Zo {H$g ‘hmH$mì¶ H$s aMZm H$s? - am‘M[aV ‘mZg "ewÕmÛ¡VdmX' H$m gå~§Y {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$s {H$g Ymam go h¡? - H¥$îU ^p³V emIm (d„^mMm¶©) am‘ ^p³V H$mì¶ na {H$g Xe©Z H$m à^md n‹S>m h¡?- {d{eð>m Û¡VdmX (am‘mZwOmMm¶©) nwéf àYmZ gm‘§Vr na§nam H$mo {H$g ‘ܶ¶wJrZ H$d{¶Ìr Zo MwZm¡Vr Xr Wr? - ‘ram AmMm¶© am‘M§Ð ew³b Zo "CÎma ‘ܶ H$mb' H$mo H$m¡Z-gm Zm‘ {X¶m h¡? - ar{VH$mb ar{VH$mb H$mo H$mì¶ H$s Ñ{ï> go {H$VZo ^mJm| ‘| ~m±Q>m J¶m h¢? - VrZ ar{V {gÕ H$mì¶Ymam Ho$ à‘wI H${d H$m¡Z h¢? - {~hmar ar{VH$mb Ho$ {H$g H${d Zo draag àYmZ aMZmE± H$s h¢? - ^yfU KZmZ§X {H$g H$mì¶-Ymam Ho$ H${d h¢? - ar{V‘w³V AmYw{ZH$ H$mb ‘| {bIm J¶m I‹S>r ~mobr H$m àW‘ ‘hmH$mì¶ H$m¡Z-gm h¡? - {චàdmg "gmHo$V' Ho$ aMZmH$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - ‘¡{Wbr eaU Jwá "nwîn H$s A{^bmfm' H${dVm H$m H${d H$m¡Z h¡? - ‘mIZbmb MVwd}Xr N>m¶mdmX H$mo "ñWyb Ho$ à{V gyú‘ H$m [dÐmoh' {H$g AmbmoMH$ Zo H$hm h¡? - S>m°. ZJ«|Ð H$m‘m¶Zr ‘| {H$g Xe©Z H$s A{^ì¶{º$ hþB© h¡? - e¡d Xe©Z
  6. 6. 27. "gamoO ñ‘¥{V' Zm‘H$ aMZm {H$g H${d Zo H$s h¡? - {Zambm 28. "gañdVr' n{ÌH$m Zo {Zambm H$s {H$g aMZm H$mo AñdrH¥$V H$a {X¶m Wm? - Oyhr H$s H$br 29. AmYw{ZH$ H$mb H$s ‘ram {H$go H$hm OmVm h¡? - ‘hmXodr d‘m© 30. "agd§Vr' Ho$ aMZmH$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& -"{XZH$a' am‘Ym[a qgh {XZH$a 31. "‘Ywembm' Ho$ aMZmH$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - h[ad§eam¶ ~ƒZ 32. àH¥${V H$m gwHw$‘ma H${d {H$go H$hm J¶m h¡? - gw{‘ÌmZ§XZ n§V 33. "Mm±X H$m ‘w±h Q>o‹T>m h¡' H$mì¶ g§J«h Ho$ H${d H$m¡Z h¢?- "‘wp³V~moY' JOmZZ ‘mYd ‘wp³V~moY 34. "A±Yoao ‘|' H${dVm H$m aMZmH$ma H$m¡Z h¡? - ‘wp³V~moY 35. "Am±JZ Ho$ nma Ûma' H$mì¶g§J«h H$mo {H$g H${d Zo {bIm h¡? - Ako¶ 36. "g§gX go g‹S>H$ VH$' H$mì¶ g§J«h H$mo {H$gZo {bIm h¡? - Yw{‘b 37. {hÝXr H$m à{V{Z{Y JµObH$ma {H$go ‘mZm OmVm h¡? - XþV Hw$‘ma 38. "e~ar' Zm‘H$ H¥${V Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m¡Z h¢? - OJXre Jwá 39. "{dídmg ~‹T>Vm hr J¶m' H${dVm {H$gZo {bIr h¡? - {ed‘§Jb qgh 'gw‘Z' 40. "~mXb H$mo {KaVo XoIm h¡' H${dVm Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - ZmJmOw©Z 41. "{MÝVm‘{U' {H$gHo$ {Z~§Ym| H$m g§H$bZ h¡? - AmMm¶© am‘M§Ð ew³b 42. "Am±JZ H$m n§N>r Am¡a ~ZOmam ‘Z' {Z~§Y g§J«h Ho$ boIH$ H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - {dÚm{Zdmg {‘l 43. "CgZo H$hm Wm' H$hmZr Ho$ boIH$ H$m¡Z Wo? - M§ÐYa e‘m© "Jwcoar' 44. "‘mZgamoda' {H$gH$s H$hm{Z¶m| H$m g§J«h h¡? - ào‘M§X 45. "ñ‘¥{V H$s aoImE±' Zm‘H$ g§J«h {H$gZo {bIm h¡? - ‘hmXodr d‘m© 46. "A§YoaZJar' ZmQ>H$ H$m boIH$ H$m¡Z h¡? - ^maVoÝXþ h[aíM§Ð 47. "EH$ Am¡a ÐmoUmMm¶©' ZmQ>H$ Ho$ boIH$ H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - e§H$a eof 48. "Ob Qy>Q>Vm hþAm' Cnݶmg {H$gZo {bIm h¡? - am‘Xmg {‘l 49. "~oVdm ~hVr ahr' Cnݶmg H$s bo{IH$m H$m Zm‘ {b{IE& - ‘¡Ìo¶r nwî¶m 50. "Xÿgar na§nam H$s ImoO' {H$gH$s aMZm h¡? - S>m°. Zm‘da qgh 51. "na‘mb amgmo' Ho$ H${d H$m ³¶m Zm‘ h¡? (1) MÝX~aXmB© (2) Zan{V Zmëh (3) OJ{ZH$ (4) XbnV [dO¶& 52. {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ Am{XH$mb H$mo "{gÕ gm‘§V H$mb' {H$gZo H$hm h¡? (1) am‘M§Ð ew³b (2) am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© (3) amhþb gm§H¥$˶m¶Z (4) S>m°. ZJoÝÐ& 53. AmMm¶© am‘M§Ð ew³b Zo {hÝXr H$m àW‘ ‘hmH$mì¶ {H$go ‘mZm h¡? (1) H$s{V©nVmH$m (2) nX²‘mdV (3) n¥ÏdramO amgmo (4) {à¶àdmg& 54. "{hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m Xÿgam B{Vhmg' {H$gZo {bIm h¡? (1) {‘l~§Yw (2) amOHw$‘ma e‘m© (3) JUn{VM§Ð Jwá (4) ~ƒZ qgh&
  7. 7. 55. "~rOH$' Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m ³¶m Zm‘ h¡? (1) gyaXmg (2) H$~raXmg (3) Om¶gr (4) X¶mb& 56. {ZåZ{b{IV ‘| go H$m¡Z-gr aMZm Om¶gr H$s Zht h¡? (1) nX²‘mdV (2) AIamdQ> (3) M§Xm¶Z (4) Am{Iar H$bm‘& 57. ^maV ‘| ^p³V H$m ómooV H$hm± go àñ’w${Q>V hmoH$a CÎma ^maV ‘| Am¶m? (1) nyd© (2) npíM‘ (3) qgY (4) X{jU& 58. "g§VZ H$moo H$hm grH$ar gmo H$mO' {H$gH$s n§p³V h¡? (1) gyaXmg (2) Hw§$^ZXmg (3) MVw^w©OXmg (4) VwbgrXmg& 59. ZmZH$ {H$g H$mì¶-Ymam Ho$ H${d h¡? (1) gy’$s H$mì¶ (2) am‘ H$mì¶ (3) g§V H$mì¶ (4) H¥$îU H$mì¶& 60. "‘mZwg ào‘ ^¶C ~¡Hw§$R>r' {H$g H${d H$s n§p³V h¡? (1) XmXÿ (2) ‘w„m XmCX (3) Hw$Vw~Z (4) Om¶gr& 61. "^«‘aJrV' Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m¡Z h¡? (1) VwbgrXmg (2) gyaXmg (3) {~hmar (4) H$~raXmg& 62. g¡¶X B~«m{h‘ Zo H¥$îU ^p³V Ho$ à^mde AnZm Zm‘ aI {b¶m? (1) H¥$îUXmg (2) am‘Xmg (3) agImZ (4) ào‘Xmg& 63. "nw{ï>‘mJ©' H$m OhmO [H$g H${d H$mo H$hm J¶m h¡? (1) H$~raXmg (2) gyaXmg (3) VwbgrXmg (4) Ho$edXmg& 64. AH$~a Ho$ Xa~ma Ho$ {H$g gXñ¶ Zo "Xmoohmdbr' H$s aMZm H$s? (1) ~ra~b (2) ahr‘ (3) VmZgoZ (4) BZ‘| go {H$gr Zo Zht& 65. {dídZmW àgmX {‘l Zo ar{VH$mb H$mo ³¶m Zm‘ {X¶m h¡? (1) ar{VH$mb (2) l¥§JmaH$mb (3) Ab§H¥$V H$mb (4) CÎma ‘ܶH$mb& 66. ar{V‘w³V H$mì¶-Ymam Ho$ à‘wI H${d BZ‘o§ go H$m¡Z h¡? (1) {~hmar (2) Xod (3) KZmZ§X (4) nX²‘mH$a& 67. "am‘M§{ÐH$m' Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m Zm‘ ³¶m h¡? (1) ZmnmXmg (2) VwbgrXmg (3) Ho$edXmg (4) {^ImarXmg& 68. nX²‘mH$a ar{VH$mb H$s {H$g H$mì¶Ymam Ho$ H${d h¡? (1) ar{V~Õ (2) ar{V{gÕ (3) ar{V‘w³V (4) BZ‘| go H$mooB© Zht& 69. {ZåZ{b{IV ‘| go H$m¡Z-gr aMZm ‘¡{WbreaU Jwá H$s h¡? (1) {à¶àdmg (2) gmHo$V (3) bha (4) Cd©er& 70. H$m¡Z-gm H${d "EH$ ^maVr¶ AmË‘m' Ho$ Zm‘ go à{gÕ h¡? (1) am‘Zaoe {ÌnmR>r (2) Za|Ð e‘m© (3) ‘mIZbmb MVwd}Xr (4) Yy{‘b& 71. BZ‘| go H$m¡Z-gm H${d N>m¶mdmXr h¡? (1) h[ad§eam¶ ~ƒZ (2) O¶e§H$a àgmX (3) Ako¶ (4) Yy{‘b& 72. ^maV ‘| àJ{Verb boIH$ g§K H$s ñWmnZm H$~ hþB© Wr? (1) 1936 (2) 1935 (3) 1938 (4) 1950&
  8. 8. 73. àJ{VdmX {H$g Xe©Z go à^m{dV h¡? (1) ApñVËddmX (2) ‘m³g©dmX (3) Jm±YrdmX (4) ‘Zmo{díbofUdmX& 74. à¶moJdmXr H$mì¶Ymam H$m àma§^ {H$g nwñVH$ Ho$ àH$meZ go ‘mZm OmVm h¡? (1) VmagáH$ (2) Xÿgam gáH$ (3) Vrgam gáH$ (4) Mm¡Wm gáH$& 75. Ako¶ Ho$ Cnmݶmg§ H$m erf©H$ h¡ (1) {Xì¶m (2) eoIa EH$ OrdZr (3) ‘¥JZ¶Zr (4) {MÌboIm& 76. "A§Ym ¶wJ' {H$gH$s aMZm h¡? (1) ^maVoÝXþ (2) Zaoe ‘ohVm (3) Y‘©dra ^maVr (4) Yy{‘b& 77. ‘wp³V~moY Ho$ H$mì¶g§J«h H$m Zm‘ h¡? (1) ~mK (2) g§gX Ho$ g‹S>H$ VH$ (3) Mm±X H$m ‘w±h Q>o‹T>m (4) Hw$AmZmoZXr& 78. "nhm‹S> na bmbQ>oZ' {H$gH$m H$mì¶-g§J«h h¡? (1) CX¶ àH$me (2) ‘§Jboe S>~amb (3) AéU H$‘b (4) amOoe Omoer& 79. "gm¶o ‘| Yyn' Ho$ aMZmH$ma h¡? (1) Hw$‘ma {dH$b (2) {dZmoX Hw$‘ma (3) XþV H$‘ma (4) amOoe Omoer& 80. ^maVoÝXþ h[aíM§Ð Ho$ ZmQ>H$ H$m erf©H$ h¡? (1) A§YoaZJar (2) ~H$ar (3) eHw§$Vbm (4) g§¶mo{JVm ñd¶§da& 81. "gañdVr' Ho$ g§nmXH$ BZ‘| go H$m¡Z Wo? (1) àVmnZmam¶U {‘l (2) ‘hmdra àgmX {ÛdoXr (3) hOmar àgmX {ÛdoXr (4) h[aAm¡Y& 82. AmMm¶© am‘M§Ð ew³b H$m {Z~§Y-g§H$bZ BZ‘| go H$m¡Z-gm h¡? (1) AemoH$ Ho$ ’y$b (2) qMVm‘{U (3) {dMma Am¡a {dVH©$ (4) agka§OZ& 83. "nJS>§{S>¶m| H$m O‘mZm' {H$g 춧½¶H$ma H$m 춧½¶-g§J«h h¡? (1) Jwbm~am¶ (2) eaX Omoer (3) h[ae§H$a nagmB© (4) Za|Ð H$mohbr& 84. ~§J ‘{hbm H$s H$hmZr H$m Zm‘ h¡? (1) {H$ñgm VmoVm-‘¡Zm (2) CgZo H$hm Wm (3) hma H$s OrV (4) XþbmB©dmbr& 85. "g‘m§Va H$hmZr' Ho$ àdV©H$ H$m¡Z h¡? (1) ào‘M§X (2) ‘mohZ amHo$e (3) amO|Ð ¶mXd (4) H$‘boída& 86. BZ‘| go H$m¡¡Z-gm ZmQ>H$ àgmXOr H$m Zhr h¡? (1) ñH§$XJwá (2) M§ÐJwá (3) Y«wdñdm{‘Zr (4) ^maV XþX©em& 87. "Amfm‹T> H$m EH$ {XZ' ZmQ>H$ Ho$ ZmQ>H$H$ma H$m Zm‘ ³¶m h¡? (1) e§H$a eof (2) ‘mohZ amHo$e (3) bú‘rZmam¶U bmb (4) CX¶ e§H$a ^Å>& 88. "AmR>dm§ gJ©' ZmQ>H$ Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m Zm‘ {b{IE? (1) ^rî‘ gmhZr (2) gwa|Ð d‘m© (3) JmoqdX MmVH$ (4) ‘mohZ amHo$e& 89. "~H$ar' ZmQ>H$ Ho$ ZmQ>H$H$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE? (1) OJXreM§Ð ‘mWwa (2) ‘mohZ amHo$e (3) gd}ída X¶mb g³goZm (4) AgJa dµOmhV&
  9. 9. 90. {hÝXr H$m nhbm Cnݶmg {H$go ‘mZm OmVm h¡? (1) ZyVZ ~«÷Mmar (2) narjm Jwé (3) R>oR> {hÝXr H$m R>mR> (4) M§ÐH$m§Vm& 91. BZ‘| go H$m¡Z-gm Cnݶmg ào‘M§X H$m Zht h¡? (1) H$‘©^y{‘ (2) a§J^y{‘ (3) {VVbr (4) JmoXmZ& 92. "˶mJnÌ' Cnݶmg Ho$ boIH$ H$m Zm‘ ~VmBE? (1) ¶enmb (2) A‘¥Vbmb ZmJa (3) O¶e§H$a àgmX (4) O¡ZoÝÐ Hw$‘ma& 93. gyaXmg Ho$ OrdZ na AmYm[aV Cnݶmg H$m Zm‘ ~VmBE? (1) ‘mZg H$m h§g (2) godm gXZ (3) I§OZ Z¶Z (4) ^m½¶dVr& 94. BZ‘| go H$m¡Z-gm Cnݶmg Ako¶ H$m Zht h¡? (1) XmXm H$m‘aoS> (2) eoIa EH$ OrdZr (3) ZXr Ho$ Ûrn (4) AnZo-AnZo AOZ~r& 95. "éH$moJr Zht am{YH$m' H$s bo{IH$m H$m¡Z h¡? (1) ‘¥Xþbm JJ© (2) ‘Þy ^§S>mar (3) Cfm {ටdXm (4) H¥$îUm gmo~Vr& 96. "MmH$' Ho$ aMZmH$ma H$m Zm‘ {b{IE? (1) ‘¡Ìo¶r nwînm (2) ‘§Owb ^JV (3) gy¶©~mbm (4) ‘‘Vm H$m{b¶m& 97. "{Zambm H$s gm{h˶ gmYZm' {H$gH$s H¥${V h¡? (1) Zm‘da qgh (2) ZJ|Ð (3) am‘{dbmg e‘m© (4) ‘hmXodr d‘m©& 98. "{~„ogwa ~H$[ahm' {H$gH$m g§ñ‘aUmË‘H$ aoIm{MÌ h¡? (1) O¶e§H$a àgmX (2) {Zambm (3) n§V (4) ‘hmXodr d‘m©& 99. {hÝXr H$m nhbm AmË‘H$Wm boIH$ H$m¡Z h¡? (1) {d¶moJr h[a (2) CnoÝÐZmW AíH$ (3) ~ZmagrXmg MVwd}Xr (4) ~ZmagrXmg O¡Z& 100. "Kw‘¸$‹S>emó' Ho$ boIH$ H$m Zm‘ ³¶m h¡? (1) am§Jo¶ amKd (2) Ako¶ (3) amhþb gm§H¥$˶m¶Z (4) ¶enmb&
  10. 10. g§X^© J«§W 1. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg AmMm¶© am‘M§Ð ew³b 2. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg g§. S>m°. ZJoÝÐ 3. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m Am{XH$mb Am. hOmar àgmX {ÛdoXr 4. {hÝXr gm{h˶ : CX²^d Am¡a {dH$mg Am. hOmar àgmX {ÛdoXr 5. {hÝXr gm{h˶ : ¶wJ Am¡a àd¥{Îm¶m± S>m°. {edHw$‘ma e‘m© 6. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m AmbmoMZmË‘H$ B{Vhmg S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© 7. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m d¡km{ZH$ B{Vhmg S>m°. JUn{V M§Ð Jwá 8. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg S>m°. bú‘rgmJa dmîU}¶ 9. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg S>m°. {dO¶oÝÐ ñZmVH$ 10. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m Xÿgam B{Vhmg S>m°. ~ƒZ qgh 11. {hÝXr gm{h˶ VWm gm{h˶o{Vhmg: A§VamZwemgZm| H$m AZwerbZ S>m°. Xodoe R>mHw$a 12. ñdmV§Í¶moÎma {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg S>m°. bú‘rgmJa dmîU}¶ 13. AmYw{ZH$ {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg S>m°. ~ƒZ qgh 14. {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg g§. S>m°. am‘gOZ nm§S>o¶ 15. gmR>moÎma {hÝXr H${dVm S>m°. aVZ Hw$‘ma nm§S>o¶ 16. ‘ܶH$mbrZ H$mì¶ d¡^d S>m°. erVb àgmX Xþ~o
  11. 11. 1 {hÝXr gm{h˶ : H$mb-{d^mOZ Ed§ Zm‘H$aU {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$m H$mb{d^mOZ Am{XH$mc boIH$ - S>m°. nr. Ho$. Yw‘mi
  12. 12. 2 1 {hÝXr gm{h˶ : H$mb-{d^mOZ Ed§ Zm‘H$aU {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$m H$mb{d^mOZ BH$mB© H$s ê$naoIm 1.1. CÔoí¶ 1.2 àñVmdZm 1.3 {hÝXr gm{h˶ … H$mb {d^mOZ Ed§ Zm‘H$aU 1.4 ~moY àíZ 1.1. CÔoí¶ àñVwV I§S> H$s nhbr BH$mB© ‘| {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$m Aܶ¶Z {H$¶m OmEJm& BgHo$ A{V[a³V {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m H$mb {d^mOZ Zm‘H$aU na {dñV¥V MMm© Bg Aܶm¶ ‘| H$s J¶r h¡& H$mb {d^mOZ Am¡a Zm‘H$aU Ho$ g§~§Y ‘| {d{^Þ {dÛmZm| Am¡a AmMm¶m] Ho$ ‘V ^r Bg Aܶm¶ ‘| {X¶o J¶o h¢& Vm{H$ Bg BH$mB© H$m Aܶ¶Z H$a {dÚmWu ~moY àíZm| H$m CÎma AmgmZr go àmá H$a gH|$Jo& 1.2 àñVmdZm gm{h˶ ZXr Ho$ àdmh H$s Vah hmoVm h¡& Omo {Za§Va AmJo ~‹T>Vm h¡& Cg‘| Z H$moB© éH$mdQ> AmVr h¢& Am¡a Z hr H$moB© Cgo ^§J H$aVm h¡& hm± g‘¶ Ho$ gmW gmW Cg‘| n[adV©Z AmVo ahVo h¡ Am¡a n[adV©Z Ho$ AZwê$n gm{h˶ H$mo Z¶r àd¥{Îm¶m±, Z¶r {XemE± {‘bVr h¡& {H$gr ^r gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$m H$mb-{d^mOZ H$aZo H$s gdm©{YH$ Cn¶wº$ àUmcr Cg gm{h˶ ‘| àdm{hV gm{h˶ YmamAmo§, {d{dY àd¥{Îm¶mo|Ho$ AmYma na Cgo {d^m{OV H$aZm h¡& ¶wJ H$s n[apñW{V¶m| Ho$ AZwHy$c gm{h˶ H$s {df¶ VWm e¡brJV àd¥{V¶m± n[ad{V©V hmoVr ahVr h¡& {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ {df¶ ‘| ^r ¶hr ~mV ¶wp³V¶w³V àVrV hmoVr h¡& EH$ {deof H$mc ‘| g‘mO H$s {deof n{apñW{V¶m± Ed§ VËgå~ÝYr {dMmaYmamE± ahr h¡ Am¡a CÝht Ho$ AZwén gm{hp˶H$ aMZmE± àñVwV hþB© h¡& AndmX aho Adí¶ naÝVw Jm¡U àd¥{Îm Ho$ én ‘|& H$mb{d^mOZ H$aVo g‘¶ ñd¶§ AmMm¶© ew³bOr Zo {d^mOZ Ho$ AmYma Ho$ gå~ÝY ‘| AnZm ‘V ñnï> H$a {X¶m h¡& CÝhm|Zo H$hm h¡- ""O~{H$ à˶oH$ Xoe H$m gm{h˶ dhm± H$s OZVm H$s {MÎmd¥{Îm H$m g§{MV à{V{~å~ hmoVm h¡ V~ ¶h {ZpíMV h¡ {H$ OZVm H$s {MÎmd¥{Îm Ho$ n[adV©Z Ho$ gmW-gmW gm{h˶ Ho$ ñdê$n ‘| ^r n[adV©Z hmoVm Mcm OmVm h¡& Am{X go AÝV VH$ BÝhr {MÎmd¥{Îm¶m|H$s naånam H$mo naIVo hþE gm{h˶ naånam Ho$ gmW CZH$m gm‘§Oñ¶ {XImZm hr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg H$hcmVm h¡&''
  13. 13. 3 {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$s gm‘J«r "^³V‘mc', "Mm¡amer d¡îUdZ H$s dmVm©' Am¡a "Xmo gm¡ ~mdZ d¡îUdZ H$s dmVm©' Am{X J«ÝWm| ‘| {‘cVr h¡ qH$Vw H$mc{d^mOZ Am¡a Zm‘H$aU H$s Amoa H$moB© Ñ{ï> Zhr H$s JB© Wr& {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg gd©àW‘ {cIZo H$m lo¶ EH$ ’«|$M {dÛmZ Jmgm© X Vmgr H$mo {X¶m OmVm h¡& BÝhm|Zo ’«o$ÝM ^mfm ‘| "Bgdma X cm {gVao˶wa ahþB© E {hÝXþñVmZr' Zm‘H$ J«ÝW ‘| A§J«oOr dU© H«$‘mZwgma {hÝXr Am¡a CXÿ© ^mfm Ho$ AZoH$ H$qd¶m| H$m n[aM¶ {X¶m h¡& naÝVw CÝhm|Zo ^r H$b{d^mOZ Am¡a Zm‘H$aU H$s Amoa ܶmZ Zht {X¶m Wm& Bg naånam H$m Xÿgam ‘hËdnyU© J«ÝW {hÝXr {dÛmZ {edqgh g|Ja H$m "{edqgh gamoO' h¡& Bg‘| cJ^J EH$ hOma ^mfm-H${d¶m| Ho$ OrdZ M[aÌ Am¡a BZH$s H${dVmAm| Ho$ CXmhaU g§J«{hV {H$¶o h¡ qH$Vw H$mc {d^mOZ H$m Bg‘| H$moB© g§Ho$V Zht h¡& Bg gå~ÝY ‘| g~go nhcm à¶mg H$aZo H$m lo¶ OmO© {½V¶g©Z H$mo h¡& na O¡gm {H$ CÝhm|Zo ñd¶§ AnZo J«ÝW H$s ^y{‘H$m ‘| ñdrH$ma {H$¶m h¡, CZHo$ gm‘Zo AZoH$ Eogr H${R>ZmB¶m± Wr {Oggo do H$mc-H«$‘ Ed§ H$mc {d^mOZ Ho$ {Zdm©h ‘| nyU©V: g’$c Zht hmo gHo$& CÝhmo|Zo {cIm h¡ - ""gm‘J«r H$mo ¶Wm g§^d H$mcH«$‘mZwgma àñVwV H$aZo H$m à¶mg {H$¶m J¶m h¡& ¶h gd©Ì gac Zht ahm h¡ Am¡a H${Vn¶ ñWcm| na Vmo ¶h Ag§^d {gÕ hþAm h¡& BÝhm|Zo {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$mo {ZåZ{c{IV ½¶mah erf©H$m| Ho$ A§VJ©V {d^m{OV {H$¶m h¡& - (1) MmaU-H$mc 1702 -1300 B©.) (2) nÝÐhdt eVr H$m Ym{‘©H$ nwZOm©JaU (3) Om¶gr H$s ào‘ H${dVm (4) ~«O H$m H¥$îU-gåàXm¶, (5) ‘wJc Xa~ma (6) VwcgrXmg (7) ar{V H$mì¶ (8) VwcgrXmg Ho$ Aݶ nadVu (9) AQ²>R>mahdt eVmãXr (10) H$ånZr Ho$ emgZ ‘| {hÝXþñVmZ Am¡a (1) ‘hmamZr pìh³Q>mo[a¶m Ho$ emgZ ‘| {hÝXþñVmZ& S>m°. {½V¶g©Z Ho$ {d^mOZ ‘| AZoH$ Ag§J{V¶m±, ݶyZVm Ed§ Ìw{Q>¶m± hmoVo hþE ^r àW‘ à¶mg hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BgH$m AnZm ‘hËd h¡& AmJo McH$a {‘l ~ÝYwAm| Zo AnZo "{‘l ~ÝYw-{dZmoX' (1913) ‘| H$mc-{d^mOZ H$m Z¶m à¶mg {H$¶m Omo à˶oH$ Ñ{ï> g| {½V¶g©Z Ho$ à¶mg go ~hþV A{YH$ àm¡‹T> Ed§ {dH${gV H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡& BZH$m {d^mOZ BgàH$ma h¡1 Amapå^H$ H$mc / nydm©apå^H$ H$mc (600 - 1343 {d.) CÎmamapå^H$ H$mc (1344 - 1444 {d.) 2. ‘mܶ{‘H$ H$mc / nyd© ‘mܶ{‘H$ H$mc àm¡‹T> ‘mܶ{‘H$ H$mc (1445 - 1560 {d.) (1561 - 1580 {d.) 3. Ac§H¥$V H$mc / nydm©c§H¥$V H$mc CÎmamc§H¥$V H$mc (1681 - 1790 {d.) (1791 - 1889 {d.) 4. n[adV©Z H$mc - (1890 - 1925 {d.) 5. dV©‘mZ H$mc - (1926 {d. go A~ VH$) {‘l ~ÝYwAmo Ho$ níMmV² AmMm¶© am‘MÝÐ ew³cOr Zo gZ² 1929 ‘| "{hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m B{Vhmg' àñVwV H$aVo hþE H$mc-{d^mOZ H$m Z¶m à¶mg {H$¶m& BZHo$ H$mc-{d^mOZ ‘| A{YH$ gacVm, ñnï>Vm Ed§ gw~mooYVm h¡& AnZr Bgr {deofVm Ho$ H$maU dh AmO VH$
  14. 14. 4 gd©‘mݶ Ed§ gd©Ì àM{cV h¡& CZH$m H$mc-{d^mOZ BgàH$ma h¡ 1. Am{XH$mc (draJmWm H$mc) g§dV² 1050 go 1375 2. nyd© ‘ܶH$mc (^{º$H$mc) g§dV² 1375 go 1700 3. CÎma ‘ܶH$mc (ar{VH$c) g§dV² 1700 Vo 1900 4. AmYw{ZH$ H$mc (JÚH$mc) g§dV² 1900 go A~ VH$& Am. ew³cOr Ho$ níMmV² S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© H$m Zm‘ Bg àg§J ‘| C„oIZr¶ h¡, {OÝhm|Zo AnZm Z¶m- H$mc {d^mOZ àñVwV {H$¶m Omo BgàH$ma h¡ 1. gpÝYH$mc (750 - 100 {d.) 2. MmaU H$mc (1000 - 1375 {d.) 3. ^{º$H$mc (1375 - 1700 {d.) 4. ar{VH$mc (1700 - 1900 {d.) 5. AmYw{ZH$ H$mc (1900 go A~ VH$) S>m°. d‘m© Ho$ {d^mOZ Ho$ A§{V‘ VrZ H$mc-{d^mOZ AmMm¶© ew³cOr Ho$ hr {d^mOZ Ho$ AZwê$n h¡, Ho$dc "draJmWmH$mc' Ho$ ñWmZ na "MmaUH$mc' Ed§ "gpÝYH$mc' Zm‘ XoH$a AnZm Z¶mnU ñWm{nV {H$¶m h¡& Bg naånam ‘| ~m~y í¶m‘gwÝXa Xmg Ûmam {H$¶m hþAm H$mc-{d^mOZ ^r C„oIZr¶ h¡& CZHo$ H$mc-{d^mOZ ‘| Am. ew³cOr go H$moB© A{YH$ {^ÞVm Zht h¡& CZH$m H$mc-{d^mOZ BgàH$ma h¡ 1. Am{XH$mc (draJmWm H$m ¶wJ g§dV² 1000 go g§dV² 1400 VH$) 2. nyd© ‘ܶ¶wJ (^{º$ H$m ¶wJ, g§dV² 1400 go g§dV² 1700 VH$) 3. CÎma ‘ܶ¶wJ (ar{V J«ÝWm| H$m ¶wJ, g§dV² 1700 go, g§dV² 1900 VH$) 4. AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ (ZdrZ {dH$mg H$m ¶wJ, g§dV² 1900 go A~ VH$) Cn¶w©º$ H$mc-{d^mOZ H$s naånam ‘| Am. ew³cOr Ho$ ~mX Hw$‹N> {dÛmZmo| Zo Wmo‹S>m-~hþV n[adV©Z H$aHo$ AnZm H$mc-{d^mOZ àñVwV H$aZo H$m à¶mg {H$¶m h¡& na§Vw ew³cOr H$m B{Vhmg coIZ H$m AmYma hr A{YH$ d¡km{ZH$, VH©$g§JV Am¡a Cn¶w³V àVrV hmoVm h¡& S>m°. JUn{VMÝÐ Jwá Zo AnZo J«ÝW "{hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m d¡km{ZH$ B{Vhmg' ‘| CgH$m AZw‘moXZ {H$¶m h¡& CZH$m H$mc-{d^mOZ BgàH$ma h¡ 1. àmapå^H$ H$mc (1184 - 1350 B©.) 2. nyd© ‘ܶH$mc (1350 - 1600 B©.) 3. CÎma ‘ܶH$mc (1600 - 1857 B©.) 4. AmYw{ZH$ H$mc (1857 B©. A~ VH$) Bg naånam ‘o§ S>m°. ZJoÝÐ H$m Zm‘ ^r C„oIZr¶ h¡& CÝhm|Zo {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m H$mc{d^mOZ VWm Zm‘H$aU BgàH$ma {H$¶m h¡ 1. Am{XH$mc 7 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ go 14 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ VH$& 2. ^p³VH$mc 14 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ go 17 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ VH$& 3. ar{VH$mc 17 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ go 19 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ VH$& 4. AmYw{ZH$ H$mc 19 dt eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ go A~ VH$&
  15. 15. 5 A) nwZOm©JaU H$mc (^maVoÝXþ H$mc) g§. 1877 - 1900 B©. ~) OmJaU-gwYma H$mc ({ÛdoXr H$mc) g§. 1900 - 1918 B©. H$) N>m¶mdmX H$mc g§. 1918 - 1938 B©. S>) N>m¶mdmXmoÎma H$mc 1. àJ{V-à¶moJ H$mc - g§. 1938 - 1953 B©. 2. ZdcoIZ H$mc g§. 1953 B©. go A~ VH$& Cn¶w©³V g^r {dÛmZm| Ho$ H$mc-{d^mOZ ‘| Am. ew³cOr H$m H$mc-{d^mOZ hr gd©gå‘V Ed§ Cn¶w©³V ‘mZm J¶m h¡& 1.3 {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m Zm‘H$aU {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ H$mc-{d^mOZ H$mo coH$a {dÛmZmo ‘| A{YH$ ‘V^oX Zhr h¡, Ho$dc {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ Amaå^ H$mo coH$a ‘V^oX h¡& Cg‘| ^r ‘w»¶V: Xm|o dJ© h¡ - EH$ dJ© {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m àmaå^ gmVdt eVmãXr go ‘mZVm h¡, Am¡a Xÿgam dJ© Xgdt eVmãXr go& dmñVd ‘| gmVdr eVmãXr go Xgdr eVmãXr Ho$ H$mcIÊS> H$mo {hÝXr gm[h˶ H$s n¥ð>^y{‘ Ho$ én ‘| ñdrH$ma H$a {c¶m Om¶ Vmo ¶h ‘V^oX ^r g‘má hmo OmVm h¡ ³¶m|{H$ Bg H$mcIÊ‹S> H$s aMZmE± An^«§e ‘| h¡ Am¡a An^«§e go hr {hÝXr ^mfm H$m OÝ‘ hþAm h¡& {hÝXr ^mfm Ed§ gm{h˶ H$s ‘yc MoVZm H$mo OmZZo Ho$ {cE Bg H$mcIÊ‹S> H$s ^mfm Ho$ ñdén Ed§ gm{h˶-Ymam H$mo g‘PZm A{V Amdí¶H$ h¡& {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ {d{^Þ H$mcIÊ‹S>mo§ Ho$ Zm‘H$aU H$mo coH$a {dÛmZm| ‘| ‘V^oX h¡& ‘w»¶V: Xgdt eVmãXr go Mm¡Xhdt eVmãXr VH$ Ho$ Amapå^H$ H$mcIÊ‹S> (Am{XH$mc) Am¡a gÌhdr eVmãXr go CÞrgdt eVmãXr VH$ Ho$ H$mcIÊ‹S> (ar{VH$mc) Ho$ Zm‘H$aU H$mo coH$a hr A{YH$ ‘V^oX h¡& A) Xgdt eVmãXr go Mm¡Xhdt eVmãXr VH$ Ho$ H$mcIÊ‹S> H$m {d{^Þ {dÛmZm| Ûmam {H$¶m J¶m Zm‘H$aU BgàH$ma h¡ MmaUH$mc - {J«¶g©Z àmapå^H$ H$mc - {‘l~ÝYw draJmWmH$mc - Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³c {gÕgm‘§V H$mc - amhþc gm§H¥$˶m¶Z ~rOdnZ H$mc - ‘hmdraàgmX {ÛdoXr draH$mc - {dídZmWàgmX {‘l Am{XH$mc - hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr g§{YH$mc Ed§ MmaUH$mc - S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© MmaUH$mc …- {J«¶g©Z Zo gd©àW‘ {hÝXr gm{h˶o{Vhmg Ho$ Amapå^H$ H$mc H$m Zm‘H$aU "MmaUH$mc' {H$¶m h¡, qH$Vw Bg Zm‘H$aU H$m H$moB© R>mog à‘mU do àñVwV Zhr H$a gHo$ h¡& CÝhm|Zo MmaUH$mc 643 B©gdr go ‘mZm h¡ O~{H$ 1000 B©gdr VH$ MmaU H${d¶m|
  16. 16. 6 Ûmam {c{IV H$moB© aMZm CncãY Zhr§ hmoVr& ¶V: ¶h Zm‘H$aU Cn¶w³V Zht h¡& àmapå^H$ H$mc …- {‘l~ÝYwAm| Zo 643 B©gdr go 1387 B©gdr VH$ Ho$ H$mc H$mo "àmapå^H$ H$mc' Zm‘ go A{^{hV {H$¶m h¡& ¶h Zm‘ {H$gr gm{hp˶H$ àd¥{Îm H$m ÚmoVH$ Zhr h¡& ¶h EH$ gm‘mݶ g§km h¡ Omo {hÝXr ^mfm Ho$ àmaå^ H$mo ~VmVr h¡& AV: ¶h Zm‘ ^r VH©$g§JV Zhr h¡& draJmWmH$mc …- Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³c Zo AnZo {hÝXr gm[h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg ‘| g§dV² 1050 go coH$a 1375 B©gdr VH$ H$s H$mcmd{Y H$mo "draJmWm H$mc' Zm‘ {X¶m h¡& AnZo ‘V Ho$ g‘W©Z ‘| CÝhm|Zo H$hm h¡ - ""Am{XH$mc H$s XrK© naånam Ho$ ~rM àW‘ S>o‹T>-Xmo gm¡ dfm} Ho$ ^rVa Vmo aMZm H$s {H$gr {deof àd¥{Îm H$m {ZíM¶ Zhr hmo nmVm h¡ - Y‘©, Zr{V, l¥ÝJma, dra g~ àH$ma H$s aMZmE± Xmohmo§ ‘| {‘cVr h¡& Bg A{Z{X©ï> cmoH$-àd¥{Îm Ho$ CnamÝV O~ go ‘wgc‘mZm| H$s M‹T>mB¶m± Ama§^ hmoVr h¡ V~ go h‘ {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$r àd¥{Îm {deof ê$n ‘| ~±YVr hþB© nmVo h¡& amOm{lV H${d Am¡a MmaU {Og àH$ma ar{V, l¥ÝJma Am{X Ho$ ’w$Q>H$c Xmoho amOg^mAm| ‘| gwZm¶m H$aVo Wo, Cgr àH$ma AnZo Aml¶XmVm amOmAm| Ho$ namH«$‘ nyU© M[aVm| ¶m JmWmAm| H$m ^r dU©Z {H$¶m H$aVo Wo& ¶h à~ÝY naånam "amgmo' Ho$ Zm‘ go nmB© OmVr h¡, {Ogo cú¶ H$aHo$ Bg H$mc H$mo h‘Zo "draJmWm H$mc' H$hm h¡& ew³cOr Zo Bg ¶wJ H$m Zm‘H$aU H$aZo Ho$ {cE {OZ ~mah J«ÝWm| H$mo AmYma ~Zm¶m do J«ÝW h¢ 1. {dO¶nmc amgmo 7. n¥ÏdramO amgmo 2. hå‘ra amgmo 8. O¶MÝX àH$me 3. H$s{V©cVm 9. O¶‘¶§H$ OgMpÝÐH$m 4. H$s{V©nVmH$m 10. na‘mc amgmo 5. Iw‘mZ amgmo 11. Iwgamo H$s nho{c¶m± 6.~rgcXod amgmo 12. {dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr {OZ ~mah aMZmAmo§ H$moo ew³c Or Zo Zm‘H$aU H$m AmYma ‘mZm. AmMm¶© hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr Or Zo CZ aMZmAm| H$mo Aàm‘m{UH$ {gÕ H$aVo hþE "draJmWmH$mc' Zm‘H$aU H$mo {ZaW©H$ {gÕ {H$¶m h¡& O¡go ~rgcXod amgmo Am¡a Iw‘mZ amgmo Z¶o emoY n[aUm‘m| Ho$ AmYma na gmochdt eVmãXr ‘| a{MV ‘mZo JE h¢& hå‘ra amgmo, O¶MÝÐàH$me Am¡a O¶‘¶§H$ OgMpÝÐH$m Zmo{Q>g ‘mÌ h¡& BgràH$ma à{gÕ ‘hmH$mì¶ n¥ÏdramO amgmo H$moo ^r AY© àm‘m{UH$ ‘mZ {c¶m J¶m h¡& na‘mc amgmo ¶m AmëhmI§S> Ho$ ‘yc H$m AmO H$hr nVm Zhr cJVm Am¡a Iwgamo H$s nho{c¶m± VWm {dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr ^r draJmWmË‘H$ Zhr h¡& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ Bg H$mc ‘| Ho$dc draH$mì¶ hr Zhr {cIo J¶o A{nVw Ym{‘©H$, l¥ÝJm[aH$ Am¡a cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ H$s ^r aMZmE± hþB© h¡& {gÕgm‘§V H$mc …- amhþc gm§H¥$˶m¶Z Zo Bg H$mc H$m Zm‘H$aU "{gÕ gm‘ÝV H$mc' {H$¶m h¡& BZHo$ ‘VmZwgma Bg H$mcIÊ‹S> Ho$ g‘mO OrdZ na {gÕm| H$m Am¡a amOZr{V na gm‘ÝVm| H$m EH$m{YH$ma Wm& Bg ¶wJ Ho$ H${d¶m| Zo AnZr aMZmAm| ‘| gm‘ÝVm§o H$m ¶emoJmZ hr à‘wI ê$n go {H$¶m h¡& Bg ¶wJ H$s AÝV~m©ø àd¥{Îm¶mo§ H$m Aܶ¶Z H$aZo na nVm McVm h¡ {H$ dhm± {gÕm| Am¡a gm‘ÝVm| H$m hr dM©ñd Wm&
  17. 17. 7 Bg Zm‘H$aU go VËH$mcrZ gm‘ÝVr dmVmdaU H$m Vmo nVm McVm h¡ na§Vw {H$gr gm{hp˶H$ àd¥{Îm H$m CX²KmQ>Z Zht hmo nmVm& Bg Zm‘H$aU go ZmW n§Wr Am¡a ÑT> ¶moJr H${d¶m| VWm Iwgamo Am{X H$s H$mì¶ àd¥{Îm¶m| H$m g‘mdoe Zhr hmo nmVm& ~rOdnZ H$mc …- Am. ‘hmdra àgmX {ÛdoXr Or Zo Bg H$mc H$m Zm‘H$aU "~rOdnZ H$mc' {H$¶m h¡& na§Vw ¶h Zm‘ ^r Cn¶w³V Zht h¡& ^mfm H$s Ñ{ï> go ¶h H$mc ^co hr ~rOdnZ H$m H$mc hmo, na§Vw gm{hp˶H$ àd¥{Îm H$s Ñ{ï> go pñW{V Eogr Zhr Wr& Bg Zm‘ go ¶h A^mg hmooVm h¡ {H$ Cg g‘¶ gm{hp˶H$ n«d¥{Îm¶m± e¡ed ‘| Wr, O~{H$ Eogm Zhr h¡& gm{h˶ Cg ¶wJ ‘o§ ^r àm¡‹T>Vm H$mo àmá ¶m A§V: ¶h Zm‘ C{MV Zhr h¡& draH$mc …- Am. {dídZmW àgmX {‘Ì Or Zo Bg H$mc H$m Zm‘ "draH$mc' {H$¶m h¡& ¶h Zm‘ Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³c Ûmam {X¶o J¶o Zm‘ "dra JmWm H$mc' H$m énmÝVa ‘mÌ h¡, {H$gr ZdrZ V϶ H$mo àñVwV H$aZo dmcm Zht h¡& A§V: ¶h Zm‘H$aU ^r g‘rMrZ Zhr h¡& gpÝY Ed§ MmaUH$mc …- S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© Zo Am{XH$mc H$mo Xmo IÊS>m| ‘o {d^m{OV H$a "gpÝYH$mc' Ed§ "MmaUH$mc' Zm‘ {X¶m h¡& gpÝYH$mc ^mfm H$s Amoa g§Ho$V H$aVm h¡ Am¡a MmaUH$mc go EH$ dJ© {deof H$m ~mooY hmooVm h¡& Bg Zm‘H$aU ‘| ^r ¶h Ìw{Q> h¡ {H$ Bg‘| {H$gr gm{h{˶H$ àd¥{Îm H$mo AmYma Zht ~Zm¶m J¶m& {H$gr Om{V {deof Ho$ Zm‘ na gm{h˶ ‘| Cg H$mc H$m Zm‘H$aU C{MV Zht& AV: ¶h Zm‘H$aU ^r R>rH$ Zht h¡& Am{XH$mc …- Am. hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr Or Zo Bg H$mc Ho$ gm{h˶ H$mo A{YH$m§eV: g§{X½Y Am¡a Aàm‘m{UH$ ‘mZVo hþE ^r Cg‘| Xmo {deofVmAm| H$mo aoIm§{H$V {H$¶m& ZdrZ VmOJr Am¡a Anyd© VoOpñdVm& BZ XmoZm| {deofVmAm| H$mo ܶmZ ‘| aIVo hwE Bg H$mc H$m Zm‘ CÝhm|Zo "Am{XH$mc' aIm& AnZo Bg ‘V H$mo ñnï> H$aVo hþE CÝhm|Zo H$hm h¡ {H$- dñVwV: {hÝXr H$m Am{XH$mc eãX EH$ àH$ma H$s ^«m‘H$ YmaUm H$s g¥{ï> H$aVm h¡ Am¡a lmoVm Ho$ {MÎm ‘| ¶h ^md n¡Xm H$aVm h¡ {H$ ¶h H$mc H$moB© Am{X‘ ‘Zmo^mdmnZ naånam{d{Z‘w©º$ H$mì¶ ê${‹T>¶m| go AN>yVo gm{h˶ H$m H$mc h¡& ¶h R>rH$ Zht h¡& ¶h H$mc ~hþV A{YH$ naånam ào‘r, ê${‹T>J«ñV Am¡a gMoV H${d¶m| H$m H$mc h¡&'' Bg àH$ma dmñVd ‘| "Am{XH$mc' àmaå^ H$m Z hmoH$a naånam Ho$ {dH$mg H$m gyMH$ h¡& Bg Zm‘ go gmVdr-AmR>dt eVmãXr Ho$ ~m¡Õ, {gÕ, ZmW¶mo{J¶m| Ho$ gmW dra JmWm H$mì¶m| Am¡a AãXþa©h‘mZ, {dÚmn{V VWm Iwgamo Am{X H$mo EH$ gyÌVm ‘| g‘oQ>m Om gH$Vm h¡ Am¡a ’w$Q>H$a H${d¶m| Ho$ Zm‘ {JZmZo go ~Mm Om gH$Vm h¡& Am{XH$mc Zm‘ ‘| {hÝXr H$mì¶énm| Ed§ ^mfm Ho$ A§Hw$[aV hmoZo H$m ^md ^r Am OmVm h¡& AV: ¶hr Zm‘ Cn¶w³V R>haVm h¡& A{YH$m§e {dÛmZm| Ûmam ^r "Am{XH$mc' Zm‘ hr ‘mݶ ahm h¡& ~) Mm¡Xhdt eVmãXr go gÌhdt eVmãXr VH$ Ho$ H$mcIÊS> H$m Zm‘H$aU …Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³c Or Zo gd§V² 1375 go coH$a 1700 B. VH$ Ho$ H$mcIÊS> H$mo nyd©‘ܶH$mc H$s g§km go A{^{hV {H$¶m h¡& Bg ¶wJ Ho$ gm{h˶ ‘| ^p³V H$s ‘w»¶ àd¥{Îm H$mo XoIVo hþE Bg H$mcmd{Y H$m Zm‘H$aU "^p³VH$mc' {H$¶m h¡& Bgo nadVu g^r {dÛmZm| Zo
  18. 18. 8 ñdrH$ma {H$¶m h¡ Am¡a AmO ^r "^p³VH$mc' Zm‘H$aU gd©‘mݶ h¡& H$) gÌhdt eVmãXr go CÞrgdt eVmãXr VH$ Ho$ H$mcIÊS> (ar{VH$mc) Ho$ Zm‘H$aU {df¶H$ ‘V^oX …Am. ew³cOr Zo gd§V² 1700 go coH$a 1900 B. VH$ Ho$ g‘¶ H$mo CÎma ‘ܶH$mc Zm‘ {X¶m h¡& Bg ¶wJ Ho$ gm{h˶ ‘| ar{V (cjU) J«ÝWm| Ho$ coIZ H$s naånam H$mo XoIVo hwE Bgo "ar{VH$mc' H$hZm VH©$g§JV ‘mZm h¡& Bg H$mc Ho$ Zm‘H$aU H$moo coH$a ^r {dÛmZm| ‘| ‘V^oX h¡Ac§H¥$VH$mc - {‘l~ÝYw ar{VH$mc - Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³c H$cmH$mc - a‘me§H$a ew³c "agmc' l¥ÝJma H$mc - n§. {dídZmW àgmX {‘l Ac§H¥$VH$mc …- {‘l~ÝYwAm| Zo Bg ¶wJ H$m Zm‘H$aU "Ac§H¥$V H$mc' H$aVo hþE H$hm h¡ {H$ - ""ar{VH$mcrZ H${d¶mo'' Zo {OVZo AmJ«h Ho$ gmW aMZm e¡cr H$mo Ac§H¥$V H$aZo H$m à¶mg {H$¶m h¡. CVZm Aݶ {H$gr ^r H$mc Ho$ H${d¶m| Zo Zht& Bg àd¥{Îm Ho$ H$maU ¶h Ac§H¥$VH$mc h¡& Bg H$mc H$mo Ac§H¥$VH$mc H$hZo H$m Xÿgam H$maU ¶h h¡ {H$ Bg H$mc Ho$ H${d¶m| Zo Ac§H$ma {Zê$nH$ J«ÝWm| Ho$ coIZ ‘| {deof ê${M àX{e©V H$s& ‘hmamOm Ogd§Vqgh H$m "^mfm ^yfU', ‘{Vam‘ H$m "c{cV ccm‘', Ho$ed H$s "H${d{à¶m', "a{gH${à¶m' VWm gya{V {‘l H$s "Ac§H$ma ‘mcm' Am{X J«ÝW ‘hËdnyU© h¡& na§Vw Bg H$mc H$mo "Ac§H¥$VH$mc' Zm‘ XoZm C{MV Zht h¡ ³¶m|{H$ Ac§H$aU H$s àd¥{Îm Bg H$mc H$s {deof àd¥{Îm Zht h¡& ¶h àd¥{Îm Vmo {hÝXr Ho$ Am{XH$mc go coH$a AmO VH$ Mcr Am ahr h¡& Xygao ¶h Zm‘H$aU H${dVm Ho$ Ho$dc ~{ha§J nj H$m gyMH$ h¡& Bggo H${dVm Ho$ A§Va§J nj ^md Ed§ ag H$s AdhocZm hmoVr h¡ VWm {~hmar Am¡a ‘{Vam‘ O¡go ag{gÕ H${d, {OZH$s H${dVm ‘| ^md H$s àYmZVm h¡, CZH$s H${dVm Ho$ gmW ݶm¶ Zht hmo nmVm& BgHo$ A{V[aº$ Ac§H¥$VH$mc Zm‘ H$mo ñdrH$ma H$a coZo go Bg H$mc H$s {deof àd¥{Îm l¥ÝJma Am¡a emór¶Vm H$s nyU© Cnojm hmo OmVr h¡& H$cmH$mc …-a‘me§H$a ew³c "agmc' Zo Bg H$mc H$mo "H$cmH$mc' Zm‘ {X¶m h¡& CZH$m H$hZm h¡ {H$ ""‘wJc g‘«mQ> emhOhm± H$m gånyU© emgZ H$mc H$cm do{ï>V Wm& Bg ¶wJ ‘| EH$ Amoa ñWmn˶ H$cm H$m Ma‘ {~ÝXþ VmO‘hc Ho$ ê$n ‘| "H$mc Ho$ Jmc H$m Aly' ~ZH$a àH$Q> hþAm Vmo Xÿgar Amoa {hÝXr H${dVm ^r H$cmË‘H$Vm go g§¶wº$ hþB©& Bg H$mc Ho$ H${d¶m| Zo {df¶ H$s Anojm e¡cr H$s Amoa A[YH$ ܶmZ {X¶m& CZH$s H${dVm ‘| {MÌH$cm H$m ^r ¶moJ hþE {~Zm Z ah gH$m& AV:Ed§ ¶h H$cmH$mc h¡&'' H$cmH$mc Zm‘ go ^r dñVwV: H${dVm Ho$ ~mø nj H$s {deofVm H$m hr ~moY hmoVm h¡& H${dVm H$m Am§V[aH$ nj Cno{jV ah OmVm h¡& gmW hr Bg ¶wJ H$s ì¶mnH$ l¥§Jm[aH$ MoVZm H$s Ad‘mZZm hmo OmVr h¡&
  19. 19. 9 l¥§Jma H$mc …- n§. {dídZmWàgmX {‘l Zo Bg H$mc H$mo "l¥§Jma H$mc' H$hZm A{YH$ Cn¶w³V g‘Pm h¡& CZHo$ Ûmam {X¶m J¶m ¶h Zm‘H$aU Bg H$mc ‘| à¶w³V l¥§ÝJma ag H$s àYmZVm H$moo cú¶ H$a {X¶m J¶m h¡& na§Vw ¶h Zm‘ ^r ¶wp³Vg§JV Zhr h¡ ³¶mo§{H$ ar{VH$mcrZ H${d¶m| Zo l¥§ÝJma Ho$ A{V[a³V dra ag H$r H${dVm ^r {cIr h¡& gmW hr ^p³VnaH$, Zr{VnaH$ aMZmE± ^r Bg ¶wJ ‘| {cIr JB© h¡& ar{VH$mcrZ H${d¶m| H$m ‘yc ñda l¥§Jma H$^r Zht ahm& CZH$m CÔoí¶ Vmoo AnZo Aml¶XmVmAm| H$mo àgÞ H$a AWm}nmO©Z H$aZm Wm& Aml¶XmVm {dcmgr d¥{Îm Ho$ Wo& l¥§Jma ‘| CZH$s ê${M H$mo XoIVo hþE BÝhm|Zo l¥§JmanaH$ H${dVmE± {cIr& ¶Ú{n Bg H$mc ‘| l¥§Jma ag H$s àYmZVm h¡, na§Vw dh ñdV§Ì Z hmoH$a gd©Ì ar[V na Am{lV h¡& AV: ¶h Zm‘H$aU C{MV Zht h¡& ar{VH$mc …- Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³cOr Zo Bg ¶wJ H$m Zm‘H$aU "ar{VH$mc' {H$¶m h¡& CZH$m ‘V h¡ {H$- ""BZ ar{VJ«ÝWmo'' Ho$ H$Vm© ^mdwH$, göX¶ Am¡a {ZnwU H${d Wo& CZH$m CÔoí¶ H${dVm H$aZm Wm, Z {H$ H$mì¶m§Jmo H$m emór¶ nÕ{V na {ZénU H$aZm& AV: CZHo$ Ûmam ~‹S>m ^mar H$m¶© ¶h hþAm {H$ agm| ({deofV: l¥§Jma ag) Am¡a Ac§H$mam| Ho$ ~hþV hr gag Am¡a öX¶J«mhr CXmhaU A˶ÝV àMwa n[aUm‘ ‘| àmá hþE&'' ew³cOr Ho$ Bg Zm‘H$aU H$m AmYma Bg H$mc ‘| ar{VJ«ÝWm| Am¡a ar{VJ«ÝWH$mam| H$s gwXrK© naånam h¡& Bg Zm‘ H$moo g^r {dÛmZm| Zo cJ^J EH$‘V go ñdrH$ma {H$¶m h¡& Am. hOmar àgmX {ÛdoXr, S>m°. ZJoÝÐ Am{X {dÛmZm| Zo ^r ew³cOr Ûmam {X¶o J¶o Bg Zm‘ H$mo ñdrH$ma {H$¶m h¡& S>m°. ^JraW {‘l Or Zo Bg ¶wJ Ho$ "ar{VH$mc' Zm‘ H$s gmW©H$Vm H$mo ñnï> H$aVo hþE H$hm h¡ - ""H$cmH$mc H$hZo go H${d¶m| H$s a{gH$Vm H$s Cnojm hmoVr h¡& l¥§Jma H$mc H$hZo go dra ag Am¡a amO àe§gm H$s, qH$Vw ar{VH$mc H$aZo go àm¶: H$moB© ^r ‘hÎdnyU© dñVwJV {deofVm Cno{jV Zht hmoVr Am¡a à‘wI àd¥{Îm gm‘Zo Am OmVr h¡& ¶h ¶wJ ar{V-nÕ{V H$m ¶wJ Wm, ¶h YmaUm dmñV{dH$ ê$n go ghr h¡&'' BgàH$ma "ar{VH$mc' Zm‘H$aU A{YH$ VH©$g§JV Ed§‘² d¡km{ZH$ àVrV hmoVm h¡& S>) 19 dt eVmãXr go A~VH$ Ho$ H$mcIÊ‹S> H$m Zm‘H$aU …g§dV² 1900 go Amaå^ hþE AmYw{ZH$ H$mc H$mo Am. am‘MÝÐ ew³cOr Zo JÚ Ho$ nyU© {dH$mg Ed§ àYmZVm H$moo XoIVo hþE "JÚH$mc' Zm‘ {X¶m h¡& Am. hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr àog Ho$ CX²^d H$mo hr AmYw{ZH$Vm H$m dmhZ ‘mZVo h¡& í¶m‘gwÝXa Xmg Bgo "ZdrZ {dH$mg H$m ¶wJ' H$hVo h¡& JÚ H$m {dH$mg Bg H$mc H$s g~go ‘hÎdnyU© KQ>Zm h¡& ¶Ú{n Bg H$mc ‘| H${dVm Ho$ joÌ ‘| ^r {d{dY ZdrZ àd¥{Îm¶m| H$m {dH$mg hþAm h¡, qH$Vw O¡gm {dH$mg JÚ Ho$ {d{^Þ A§Jm| H$m hþAm h¡, d¡gm H${dVm H$m Zht hmo gH$m h¡& "AmYw{ZH$ H$mc' H$mo Am. ew³cOr Zo VrZ MaUm| ‘| {d^³V {H$¶m h¡ Am¡a BÝho§ àW‘ CËWmZ, {ÛVr¶ CËWmZ VWm V¥Vr¶ CËWmZ H$hm h¡& A[YH$m§e AmYw{ZH$ {dÛmZ BÝh| "^maVoÝXþ ¶wJ' AWdm "nwZOm©JaU H$mc', "{ÛdoXr ¶wJ' AWdm "OmJaU-gwYma H$mc', "N>m¶mdmXr ¶wJ' VWm "N>m¶mdmXmoÎma ¶wJ' ‘| àJ{V, à¶moJ H$mc, ZdcoIZ H$mc ‘mZVo h¡& {ÛdoXr ¶wJ VH$ Vmo AmYw{ZH$ ¶wJ H$s Ymam grYr ahr qH$Vw N>m¶mdmX Ho$ OÝ‘ Ho$ gmW hr Cg‘| ZmZm dmXm| Am¡a àd¥{Îm¶m| H$s ~mT> gr Am JB© h¡& AmYw{ZH$ H$mc H$s àJ{V BVZr {demc Am¡a ~hþ‘wIr h¡ {H$ Cgo {H$gr {d{eï> dmX ¶m àd¥{Îm H$s g§Hw${MV gr‘m ‘| Zht ~m±Ym Om gH$Vm&
  20. 20. 10 Bgr H$maU Am{XH$mc Ho$ g‘mZ Bg H$mc H$mo ^r "AmYw{ZH$ H$mc' H$hZm hr A{YH$ VH©$g§JV àVrV hmoVm h¡& 1.4 ~moY àíZ …1. {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ H$mb {d^mOZ na {dñV¥V boI {b{IE? 2. {d{^Þ {dÛmZm| Zo {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m H$mb {d^mOZ {H$g àH$ma {H$¶m h¡?
  21. 21. 11 2 Am{XH$mc 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 BH$mB© H$s ê$naoIm CÔoí¶ àñVmdZm Am{XH$mcrZ gm{h˶ H$m {dñV¥V Aܶ¶Z ~moY àíZ 2.1 CÔoí¶ Bg BH$mB© Ho$ A§VJ©V Am{XH$mcrZ {dÚmWu gm{h˶ H$m {dñV¥V Aܶ¶Z H$a gH|$Jo& Am{XH$mcrZ H$mì¶ ‘| VrZ àH$ma H$s gm{h˶ aMZm à‘wI ê$n g| hþB© h¢- Ym{‘©H$ gm{h˶, cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ Am¡a amgmo gm{h˶ Bg BH$mB© Ho$ Aܶ¶Z g| {dÚmWu¶m| H$mo {gÕ gm{h˶, ZmW gm{h˶ Am¡a amgmo gm{h˶ H$s gånyU© OmZH$mar {‘c gHo$Jr Am¡a {deofVmAm| H$m ^r {dñV¥V Aܶ¶Z {dÚmWu H$a gH|$Jo& 2.2 àñVmdZm {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ Ama§{^H$ H$mc H$mo Am{XH$mc H$hm OmVm h¡& {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ Ama§{^H$ g‘¶ H$s aMZmE± gm{h˶ Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ Aܶ¶Z Ho$ {cE A˶§V Amdí¶H$ h¡& na§Vw A{YH$m§e Am{XH$mcrZ J«§Wm| H$m CncãY Z hmoZm, à‘m{UH$Vm ‘| g§{X½YVm, H$mc{ZYm©aU ‘| gm‘§Oñ¶ Z ~¡R>Zm Am{X H${R>ZmB©¶m| Ho$ gmW gm{h˶ Ho$ {dÛmZm|, AmMm¶m] Ûmam ì¶dpñWV YmaUm ~Zm coZm ~hþV hr Hw$ecVm H$m H$m¶© h¡& {hÝXr gm{h˶ H$m Am{XH$mc {Ogo draJmWm H$mc, MmaUH$mc, {gÕ gm‘ÝV ¶wJ, ~rOdnZ H$mc, draH$mc Am{U AZoH$ g§kmAm| go {d^w{fV {H$¶m h¡, {hÝXr H$m g~go {ddmXJ«ñV H$mc ahm h¡& Bg H$mc ‘| EH$ Va’$ g§ñH¥$V Ho$ Eogo ~S>o-~S>o H${d CËnÞ hþE {OZH$s aMZmE± g§ñH¥$V H$mì¶-naånam H$s Ma‘ gr‘m na nhþ±M J¶r Wr Vmo Xÿgar Amoa An^«§e Ho$ H${d CËnÞ hþE Omo A˶ÝV gac Ed§ ghO ^mfm ‘| A˶ÝV g§{já eãXm| ‘| AnZo ‘m{‘©H$ ^md àH$Q> H$a aho Wo& dñVwV: Bg H$mc ‘| Ohm± EH$ Amoa {gÕ, ZmW Am¡a O¡Z gm{h˶ H$m {Z‘m©U hþAm {Ogo Y‘m©l¶ àmá hmoZo Ho$ H$maU dh ’y$cVm-’$cVm ahm. dhm± Xÿgar Amoa amOñWmZ Ho$ MmaU H${d¶m| Ûmam M[aV H$mì¶ ^r aMo J¶o, {OÝh| amOml¶ {‘cZo Ho$ H$maU dh àe§gm H$m {df¶ ~Zm& naÝVw Bg H$mc ‘| BZ XmoZm| H$mì¶-YmamAm| go {^Þ cmoH$ gm{h˶ H$r ^r aMZm hþB©, dh cmoH$m{lV hmoZo go gwa{jV Z ah gH$m& AZoH$ H$maUm| go ¶h gm{h˶ cwá gm hmo J¶m& Cggo BVZm Adí¶ kmV hmoVm h¡ {H$ Am{XH$mc ‘| cmoH$ gm{h˶ ^r cmoH$ àM{cV ahm h¡& Cn¶w³V Am{XH$mcrZ g^r gm{h˶ H$mo àd¥{Îm¶mo| Ho$ AmYma na {ZåZ én ‘| dJuH¥$V
  22. 22. 12 {H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡ …Am{XH$mcrZ gm{h˶ Ym{‘©H$ gm{h˶ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ 1) {gÕ gm{h˶, 2) ZmW gm{h˶ 3) O¡Z gm{h˶& 1) T>mocm ‘mé am Xÿhm 2) ~rgcXod amgmo 3) dg§V {dcmg 4) amCc doc 5) Cp³V-ì¶p³V àH$aU 6) dU© - aËZmH$a 7) Iwgamo H$m H$mì¶ 8) {dÚmn{V nXmdcr& amgmo gm{h˶ (dra H$mì¶) 1) Iw‘mZ amgmo 2) na‘mc amgmo 3) hå‘ra amgmo 4) {dO¶nmc amgmo 5) ~rgcXod amgmo 6) n¥ÏdmamO amgmo& (1) {gÕ gm{h˶ …^maVr¶ gmYZm Ho$ B{Vhmg ‘| 8 dt eVr ‘| {gÕm| H$s gÎmm XoIr Om gH$Vr h¡& {gÕ naånam H$m OÝ‘ ~m¡Õ Y‘© H$s Kmoa {dH¥${V Ho$ ’$cñdê$n ‘mZm OmVm h¡& ~wÕ H$m {Zdm©U 483 B©. nyd© ‘| hþAm& CZHo$ {Zdm©U Ho$ cJ^J 45 df© VH$ ~m¡Õ Y‘© Ho$ {gÕmÝVm| H$m Iy~ àMma hþAm& Bg Y‘© H$s {dO¶-XþXþ§{^ Xoe VWm {dXoem| ‘| ~OVr ahr& ~m¡Õ Y‘© H$m CX¶ d¡{XH$ H$‘©H$mÊ‹S> H$s O{Q>cVm Ed§ qhgm H$s à{V{H«$¶m Ho$ ê$n ‘| hþAm Wm& ¶h Y‘© ghmZw^y{V Am¡a gXmMma Ho$ ‘yc VËdm| na AmYm[aV Wm& naÝVw AmJo McH$a Bg Y‘© Ho$ AZw¶m{¶¶m| ‘| H${Vn¶ g¡ÕmpÝVH$ Am¡a gmYZmΑH$ àíZm| H$mo coH$a ‘V^oX Amaå^ hmo J¶m& B©gm H$s àW‘ eVmãXr ‘o§ ~m¡Õ ‘hm¶mZ VWm {hZ¶mZ Xmo emImAm| ‘| {d^m{OV hmo J¶m& ‘hm¶mZ ~‹S>o aWm| Ho$ Amamohr Wo Am¡a {hZ¶mZr N>moQ>o aWm| Ho$ Amamohr& ‘hm¶mZ ‘| ì¶dhm[aH$Vm H$m àmYmݶ ahm O~{H$ hrZ¶mZ ‘| {gÕm§V nj H$m àmYmݶ ahm& BZ‘| ‘hm¶mZr cmoH$ {Zdm©U Ho$ g‘W©H$ Wo Am¡a hrZ¶mZr 춺$sJV gmYZm Ho$ g‘W©H$& ‘hm¶mZ dmco AnZo aW ‘| C±Mo-ZrMo, N>moQ>o-~S>o, J¥hñWrg§Ý¶mgr g~H$mo ~¡R>mH$a {Zdm©U VH$ nhþ±MmZo H$m Xmdm H$aVo W|& hrZ¶mZ Ho$dc {da³V Am¡a gݶm{g¶m| H$mo Aml¶ XoVm Wm& BZH$m OrdZ gac Wm, {H$ÝVw ‘hm¶m{Z¶m| Zo ‘R>m| Am¡a {dhmam| Ho$ {Z‘m©U na Omoa {X¶m& CgZo {ó¶m| Ed§ J¥hñWm| Ho$ {cE ‘moj H$m Ûma Imoc {X¶m& Bgr H$maU A{YH$mA{YH$ cmoJ CgH$s Amoa AmH¥$ï> hmoZo cJo& ñdU© Am¡a gwÝXar ho ¶moJ go Cg‘| ^«ï>mMma H$m àdoe hmo J¶m& OmXÿ-Q>moUm Am¡a ‘§ÌmMma ~T>Zo cJm& ‘§Ìmo Ho$ Bg ‘hËd Ed§ àMma Ho$ H$maU ‘hm¶mZ ¶§Ì¶mZ ~Z J¶m& gmVdt eVmãXr Ho$ Amgnmg ‘§Ì¶mZ> go EH$ Aݶ Cn¶mZ {ZH$cm, {Ogo dO«¶mZ ¶m ghO¶mZ H$hVo h¡& H§$MZ-H$m{‘Zr Ho$ ¶moJ go ‘§Ì¶mZ H$s cmoH${à¶Vm ~‹T> MwH$s Wr Am¡a Cg‘| ì¶{^Mma ^r ~‹T> ahm Wm& Yrao Yrao H$m‘naH$ ^mdZmAm| H$mo g¡ÕmpÝVH$ Am¡a Xme©{ZH$ ê$n XoZo
  23. 23. 13 H$s Moï>m H$s JB©& dO«¶mZ n§M‘H$mam| ‘o ~§Y J¶m& ‘§Ì,‘Y, ‘¡WwZ, ‘m§g Am¡a ‘wÐm dO«¶mZ Ho$ ‘yc AmYma ~Z J¶o& Bg àH$ma dO«¶mZ ‘| ¶m¡Z g§~§ÝYm| H$s ñdÀN>§ÝXVm H$mo ~‹T>mdm {X¶m& g‘mO na BgH$m Xÿ{fV à^md n‹S>m& BgVah ~m¡Õ Y‘© ‘hm¶mZ, ¶§Ì¶mZ, dO«¶mZ Am{X ‘| {d^³V hmoVm hþAm H«$‘e: nVZmoÝ‘wI hmoVm J¶m& V§Ìm| ‘§ÌmoÛmam {g{Õ MmhZodmco {gÕ H$hcm¶o& ¶o {gÕ dO«¶mZr AWdm ghO¶mZr hr Wo& dO«¶mZr {gÕm| Zo AnZo ‘V-àMma Ho$ {cE Omo gm{h˶ {cIm, dh Am{XH$mcrZ {gÕgm{h˶ H$hcmVm h¡& {gÕm| H$s g§»¶m 84 ‘mZr OmVr h¡ {OZ‘| go 23 {gÕm| H$s aMZmE± CncãY hmoVr h¡& à˶oH$ {gÕ Ho$ Zm‘ Ho$ nrN>o "¶m' eãX IS>m hþAm h¡& gah¶m {hÝXr Ho$ àW‘ {gÕ ‘mZo OmVo h¡& CZH$m "XohmH$moe' J«ÝW {d»¶mV h¡& BZHo$ Acmdm e~a¶m, cwP°, S>mo§{~¶°, H$i¶°, Hw$Hw$[anm, ‘w§S>[a¶°,em§{Vnm Am¡a dmUmnm Am{X {gÕ H${d¶m| ‘o ^r Am{XH$mcrZ {gÕ gm{h˶ H$mo g‘¥Õ ~ZmZo ‘| AnZm ¶moJXmZ {X¶m h¡& BZ {gÕm| Zo J¥hñW OrdZ na ~c {X¶m& BgHo$ {cE ór H$m godZ, g§gma én {df¶ go ~MZo Ho$ {cE Wm& OrdZ Ho$ ñdm^m{dH$ ^moJm| ‘| àd¥{Îm Ho$ H$maU {gÕ gm{h˶ ‘| ^moJ ‘o§ {Zdm©U H$s ^mdZm {‘cVr h¡& OrdZ H$s ñdm^m{dH$ àd¥{Îm¶m| ‘| {dídmg Ho$ H$maU BZ {gÕm| H$m {gÕmÝV nj ghO ‘mJ© H$hcm¶m& {gÕ àm¶: A{e{jV Am¡a hrZ Om{V go g§~ÝY aIVo Wo, AV: CZH$s gmYZm H$s gmYZ^yV ‘wÐm¶| H$mnmcr, S>moå~r Am{X Zm{¶H$m¶| ^r {ZåZ Om{V H$s Wr ³¶m¢{H$ BZHo$ {cE ¶o gwc^ Wr& CÝhm|Zo Y‘© Am¡a AmܶmË‘ H$s Am‹S> ‘| OZ-OrdZ Ho$ gmW {d‹S>å~Zm H$aVo Zmar H$m Cn^moJ {H$¶m& CZHo$ H$‘c Am¡a H${ce ¶mo{Z Am¡a {eíZ Ho$ àVrH$ ‘mÌ h¡& {gÕm| Zo gac ¶m ghO OrdZ na Omoa {X¶m h¡& g‘ñV ~mø AZwð>mZm| Ed§ fQ²>Xe©Z H$m {damoY {H$¶m h¡, Jwê$H¥$nm H$s H$m‘Zm H$s h¡, nwñVH$s¶ kmZ go ~«÷ gmjmËH$ma ‘| g§Xoh 춺$ {H$¶m h¡& eara H$mo g‘ñV gmYZmAm| H$m Ho$ÝÐ VWm n{dÌ VrW© ~Vm¶m h¡, AmË‘m-na‘mË‘m H$s EH$Vm ‘| {dídmg 춺$ {H$¶m h¡, gm‘añ¶ ^md VWm ‘hmgwI H$s MMm© H$s h¡ Am¡a nmn-nwʶ XmoZm| H$mo ~ÝYZ H$m H$maU ~Vm¶m h¡& {gÕ gm{h˶ H$m ‘yë¶m§H$Z H$aVo hþE S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© {cIVo h¡- ""{gÕ gm{h˶ H$m ‘hËd Bg ~mV ‘| ~hþV A{YH$ h¡ {H$ Cggo h‘mao gm{h˶ Ho$ Am{Xê$n H$s gm‘J«r àm‘m{UH$ ‹T>§J go àmá hmoVr h¡& MmaUH$mcrZ gm{h˶ Vmo Ho$dc ‘mÌ VËH$mcrZ amOZr{VH$ OrdZ H$s à{VÀN>m¶m h¡& ¶h {gÕ gm{h˶ eVmpãX¶mo§ go AmZodmcr Ym{‘©H$ Am¡a gm§ñH¥${VH$ {dMmaYmam H$m ñnï> én h¡& g§jon ‘| Omo OZVm Zaoem| H$s ñdoÀN>mMm[aVm namO¶ ¶m nVZ go ÌñV hmoH$a {ZamemdmX Ho$ JV© ‘| {Jar hwB© Wr, CgHo$ {cE BZ {gÕmo| H$s dmUr Zo g§OrdZr H$m H$m¶© {H$¶m&'' {gÕ gm{h˶ H$s {deofVmE± …{gÕ gm{h˶ AnZr àd¥{Îm Am¡a à^md Ho$ H$maU {hÝXr gm{h˶ ‘| {deof ‘hËd aIVm h¡& BZ {gÕm|Zo AnZo gåàXm¶ Ho$ {gÕmÝVmo H$m {X½Xe©Z H$aZodmco gmYZmnaH$ gm{h˶ H$m {Z‘m©U {H$¶m& {gÕ-gm{h˶ H$s gm‘mݶ àd¥{Îm¶m° BgàH$ma h¡ …-
  24. 24. 14 1) OrdZ H$s ghOVm Am¡a ñdm^m{dH$Vm ‘o ÑT> {dídmg …{gÕ H$[d¶m| Zo OrdZ H$s ghOVm Am¡a ñdm^m{dH$Vm ‘| Ñ‹T>{dídmg 춳V {H$¶m h¡& Aݶ Y‘© Ho$ AZw¶m{¶¶m| Zo OrdZ na H$B© à{V~ÝY cJmH$a OrdZ H$mo H¥${Ì‘ ~Zm¶m Wm& {deofH$a H$ZH$ H$m{‘Zr H$mo gmYZm ‘mJ© H$s ~mYmE± ‘mZr Wr& {d{^Þ H$‘©H$mÊ‹S>m| go gmYZm ‘mJ© H$mo ^r H¥${Ì‘ ~Zm¶m Wm& {gÕm| Zo BZ g^r H¥${Ì‘VmAm| H$m {damoY H$a OrdZ H$s ghOVm Am¡a ñdm^m{dH$Vm na ~c {X¶m& CZHo$ ‘VmZwgma ghO gwI go hr ‘hmgwI H$s àm{á hmoVr h¡& Bg{cE {gÕm| Zo ghO ‘mJ© H$m àMma {H$¶m& ghO ‘mJ© Ho$ AZwgma à˶oH$ Zmar àkm Am¡a à˶oH$ Za H$ê$Um (Cnm¶) H$m àVrH$ h¡, Bg{cE Za-Zmar {‘cZ àkm Am¡a H$ê$Um {Zd¥{Îm Am¡a àd¥{Îm H$m {‘cZ h¡, XmoZm| H$mo A^oXVm hr "‘hmgwI' H$s pñW{V h¡& 2) Jwê$ ‘{h‘m H$m à{VnmXZ …{gÕm|Zo Jwê$-‘{h‘m H$m n¶m©á dU©Z {H$¶m h¡& {gÕm| Ho$ AZwgma Jwê$ H$m ñWmZ doX Am¡a emóm| go ^r D±$Mm h¡& gah¶m go H$hm h¡ {H$ Jwê$ H$s H¥$nm go hr ghOmZÝX H$s àm{á hmoVr h¡& Jwê$ Ho$ {~Zm Hw$N> ^r àmá Zht hmoJm& {OgZo Jwê$nXoe H$m A‘¥VnmZ Zht {H$¶m, dh emóm| H$s ‘ê$^y{‘ ‘| ߶mg go ì¶mHw$c hmoH$a ‘J OmEJm& ""Jwê$ CdE{g A{‘ag YmdU nrES> Oo hr& ~hþ g˶˶ ‘ê$ ñWc{h {V{g¶ ‘[a¶S> Vo hr&& 3) ~mømS>å~am| nmIÊ‹S>m| H$s H$Qw> AmcmoMZm …{gÕm| Zo nwamZr ê${‹T>¶m| naånamAm| Am¡a ~mø AmS>å~am|, nmIÊ‹S>mo§ H$m O‘H$a {damoY {H$¶m h¡& B{g{cE BÝhm|Zo doXm|, nwamUm|, emóm| H$s IwcH$a {Z§Xm H$s h¡& dU© ì¶dñWm, D°$M-ZrM Am¡a ~«m÷U Y‘m] Ho$ H$‘©H$mÊ‹S>m| na àhma H$aVo hþE gah¶m Zo H$hm h¡ - ""~«m÷U ~«÷m Ho$ ‘wI go V~ n¡Xm hþE Wo, A~ Vmo do ^r d¡go hr n¡Xm hmoVo h¢, O¡go Aݶ cmoJ& Vmo {’$a ~«m÷UËd H$hm± ahm? ¶{X H$hm {H$ g§ñH$mam| go ~«m÷UËd hmoVm h¡ Vmo MmÊ‹S>mc H$mo AÀN>o g§ñH$ma XoH$a ~«m÷U H$m| Z§Xr ~Zm XoVo? ¶{X AmJ ‘| Kr S>mcZo go ‘wp³V {‘cVr h¡ Vmo g~H$mo ³¶m| Zht ‹S>mcZo XoVo? hmo‘ H$aZo go ‘wp³V {‘cVr h¡ ¶h nVm Zht co{H$Z YwAm± cJZo go Am±Im| H$mo H$ï> Oê$a hmoVm h¡&'' {XJå~a gmYwAm| H$mo cú¶ H$aVo hþE gah¶m H$hVo h¢ {H$ ""¶{X Z§Jo ahZo go ‘wp³V hmoo OmE Vmo {g¶ma, Hw$Îmm| H$mo ^r ‘w{º$ Adí¶ hmoZr Mm{hE& Ho$e ~‹T>mZo go ¶{X ‘wp³V hmoo gHo$ Vmo ‘¶wa CgHo$ g~go ~‹S>o A{YH$mar h¡& ¶{X H§$Y ^moOZ go ‘wp³V hmo Vmo hmWr, Kmo‹S>mo§ H$mo ‘wp³V nhco hmoZr Mm{hE&'' BgVah BZ {gÕm| Zo doX, nwamU Am¡a npÊ‹S>Vm| H$s H$Qw> AmcmoMZm H$s h¡& 4) VËH$mcrZ OrdZ ‘| AmemdmXr g§Mma …{gÕ gm{h˶ H$m ‘wë¶m§H$Z H$aVo hþE S>m°. hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXrOr Zo {cIm h¡ ""Omo OZVm Zaoem| H$s ñd¡ÀN>mMm[aVm, namO¶ ¶m nVZ go ÌñV hmoH$a {ZamemdmX Ho$ JV© ‘| {Jar hþB© Wr, CgHo$ {cE BZ {gÕm| H$s dmUr Zo g§OrdZr H$m H$m¶© {H$¶m& ... OrdZ H$s ^¶mZH$
  25. 25. 15 dmñV{dH$Vm H$s A{¾ go {ZH$mcH$a ‘Zwî¶ H$mo ‘hmgwI Ho$ erVc gamoda ‘| AdJmhZ H$amZo H$m ‘hËdnyU© H$m¶© BÝhm|Zo {H$¶m&'' AmJo McH$a {gÕm|‘| ñd¡amMma ’¡$c J¶m, {OgH$m ~yam Aga OZ-OrdZ na n‹S> J¶m& 5) ahñ¶mË‘H$ AZw^y{V …{gÕm| Zoo àkm Am¡a Cnm¶ (H$ê$Um) Ho$ {‘cZmonamÝV àmá ‘hmgwI H$m dU©Z Am¡a {ddoMZ AZoH$ énH$m| Ho$ ‘mܶ‘ go {H$¶m h¡& Zm¡H$m, drUm, Myhm, [haU Am{X ê$nH$m| H$m à¶moJ BÝhm|Zo ahñ¶mZw^y{V H$s ì¶m»¶m Ho$ [cE [H$¶m h¡& a{d, e{e, H$‘c, Hw${ce, àmU, AdYyV Am{X Vm§{ÌH$ eãXm| H$m à¶mooJ ^r Bgr ì¶m»¶m Ho$ {cE hþAm h¡& S>m°. Y‘©dra ^maVr Zo AnZo emoY J«ÝW "{gÕ gm{h˶' ‘| {gÕm| H$s eãXmdcr H$s Xme©{ZH$ ì¶m»¶m H$a CgHo$ AmܶmpË‘H$ nj H$mo ñnï> {H$¶m h¡& 6) l¥§Jma Am¡a em§V ag …{gÕ H${d¶m| H$s aMZm ‘| l¥§Jma Am¡a em§V ag H$m gwÝXa à¶moJ hþAm h¡& H$ht H$ht na CËWmZ l¥§Jma {MÌU {‘cVm h¡& Acm¡{H$H$ AmZÝX H$s àm{á H$m dU©Z H$aVo g‘¶ Eogm hþAm h¡& 7) OZ^mfm H$m à¶moJ …{gÕm| H$s aMZmAmo§ ‘| g§ñH¥$V VWm An^«§e {‘{lV Xoer ^mfm H$m à¶moJ {‘cVm h¡& S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© BZH$s ^mfm H$mo OZ g‘wXm¶ H$s ^mfm ‘mZVo h¡& OZ^mfm H$mo AnZmZo Ho$ ~mdOyX Ohm± do AnZr ghO gmYZm H$s ì¶m»¶m H$aVo h¡, dhm± CZH$s ^mfm p³cï> ~Z OmVr h¡& {gÕm| H$s ^mfm H$mo haràgmX emór Zo "g§Ym-^mfm' H$hm h¡& gm±P Ho$ g‘¶ {Og àH$ma MrO| Hw$N> ñnï> Am¡a Hw$N> Añnï> {XImB© XoVr h¡, Cgr àH$ma ¶h ^mfm Hw$N> ñnîQ> Am¡a Hw$N> Añnï> AW©-~mooY XoVr h¡& ¶hr ‘V A{YH$ àM{cV h¡& 8) N>ÝX à¶moJ …{gÕm| H$s A{YH$m§e aMZm M¶m© JrVmo ‘| hþB© h¡, VWm{n Bg‘o§ Xmohm, Mm¡nmB© O¡go cmoH${චN>ÝX ^r à¶w³V hþE h¡& {gÕm| Ho$ {cE Xmohm ~hþV hr {චN>ÝX ahm h¡& CZH$s aMZmAmo§ ‘o§ H$ht H$ht gmoaR>m Am¡a N>ßn¶ H$m ^r à¶moJ nm¶m OmVm h¡& 9) gm{h˶ Ho$ Am{X ê$n H$s àm‘m{UH$ gm‘J«r …{gÕ gm{h˶ H$m ‘hËd Bg ~mV ‘| ~hþV A{YH$ h¡ {H$ Cggo h‘mao gm{h˶ Ho$ Am{X ê$n H$s gm‘J«r àm‘m{UH$ ‹T>§J go àmßV hmooVr h¡& MmaU H$mcrZ gm{h˶ Vmo Ho$dc VËH$mcrZ amOZr{VH$ OrdZ H$s à{VN>m¶m h¡& co{H$Z {gÕ gm{h˶ eVmpãX¶m| go AmZodmcr Y{‘©H$ Am¡a gm§ñH¥${VH$ {dMmaYmam H$m EH$ ghr XñVmdoO h¡&
  26. 26. 16 ZmW gm{h˶ {gÕ gm{h˶ ‘| Am JB© {dH¥${V¶m| Ho$ {damoY ‘| ZmW gm{h˶ H$m OÝ‘ hþAm& ¶Ú{n BZH$m ‘yc ^r ~m¡Õm| H$s dO«¶mZ emIm hr h¡& {gÕm| Zo "¶moJ-gmYZm' H$mo Zrao ‘¡WyZ H$m ñdê$n XoH$a g‘mO ‘| AnZo ñd¡amMma H$mo "dm‘‘mJ©' H$s eaU Xr Wr& ZmW-gåàXm¶ Zo ¶moJ-gmYZm H$mo EH$ ñdñW gmYZm Ho$ ê$n ‘| AnZm¶m Am¡a Am{XH$mcrZ Ym{‘©H$, gm‘m{OH$ OrdZ ‘| ì¶má AZmMma H$mo IË‘ H$aZo H$m à¶mg {H$¶m& ¶Ú{n ZmW cmoJ Bg ‘V Ho$ OZH$ "Am{XZmW {ed' H$mo ‘mZVo h¡, co{H$Z ghr AW© ‘| Bg ‘V H$mo EH$ gwì¶dpñWV én XoZo H$m lo¶ JmoaIZmW H$mo {X¶m OmVm h¡& JmooaIZmW Zo AnZo Bg gåàXm¶ H$mo {gÕ gåàXm¶ go AcJ H$a {X¶m Am¡a BgH$m Zm‘ "ZmW gåàXm¶' aIm& "ZmW' eãX ‘| go "Zm' H$m AW© h¡ "AZm{X ê$n' Am¡a "W' H$m AW© h¡ "^ydZ̶ ‘| ñWm{nV hmoZm& BgàH$ma "ZmW' eãX H$m AW© h¡- dh AZm{X Y‘©, Omo ^ydZ̶ H$s pñW{V H$m H$maU h¡& Xÿgar ì¶m»¶m Ho$ AZwgma - "ZmW' dh VËd h¡, Omo ‘moj àXmZ H$aVm h¡& ZmW ~«÷ H$m CX²~moYZ H$aVm h¡, VWm AkmZ H$m Xé‘Z H$aVm h¡& ZmW gåàXm¶ CZ gmYH$m| H$m gåàXm¶ h¡ Omoo "ZmW' H$moo na‘VËd ñdrH$ma H$a CgH$s àm[á Ho$ {cE ¶moJ gmYZm H$aVo Wo VWm Bg gåàXm¶ ‘| Xr{jV hmoH$a AnZo Zm‘ Ho$ AÝV ‘| "ZmW' Cnm{Y Omo‹S>Vo Wo& ZmW eãX H$m à¶mooJ ~«÷ Ho$ {cE ^r hþAm h¡ Am¡a gX²Jwê$ Ho$ {cE ^r& BZ ¶mo{J¶m| H$s EH$ {d{eð> doe^yfm hmooVr h¡& à˶oH$ ¶moJr EH$ {ZpíMV {V{W H$mo H$mZ {MaIm H$a Hw§$‹S>c YmaU H$aVm h¡ {Ogo ‘wÐm H$hVo h¡& BZHo$ hmW ‘| qH$H$ar {ga na OQ>m, eara na ^ñ‘, H§$R> ‘| ê$Ðmj H$s ‘mcm, hmW ‘| H$‘Ê‹S>c, H$ÝYo na ì¶mK«M‘© Am¡a ~µJc ‘o Ißna ahVm h¡& ZmW gåàXmg ‘| Zm¡ ZmW AmVo h¡, {OZHo$ Zm‘ h¡ - (1) Am{XZmW (ñd¶§ {ed), (2) ‘Ëñ¶ÝÐZmW, (3) JmoaIZmW, (4) J{hUrZmW, (5) Mn©Q>ZmW, (6) Mm¡a§JrZmW, (7) Omc§YaZmW, (8) ^V¥©ZmW (^aWarZmW) Am¡a (9) JmonrMÝX ZmW& BZ ZmWm|Zo AnZo gåàXm¶ ‘| ^moJ H$m {VañH$ma, BpÝж g§¶‘, ‘Z:gmYZm, àmUgmYZm, Hw$ÊS>{cZr OmJaU, ¶moJ gmYZm H$mo A{YH$ ‘hËd {X¶m h¡& BZH$r gmYZm H$m ‘yc ñda erc, g§¶‘ Am¡a ewÕVmdmXr Wm& Bg gåàXm¶ ‘| BpÝж {ZJ«h na {deof ~c {X¶m J¶m h¡& BpÝжm| Ho$ {cE g~go ~‹S>m AmH$f©U Zmar h¡, AV: Zmar go Xÿa ahZm H$s ^agH$ {ejm Xr JB© h¡& g§^d h¡ {H$ JmoaIZmW Zo ~m¡Õ {dhmam| ‘| {^jw{Z¶m| Ho$ àdoe H$m n[aUm‘ Am¡a CZH$m M[a{ÌH$ nVZ XoIm hmo& Bg gåàXm¶ ‘| {Zd¥{Îm Am¡a ‘wp³V Jwê$ Ho$ àgmX go hr g§^d ‘mZr JB© h¡& AV: Jwê$ H$m {deof ‘hËd h¡& ZmW n§{W¶m| Ho$ ‘w»¶ {gÕmÝV BpÝX«¶ -g§J‘, ‘Z:gmYZm, hR>¶moJ gmYZm Am{X H$m à^md H$~ra Ed§ Aݶ gÝVm| H$s aMZmAm| ‘o XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡& JmoaIZmW Am{X Zo {OZ àVrH$m| H$mo nm[a^m{fH$ eãXm| H$mo, IÊ‹S>Z - ‘Ê‹S>ZmË‘H$ e¡cr H$mo AnZm¶m CgH$m {dH$mg g§V gm{h˶ ‘| {‘cVm h¡& ZmWm| H$s gmYZm-àUmcr "hR>¶moJ' na AmYm[aV h¡& "h' H$m AW© gy¶© Am¡a "R>' H$m AW© MÝÐ ~Vcm¶m J¶m h¡& gy¶© Am¡a MÝÐ Ho$ ¶moJm| H$mo hR>¶moJ H$hVo h¡& ¶hm± gy¶© B‹S>m ZmS>r H$m Am¡a MÝÐ qnJcm ZmS>r H$m àVrH$ h¡& Bg gmYZm nÕ{V Ho$ AZwgma à˶oH$ ì¶{º$ Hw$Ê‹S>[cZr Am¡a àmUe{º$ coH$a n¡Xm hmoVm h¡& gm‘mݶ V¶m Hw$Ê‹S>{cZr e{º$ gwfwá ahVr h¡&
  27. 27. 17 gmYH$ àmUm¶m‘ Ho$ Ûmam Hw$Ê‹S>{cZr H$mo OmJ¥V H$a D$Üd©‘wI H$aVm h¡& eara ‘| N>h MH«$m| Am¡a VrZ Zm{‹S>¶m| H$s ~mV H$hr J¶r h¡& O~ ¶moJr àU¶mZ Ho$ Ûmam B‹S>m qnJcm Zm‘H$ ídmg ‘mJm] H$mo amoH$ coVm h¡& V~ BZHo$ ‘ܶ ‘| pñWV gwfwåZm Zm‹S>r H$m Ûma IwcVm h¡& Hw$Ê‹S>{cZr ep³V Bgr Zm‹S>r Ho$ ‘mJ© go AmJo ~‹T>Vr h¡ Am¡a N>.MH«$m| H$mo nma H$a ‘{VîH$ Ho$ {ZH$Q> pñWV eyݶMH«$ ‘| nhþ±MVr h¡& ¶hr na OrdmË‘m H$mo nhþ±Mm XoZm ¶moJr H$m Ma‘ cú¶ hmoVm h¡& ¶hr na‘mZÝX VWm ~«÷mZw^y{V H$s AdñWm h¡& ¶hr hR>¶moJ gmYZm h¡& ZmW gm{h˶ H$s {deofVmE± …ZmW ‘V H$m Xme©{ZH$ nj e¡d ‘V go Am¡a ì¶mdhm[aH$ nj hR>¶moJ go gå~pÝYV h¡& BZ ZmWm| H$s aMZmAm| ‘| Z¡{VH$ AmMaU, d¡am½¶ ^md, BpÝж {ZJ«h, àmUgmYZm, ‘Z gmYZm Am¡a Jwê$ ‘{h‘m H$m CnXoe {‘cVm h¡& BZ {df¶m|§ ‘| Zr{V Am¡a gmYZm H$s ì¶mnH$Vm h¡ Am¡a CgHo$ gmW hr OrdZ H$s AZw^y{V¶m| H$m gYZ {MÌU ^r h¡& Bg Ñ{ï> go ZmW gm{h˶ H$s {ZåZ{c{IV {deofVmE± H$hm Om gH$Vm h¡ 1) {MÎm ew{Õ Am¡a gXmMma ‘| {dídmg …ZmWm| Zo {gÕm| Ûmam Y‘© Am¡a g‘mO ‘| ’$m¡cmB© hþB© Aqhgm H$s, {dfdo{c H$mo H$mQ>H$a Mm[a{ÌH$ Ñ‹T>Vm Am¡a ‘mZ{gH$ n{dÌVm na ^a {X¶m& BÝhm|Zo Z¡{VH$ AmMaU Am¡a ‘Z H$s ewÕVm na A{YH$ ~c {X¶m h¡& AnZo ‘VmZw¶m{f¶m| Ho$ ercdmZ hmoZo H$m CnXoe {X¶m h¡& ‘Ú ^m±J YVyam Am{X ‘mXH$ dñVwAm| Ho$ godZ H$m n[a˶mJ ¶mo{J¶m| Ho$ {cE A{Zdm¶© ‘mZm J¶m h¡& ¶moJ-gmYZm ‘| Zmar H$m AmH$f©U g~go ~‹S>r ~mYm hmoVr h¡, Bg{cE Zmar go Xÿa ahZo H$m CnXoe {X¶m J¶m h¡& 2) naånamJV ê${‹T>¶mo Ed§ ~møS>å~§am| H$m {damoY …ZmWm| Zo Y‘© à{UV ~møS>å~a Am¡a é{‹T>¶m| H$m IwcH$a {damoY {H$¶m h¡& CZHo$ AZwgma {nÊS> ‘| ~«÷mÊ‹S> h¡ Bg{cE na‘VËd H$mo ~mha ImoµOZm ì¶W© h¡& ‘Z H$s ewÕVm Am¡a Ñ‹T>Vm Ho$ gmW hR>¶moJ Ho$ Ûmam Cg na‘VËd H$m AZw^d [H$¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& Y‘© Ho$ joÌ ‘| ~møS>å~a Ho$ {cE H$moB© ñWmZ Zht h¡& Bgr{cE ZmWm| Zo ‘y{V©nyOm, ‘wÊS>Z {d{eï> dó nhZZm, C±M ZrM, doX nwamU n‹T>Zm Am{X H$m [damoY {H$¶m h¡& 3) Jwê$ ‘{h‘m …ZmW gåàXm¶ ‘| Jwê$ H$m ñWmZ gdm}n[a ‘mZm h¡& Bg{cE Jwê$-{eî¶ naånam H$mo ZmW gåàXm¶ ‘| A˶m{YH$ ‘hËd {X¶m OmVm h¡& CZH$s ‘mݶVm h¡ {H$ d¡am½¶^md H$m Ñ‹T>rH$aU Am¡a {Ì{dY gmYZm Jwê$ kmZ go hr g§^d hmo nmVr h¡& JmoaIZmW Zo H$hm h¡ {H$ Jwê$ hr AmË‘m~«÷ go AdJV H$amVo h¡& Jwê$ go àmá kmZ Ho$ àH$me ‘| VrZm| cmoH$ H$m ahñ¶ àH$Q> hmo gH$Vm h¡&
  28. 28. 18 4) CcQ>dm[g¶m± …ZmWm| H$s gmYZm H$m H«$‘ BpÝж {ZJ«h Ho$ ~mX àmU gmYZm VWm CgHo$ níMmV² ‘Z:gmYZm h¡& ‘Z:gmYZm go VmËn¶© h¡ ‘Z H$mo g§gma Ho$ ItM H$a AÝV:H$aU H$s Amoa CÝ‘wI H$a XoZm& ‘Z H$s ñdm^m{dH$ J{V h¡ ~mhar OJV H$s Amoa ahZm Cgo ncQ>H$a A§Va OJV H$s Amoa H$aZodmcr Bg à{H«$¶m H$mo CcQ>dmgr H$hVo h¡& ZmWm| Zo CcQ>dm{g¶m| H$m à¶moJ AnZr gmYZm H$s A{^ì¶p³V Ho$ {cE {H$¶m h¡& CcQ>dm{g¶m± H$ht-H$ht p³cï> Oê$a h¡, co{H$Z AX²^yV ag go AmoV-àmoV h¡& 5) OZ^mfm H$m n[aîH$ma …Am{XH$mcrZ {hÝXr H$mo g‘¥Õ H$amZo ‘| ZmW gm{h˶ H$m ‘hËdnyU© ¶moJXmZ ahm h¡& ¶Ú{n ZmWm| Zo g§ñH¥$V ^mfm ‘| ^r {dnwc ‘mÌm ‘| aMZmE± {cIr h¢, co{H$Z gm‘mݶ OZm| Ho$ {cE CÝhm|Zo AnZo {dMma OZ-^mfm ‘| hr A{^춳V {H$¶o h¡& {Og àH$ma CZHo$ {dMma naånamJV é‹T>r {dMmam| go AcJ h¡ Cgr Vah CZH$s ^mfm ^r& Am. ew³cOrZo BZH$s ^mfm H$mo I‹S>r~mocr Ho$ {cE amOñWmZr ‘mZm h¡& Hw$c {‘cmH$a h‘ H$h gH$Vo h¡ {H$ ZmW gm{h˶ ‘| ñdÀN>ÝX ^md Am¡a {dMmam| H$s àm‘m{UH$ A{^ì¶p³V hþB© h¡& ZmW gm{h˶ H$s XoZ H$mo ñnï> H$aVo hþE S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© {cIVo h¢ - ""JmoaIZmW Zo ZmW gåàXm¶ H$mo {Og AmÝXmocZ H$m ê$n {X¶m dh ^maVr¶ ‘Zmod¥{Îm Ho$ gd©Wm AZwHy$c {gÕ hþAm h¡& Cg‘| Ohm± EH$ Amoa B©œadmX H$s {ZpíMV YmaUm CnpñWV H$s JB© dhm± Xÿgar Amoa {dH¥$V H$aZo dmcr g‘ñV naånamJV ê${‹T>¶m| na ^r AmKmV {H$¶m& OrdZ H$mo A{YH$ go A{YH$ g§¶‘ Am¡a gXmMma Ho$ AZwemgZ ‘| aIH$a Am{Ë‘H$ AZw^y{V¶m| Ho$ {cE ghO ‘mJ© H$s ì¶dñWm H$aZo H$m e{º$emcr à¶moJ JmoaIZmW Zo {H$¶m&''
  29. 29. 19 O¡Z gm{h˶ Am{XH$mc H$s CncãY gm‘J«r ‘| g~go A{YH$ J«§Wmo H$s g§»¶m O¡Z J«ÝWm| H$s h¡& O¡Z Y‘© Ho$ àdV©H$ ‘hmdra ñdm‘r h¡& BZH$m g‘¶ N>R>r eVmãXr ‘mZm OmVm h¡& ~m¡Õm| H$s Vah BÝhm|Zo ^r g§gma Ho$ Xþ:Imo§ H$s Amoa ~hþV ܶmZ {X¶m& gwI-Xþ:I Ho$ ~ÝYZm| na BÝhm|Zo OrV nmB© {Oggo ¶o "{OÞ' H$hcm¶o& {OÞ eãX go hr O¡Z eãX H$s CËn{Îm hþB© h¡& BÝhm|Zo 30 df© VH$ AnZo CnXoe {X¶o& ‘hmdra O¡Z Zo Aqhgm na A{YH$ ~c {X¶m Am¡a Xod nyOm H$m {damoY {H$¶m& O¡Z Y‘© Ho$ ‘yc {gÕmÝV Mma ~mVm| na AmYm[aV h¢ - Aqhgm, g˶ ^mfU , AñVo¶ Am¡a AZmg{º$& ~mX ‘| ~«÷mM¶© ^r Bg‘| gm{‘c H$a {c¶m J¶m& Bg Y‘© ‘| ~hþV go AmMm¶© Am¡a VrW©H$ma hþE. {OZH$s g§»¶m 24 ‘mZr OmVr h¡& BÝhm|Zo Bg Y‘© H$mo ’¡$cmZo H$m à¶mg {H$¶m& AmJo McH$a O¡Z Y‘© Xmo emImAm| {XJ§~a Am¡a ídoVm§~a ‘| ~±Q> J¶m& O¡Z Y‘© H$s BZ Xmo emImAm| Zo Y‘© àgma Ho$ {cE Omo gm{h˶ {cIm dh O¡Z gm{h˶ Ho$ Zm‘ go OmZm OmVm h¡& {XJå~a O¡Z gmYwAm| Am¡a H${d¶m| H$m joÌ X{jU ^maV Am¡a ‘ܶ Xoe ahm h¡ Am¡a ídoVmå~a O¡Z gmYwAm| VWm H${d¶m| H$m joÌ A{YH$Va amOñWmZ Am¡a JwOamV ahm h¡& BZ O¡Z ‘w{Z¶m| Ûmam An^«§e ‘| {c{IV O¡Z gm{h˶ Ym{‘©H$ X¥{ï> go hr Zhr gm{hp˶H$ Am¡a ^mfm d¡km{ZH$ X¥{ï> go ^r ~‹S>m ‘hËd aIVm h¡& ‘hmdra ñdm‘r H$m O¡Z Y‘© {hÝXþ Y‘© Ho$ A{YH$ g‘rn h¡& O¡Zm| Ho$ ¶hm± ^r na‘mË‘m h¡ na§Vw dh g¥{ï> H$m {Z¶m‘H$ Z hmoH$a {MÎm Am¡a AmZÝX H$m ómoV h¡& CgH$m g§gma go H$moB© gå~Y Zht& à˶oH$ ‘Zwî¶ AnZr gmYZm Am¡a nm¡ê$f go na‘mË‘m ~Z gH$Vm h¡& Cgo na‘mË‘m go {‘cZo H$s H$moB© Amdí¶H$Vm Zht& BÝhm|Zo OrdZ Ho$ à{V lÕm OJmB© Am¡a Cg‘| AmMma H$s gwX¥T> {^{V H$s ñWmnZm H$s& Aqhgm, H$éUm, X¶m Am¡a ˶mJ H$m OrdZ ‘| ‘hËdnyU© ñWmZ ~Vm¶m& ˶mJ BpÝжm| Ho$ AZwemgZ ‘| Zhr H$ï> ghZo ‘| h¡& CÝhm|Zo Cndmg VWm d«Vm{X H$‘© na AmYm[aV gmYZm na A{YH$ ~c {X¶m Am¡a H$‘©H$mÊ‹S> H$s O{Q>cVm H$mo hQ>mH$a ~«m÷U VWm eyÐ XmoZm| H$mo ‘w{º$ H$m g‘mZ ^mJr R>ham¶m& O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo OZgm‘mݶ VH$ gXmMma Ho$ {gÕmÝVmo H$mo nhþ±MmZo Ho$ {cE M[aV H$mì¶, H$WmË‘H$ H$mì¶, amg, J«ÝW, CnXoe àYmZ AmܶmpË‘H$ J«ÝWm| H$s aMZm H$s& H$WmAm| Ho$ ‘mܶ‘ go ecmH$m nwê$fm| Ho$ AmXe© M[aÌ H$mo àñVwV H$aZm, OZgmYmaU H$m Ym{‘©H$ Ed§ Mm[a{ÌH$ {dH$mg H$aZm, gXmMma, Aqhgm, g§¶‘ Am{X JwUm| H$s ‘hÎmm ~VmZm Am¡a CÝh| OrdZ ‘| YmaU H$aZo Ho$ {cE ào[aV H$aZm H${d¶mo| H$m ‘w»¶ CÔoí¶ Wm& O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo AmMma, amg, nme, M[aV Am{X {d{^Þ e¡{c¶m| ‘| gm{h˶ {cIm h¡, co{H$Z O¡Z gm{h˶ H$m g~go A{YH$ cmooH${චén "amg' J«ÝW ‘mZo OmVo h¡& ¶h amg J«ÝW draJmWm amgmo go AcJ h¡& amg EH$ Vah go Jo¶énH$ h¡& O¡Z ‘§{Xam| ‘| lmdH$ cmoJ amÌr Ho$ g‘¶ Vmc XoH$a amg H$m Jm¶Z H$aVo Wo& Bg amg ‘| O¡Z VrW©H$mam| Ho$ OrdZM[aV, d¡îUd AdVmam| H$s H$WmE± VWm O¡Z AmXem] H$m à{VnmXZ hþAm H$aVm Wm& AmJo McH$a "amg H$mì¶' EH$ Eogo H$mì¶ én Ho$ én ‘| {ZpíMV hmo J¶m Omo Jo¶ hmo& {hÝXr ‘| Bg naånam H$m àdV©Z O¡Z gmYw em{c^Ð gy[a Ûmam {c{IV ""^aVoída ~mhþ~cr amg'' go ‘mZm OmVm h¡& O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo am‘m¶U Am¡a ‘hm^maV Ho$ H$WmZH$m| Am¡a H$WmZm¶H$m| H$mo AnZo {dídmg Am¡a ‘mݶVmAm| Ho$ gm±Mo ‘| T>mcH$a àñVwV [H$¶m h¡& BÝhmoo|Zo nm¡am{UH$ nwéfm| Ho$ A{V[aº$ AnZo
  30. 30. 20 gåàXm¶ Ho$ ‘hmnwéfm| Ho$ OrdZ H$mo ^r H$mì¶~Õ {H$¶m& BgHo$ gmW-gmW àM{cV cmooH$H$WmAm| H$mo ^r H$mì¶mË‘H$ àl¶ {X¶m& ‘w{Z am‘qgh (nmhþS> Xmohm) Am¡a ¶mo{JÝXþ (na‘mË‘m àH$me) Am{X H${d¶m| Zo ahñ¶mË‘H$ H$mì¶m| H$s ^r aMZm H$s& O¡Z An^«§e gm{h˶ H$s aMZm H$aZodmco VrZ à{gÕ H${d h¡ - ñd¶§^y nwînXÝV Am¡a YZnmc& BÝhm|Zo CËH¥$ï> H$mì¶mo| H$s aMZm H$s& BZHo$ A{V[aº$ XodgoZ, {OZXÎm gw[a, ho‘MÝÐ, h[a^Ð gy[a, gmo‘à^y gy[a, Agam H${d, {OZ Y‘© gy[a, {dnZMÝÐ gy[a Am{X Bg gåàXm¶ Ho$ ໶m{V aMZmH$ma ‘mZo OmVo h¡& ‘hmH${d ñd¶§^y An^«§e Ho$ gd©loð> H${d h¡& BZH$m g‘¶ AmR>dt eVr ‘mZm OmVm h¡& BZHo$ Ûmam a{MV Mma H¥${V¶m± ‘mZr OmVr h¡& nX‘M[aÌ (nX²‘M[aV) ¶m am‘M[aV), [aQ‰>Uo{‘M[aV (A[aï>Zo{‘M[aV AWdm h[ad§enwamU), n§M‘moM[aV (ZmJHw$‘ma M[aV) Am¡a ñd¶§^y N>ÝX& BZH$s H$s{V© H$m AYmañV§^ nX‘M[aV' h¡& Bg‘| am‘ H$Wm h¡& Bg J«ÝW Ho$ H$maU ñd¶§^y H$mo An^«§e H$m dmë‘rH$s H$hm OmVm h¡& ñd¶§^y Zo AnZr am‘H$Wm H$mo nm±M IÊ‹S>mo ‘| aIm h¡ Omo dmë‘r{H$ am‘m¶U Ho$ H$m§Ê‹S>mo go {‘cVm h¡& BÝhm|Zo ~mcH$mÊS> H$m Zm‘ {dÚmYa H$mÊS> aIm h¡ Am¡a Aaʶ VWm {H${îH$ÝYm H$mÊS> H$mo EH$X‘ hQ>m {X¶m h¡& O¡Z Y‘© H$s à{Vð>m Ho$ {cE CÝhm|Zo am‘-H$Wm ‘| ¶Ì-VÌ n[adV©Z H$a {XE h¡ VWm Hw$N> ZE àg§J ^r Omo‹S> {XE h¡& ñd¶§^y Ho$ am‘ dmë‘r{H$ Ho$ am‘ H$s Vah AnZr gånyU© ‘mZdr¶ Xw~©cVmAm| Am¡a ‘mZdr¶ ep³V Ho$ à{V{Z{Y ~ZH$a AmVo h¡& Zmar Ho$ à{V nwê$f ‘mÌ H$m X¥{ï>H$mooU ³¶m Wm, ¶h grVm Ho$ "A¾rnarjm' dmco àg§J ‘| am‘ Am¡a grVm Ho$ H$WZmo§ go àH$Q> hmoVm h¡& grVm Ho$ M[aÌ H$mo CXmaVm {XImZo ‘| H${d Zo H$‘mc H$a {X¶m h¡ & H${d Zo am‘H$Wm H$m A§V em§V ag go {H$¶m h¡ VWm am‘ grVm OZH$ Am{X g^r nmÌm| H$mo O¡Z Y‘© ‘| Xrjm coVo hþE {XIm¶m h¡& "A[aï>Zo{‘M[aV' (h[ad§enwamU) ‘| O¡Z naånam Ho$ ~mB©gd| VrW©H$ma A[aï>Zo{‘ VWm H¥$îU Am¡a H$m¡ad. nmÊS>dm| H$s H$Wm d{U©V h¡& Bg‘| H${d Zo Ðm¡nXr Ho$ M[aÌ H$mo EH$X‘ {ZIma {X¶m h¡& Zmar M[aÌm| Ho$ à{V H${d H$s AmVrH$ ghmZw^y{V ñnîQ> gm‘Zo AmVr h¡& O¡Z gm{h˶ H$s gm‘mݶ {deofVmE± An^«§e gm{h˶ H$mo O¡Z gm{h˶ H$hm OmVm h¡, ³¶m|{H$ An^«§e gm{h˶ Ho$ aM{¶Vm O¡Z AmMm¶© Wo& O¡Z H${d¶mo| H$s aMZmAm| ‘| Y‘© Am¡a gm{h˶ H$m ‘{UH$m§MZ ¶moJ {XImB© XoVm h¡& O¡Z H${d O~ gm{h˶ {Z‘m©U ‘| OwQ> OmVm h¡ Vmo Cg g‘¶ CgH$s aMZm gag H$mì¶ H$m ê$n YmaU H$a coVr h¡ Am¡a O~ dh Y‘m}nXoe H$s Amoa PwH$ OmVm h¡ Vmo dh nÚ ~Õ Y‘© CnXoemË‘H$ aMZm ~Z OmVr h¡& Bg CnXoe àYmZ gm{h˶ ‘| ^r ^maVr¶ OZOrdZ Ho$ gm‘m{OH$ Am¡a gm§ñH¥${VH$ nj Ho$ Xe©Z hmooVo h¡& Bg gm{h˶ H$s gm‘mݶ {deofVmE± BgàH$ma h¡ …1) CnXoe ‘ycH$Vm …- CnXoemË‘H$Vm O¡Z gm{h˶ H$s ‘w»¶ àd¥{Îm h¡, {OgHo$ ‘yc ‘| O¡Z Y‘© Ho$ à{V Ñ‹T> AmñWm Am¡a CgH$m àMma h¡& BgHo$ {cE O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo X¡{ZH$ OrdZ H$s à^mdmoËnmXH$ KQ>ZmE±, AmܶmË‘ Ho$ nmofH$ VËd, M[aV Zm¶H$m|, ecmH$m nwê$fm|, AmXe©
  31. 31. 21 lmdH$m|, Vnpñd¶m| VWm nmÌm| Ho$ OrdZ H$m dU©Z {H$¶m h¡& Bgr{cE Bg gm{h˶ ‘| CnXoemË‘H$Vm H$m ñda ‘w»¶ ~Z J¶m h¡& 2) {df¶ H$s {d{dYVm …- O¡Z gm{h˶ Ym{‘©H$ gm{h˶ hmoZo Ho$ ~mdOyX gm‘m{OH$, Ym{‘©H$, Eo{Vhm{gH$ {df¶m| Ho$ gmW hr cmoH$-Am»¶mZ H$s H$B© H$WmAm| H$mo AnZmVm h¡& am‘m¶U, ‘hm^maV gå~ÝYr H$WmAm| H$moo ^r O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo A˶m{YH$ XjVm Ho$ gmW AnZm¶m h¡& Ohm± VH$ gm‘m{OH$ {df¶m| H$m gå~ÝY h¡, O¡Z aMZmAm| ‘| cJ^J g^r àH$ma Ho$ {df¶mo§ H$m g‘mdoe hmo J¶m h¡& 3) VËH$mcrZ pñW{V¶m| H$m ¶WmW© {MÌU …- O¡Z H${d amOm{lV Zht Wo, AV: amOml¶ H$m X~md Am¡a Xa~mar A{Va§OZm go BZH$s aMZmE± ‘wº$ h¡& ¶hr H$maU h¡ {H$ BZH$s aMZmAm| ‘| VËH$mcrZ pñW{V¶m| H$m ¶WmW© A§H$Z hþAm h¡& Am{XH$mcrZ AmMma-{dMma, g‘mO, Y‘©, amOZr{V Am{X H$s ghr pñW{V¶m| H$mo OmZZo Ho$ {cE ¶h aMZmE± n¶m©á ê$n ‘| ghmæ¶H$ {gÕ hmoVr h¡& 4) H$‘©H$mÊ‹S> ê${‹T>¶m| VWm naånamAm| H$m {damoY …- O¡Z An^«§e H${d¶m| Zo ~mø CnmgZm, nyOm-nmR>, emór¶ kmZ, ê${‹T>¶m| Am¡a naånamAm| H$m Kmoa {damoY {H$¶m h¡, {H$ÝVw BZHo$ ñda ‘| H$Qw>Vm ¶m naI‹S>Vm Zhr {‘cVr& ‘§{Xa, VrW© emór¶ kmZ, ‘y{V©, dof, Om{V, dU©, ‘§Ì, V§Ì, ¶moJ Am{X {H$gr ^r g§ñWm H$mo ¶h Zhr ‘mZVo& Mm[a{ÌH$ AWdm ‘Z H$s ewÕVm H$mo ¶o ha ì¶p³V Ho$ {cE EH$ Amdí¶H$ dñVw ‘mZVo h¡& YZ-gån{Îm H$s j{UH$Vm, {df¶m| H$s {ZÝXm, ‘mZd Xoh H$s ZídaVm, g§gma Ho$ gå~ÝYm| H$m {‘϶mnZ Am{X H$m dU©Z H$aVo hþE BZ H${d¶m| Zo ewÕ AmË‘m na ~c {X¶m h¡& 5) AmË‘mZw^y{V na {dídmg …- AmË‘mZw^d H$mo O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo Ma‘ àmáì¶ H$hm h¡ Am¡a ¶h eara ‘| ahVm h¡& AmË‘m H$mo OmZZo Ho$ {cE ew^mew^ H$‘m] H$m j¶ H$aZm Amdí¶H$ h¡& AmË‘m na‘mË‘m EH$ hr h¡& AmË‘m H$mo OmZ coZo Ho$ níMmV² Hw$N> OmZZo Ho$ {cE Zht ahVm& AmË‘mZÝX hr gagr^md ¶m ghOmZÝX h¡& AnZo gmYZ-nW H$s ì¶m»¶m H$aZo Ho$ {cE BÝhm|Zo Ohm±-Vhm± ào‘-^mdZm Ho$ ÚmooVH$ {à¶-{à¶V‘ H$s H$ënZm H$m Aml¶ {c¶m h¡& BgàH$ma BZ O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo ^moJ go ˶mJ H$s, emókmZ go AmË‘kmZ H$s Am¡a H$‘©H$mÊ‹S> go AmË‘mZw^y{V H$s loð>Vm {gÕ H$s h¡& 6) ahñ¶dmXr {dMmaYmam H$m g‘mdoe …- O¡Z H${d¶m| H$s Hw$N> aMZmE± ahñ¶dmXr {dMma ^mdZm go AmoV àmoV h¡& ¶mo{JÝÐ ‘w{Z am‘qgh, gwÌ^mMm¶©, ‘hmZpÝX ‘hM¶ Am{X Bg H$mo{Q> Ho$ H${d h¡& BZH$mo ahñ¶dmXr aMZmAm| ‘| ~mø AmMma, H$‘©H$mÊ‹S>, VrW©d«V, ‘y{V© H$m ~{hîH$ma, Xohê$nr Xodmc¶ ‘| hr B©œa H$s pñW{V ~VmZm, VWm AnZo eara ‘| pñWV na‘mË‘m H$s AZw^y{V nmH$a na‘ g‘m{Y énr AmZÝX àmá H$aZm Am{X BZH$s gmYZm H$m ‘w»¶ ñda h¡& ¶h AmZÝX eara ‘| pñWV na‘mË‘m Jwê$ ({OZ Jwê$) H$s H¥$nm go àmá hmooVm h¡, ¶h BZH$s
  32. 32. 22 YmaZm h¡& 7) H$mì¶ ê$nm| ‘| {d{dYVm …- H$mì¶ ê$nm| Ho$ joÌ ‘| O¡Z gm{h˶ {d{dY ê$nm| go gånÞ h¡& Bg‘| amg, ’$mJw, N>ßn¶, MVwîn{XH$m, à~ÝY, JmWm, OåZar, Jwdm©dcr, JrV, ñVw{V, ‘mhmËå¶, CËgmh Am{X àH$ma nm¶o OmVo h¡& An^«§e Ho$ H$B© H$mì¶-énm| H$m à¶moJ O¡Z H${d¶m| Zo {H$¶m h¡ co{H$Z A{YH$m§e H$mì¶ én Eogo ^r h¡, {OZHo$ {Z‘m©U H$m lo¶ O¡Z gm{h˶ H$mo OmVm h¡& 8) em§V ¶m {Zd}X ag H$m àmYmݶ …- O¡Z gm{h˶ ‘| H$éU, dra, l¥§Jma, emÝV Am{X g^r agm| H$m g’$c {Zdm©h hþAm h¡& "Zo{‘MÝX MCnB©' ‘| H$éU, "^aVoída ~mhþ~cr amg' ‘| dra VWm "lrñWy{c^Ð ’$mJw ‘| l¥ÝJma Bg H$s g’$c {Zîn{Îm nm¶r OmVr h¡, {H$ÝVw BZ g^r H¥${V¶m| Ho$ AÝV ‘| emÝV ¶m {Zd}X g^r agmo§ na hmdr hmo OmVm h¡& Bgr{cE ¶h H$hZm Ag§JV Zht hmoJm {H$ O¡Z gm{h˶ ‘| agamO emÝV ¶m {Zd}X h¡& 9) ào‘ Ho$ {d{dY énm| H$m {MÌU …- O¡Z An^«§e gm{h˶ ‘| ào‘ Ho$ nm±M ê$n {‘cVo h¢- {ddmh Ho$ {cE ào‘, {ddmh Ho$ ~mX ào‘, Agm‘m{OH$ ào‘, amo‘mpÊQ>H$ ào‘ Am¡a {df‘ ào‘& àW‘ àH$ma Ho$ ào‘ H$m {MÌU "H$aH§$Sw>M[aC' ‘| hþAm h¡& Xÿgao àH$ma Ho$ ào‘ H$m CXmhaU "nC‘m{g[aM[aC>' ‘| g‘wÐ Am¡a nX²‘lr Ho$ ào‘nyd©H$ {ddmh ‘| {‘cVm h¡& "OhgaM[aC>' ‘| amZr A‘¥V‘¶r H$m Hw$~‹S>o go Omo ào‘ Wm, dh Agm‘m{OH$ H$s H$mo{Q> ‘| AmVm h¡& ào‘ H$s {df‘Vm H$m ÁdcÝV CXmhaU "nC‘M[aC' ‘| amdU H$m ào‘ h¡, qH$Vw amo‘mpÊQ>H$ ào‘ H$m hr Bg gm{h˶ ‘| A{YH$ àñ’w$Q>V hþAm h¡& BgHo$ Xmo H$maU h¢ - àW‘, gm‘§VdmXr Bg ¶wJ ‘| ~hþnËZr àWm Wr, Xÿgam, Y‘© H$s ‘{h‘m ~VmZo Ho$ {cE& 1 0) JrV VËd H$s àYmZVm …- O¡Z H$[d¶m| H$s aMZmE± e¡cr, ñdê$n Am¡a cú¶ H$s Ñ{ï> go JrV H$mì¶ Ho$ A{YH$ {ZH$Q> h¡& ¶h ñdm^m{dH$ ^r h¡, ³¶mo|{H$ Jo¶Vm Bg ¶wJ H$s à‘wI {deofVm Wr& O¡Z H${d¶m| Ûmam à¶w³V N>ÝXm| ‘| c¶ Am¡a Jo¶Vm H$m ܶmZ aIm J¶m h¡& ‘§JcmMaU Ho$ A{V[a³V ñVw{V Am¡a d§XZm Bg H$mì¶ H$m Amdí¶H$ A§J h¡& N>ÝXm| ‘| g§JrV H$m nwQ> nwînXÝV Am¡a ñd¶§^y Zo {X¶m h¡& H$‹S>dH$ Ho$ N>ÝXmo H$s J{V H«$‘e: g§JrV Ho$ ñda Am¡a dmÚmo| Ho$ c¶ na hr McVr h¡& 11) Ac§H$ma -¶moOZm …- O¡Z gm{h˶ ‘| AWm©cÝH$ma Am¡a eãXmcÝH$ma XmoZm| à¶wº$ hþE h¡, na§Vw à‘wIVm AWm©cÝH$mam| H$s hr h¡& AWm©cÝH$mam| ‘| Cn‘m, ê$nH$, CËàojm, ì¶p³VaoH$, C„oI, AZÝd¶, {ZXe©Zm, {damoYm^mg, ñd^mdmop³V, ^«mpÝV, gÝXoh Am{X H$m à¶moJ g’$cVmnyd©H$ hþAm h¡& A{YH$m§e O¡Z H${d Cn‘mZ Ho$ MwZmd ‘| {deof n[aM¶ XoVo h¡& eãXmcÝH$mam| ‘| ícof, ¶‘H$, Am¡a AZwàmg H$s ~hþcVm h¡&
  33. 33. 23 12) N>ÝX-{dYmZ …- O¡Z H$mì¶ N>ÝX H$s Ñ{ï> go g‘¥Õ h¡& ñd¶§^y H¥$V "ñd¶§^yN>ÝX' Am¡a ho‘MÝÐ {da{MV "N>ÝXmo@ZwemgZ' J«ÝWm| ‘| n¶m©á g§»¶m ‘| N>ÝXmo H$s {d{eï> {ddoMZm H$s JB© h¡& O¡Z H$mì¶ ‘| H$‹S>dH$, nQ²>nXr, MVwînXr, YÎmm ~XVH$, A{hë¶, {~c{gZr, ñH$ÝXH$, Xþ~B©, amgm, Xmohm, C„mcm, gmoaR>m, MCnÚ Am{X N>ÝXmo H$m à¶moJ {‘cVm h¡& 13) cmoH$^mfm H$s à{Vð>m …- O¡Z gmYw J«m‘, ZJa-ZJa Ky‘H$a Y‘©-àMma H$aVo Wo, Bgr{cE CÝhm|Zo AnZr A{^ì¶p³V Ho$ {cE cmoH$^mfm H$m à¶moJ {H$¶m Am¡a Cgo à{Vð>m àXmZ H$s&
  34. 34. 24 Am{XH$mcrZ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ Am{XH$mc ‘o O¡Z Ed§ {gÕ gm{h˶ Y‘©{lV hmoZo Ho$ H$maU VWm amgmo gm{h˶ amO{lV hmoZo Ho$ H$maU gwa{jV ah J¶m. na§Vw Bg H$mc ‘| BZ XmoZm| H$mì¶ YmamAm| go {^Þ cmoH$ gm{h˶ H$s ^r aMZm hþB© co[H$Z dh cmoH$m{lV hmoZo go gwa{jV Z ah gH$m& AZoH$ H$maUm| go dh gm{h˶ cwá hmo J¶m& {d{^Þ cmoH$JrVmo§ Ho$ ‘mܶ‘ go cmoH$ ‘| Omo Wmo‹S>m-~hþV eof ah J¶m Cgg| BVZm Adí¶ kmV hmoVm h¡ {H$ Am{XH$mc ‘| cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ ^r cmoH$ àM{cV ahm h¡& CncãY cmoH$ gm{h˶ ‘| ""T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm'', ""~rgcXod amgmo'', ""~gÝV [dcmg'' ""amCcdoc'', ""Cp³V ì¶p³V àH$aU'', ""dU© aËZmH$a'', ""A‘ra Iwgamo H$s aMZmE±'' VWm ""{dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr'' H$mo XoIH$a VËH$mcrZ cmoH$ gm{h˶ Ho$ {df¶ ‘| AZw‘mZ cJm¶m Om gH$Vm h¡& T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm …amOñWmZ ‘| OZ-OZ H$m H$ð>hma ""T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm'' h¡ {Og‘| H$N>dmhm d§e Ho$ amOm Zc Ho$ nwÌ T>mocm Am¡a nyJc Ho$ amOm qnJc H$s ê$ndVr H$ݶm ‘madm‹S>r H$s ào‘H$Wm h¡& ¶Ú{n ‘yc H$Wm H$m gå~ÝY Eo{Vhm{gH$ ì¶p³V¶m| go h¡, {H$ÝVw amOñWmZ Ho$ cmoH$ OrdZ go Ow‹S>Zo Ho$ H$maU ¶h H$mì¶ H¥${V npíM‘r amOñWmZ ‘| A{V cmoH${චh¡& ¶h EH$ cmoH$JmWm H$mì¶ h¡ Omo amOñWmZ ‘| A˶ÝV à{gÕ h¡& amOñWmZ ‘| T>mocm Am¡a ‘madUr H$mo ào‘ Ho$ à{VH$ Ho$ ê$n ‘| ñ‘aU {H$¶m OmVm h¡& ""gÝXoe amgH$'' Ed§ ""~rgcXod amgmo'' H$s ^m±{V ¶h ^r EH$ {dahH$mì¶ h¡ {OgH$m H$Wmgma BgàH$ma h¡- ~MnZ ‘| hr ‹T>mocm Am¡a ‘madUr H$m {ddmh hmo OmVm h¡& ¶wdm hmoZo na ‘madUr AnZo ~MnZ Ho$ n{V T>mocm H$s MMm© gwZVr h¡ Vmo CgHo$ {dah ‘| ì¶mHw$c hmo OmVr h¡& dh AnZo n{V H$m nVm cJmZo Ho$ {cE H$B© g§XoedmhH$ ^oOVr h¡ co{H$Z H$moB© cm¡Q>H$a Zht AmVm& g^r g§Xoe dmhH$m| H$mo ‘madUr H$s gm¡V ‘mcdUr ‘adm XoVr h¡ Am¡a T>mocm VH$ g§Xoe nhþ±MZo Zht XoVr& AÝV ‘| ‘madUr cmoH$JrV Ho$ Jm¶H$ T>m‹T>r H$mo g§Xoe XoH$a ^oOVr h¡& dh T>mocm VH$ nhþ±MZo ‘| g’$c hmo OmVr h¡& T>m‹T>r Ho$ à¶ËZ go T>mocm Am¡a ‘madUr H$m nwZ{‘©cZ hmoVm h¡& ""T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm"" ‘| naånamJV ~mah‘mgm H$m dU©Z Zht {‘cVm& Bg‘| Ho$dc nmdg F$Vw H$m dU©Z h¡ Am¡a dh ^r {dñVma go& ""T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm'' ‘| ‘madm‹S> H$m dmñV{dH$ OrdZ à{V{~på~V hmo CR>m h¡& Bg‘| amOñWmZr OZOrdZ, àH¥${V, g‘mO, dmVmdaU, cmoH$mMma Ed§ cmoH${dídmgm| H$m O¡gm gag gOrd Am¡a ñdm^m{dH$ {MÌ C^am h¡, d¡gm AÝ¶Ì Xþc©j h¡& e¡cr H$s Ñ{ï> go ""T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm'' cmoH$JrV H$s loUr ‘| AmVm h¡& 1) ~rgcXod amgmo …{hÝXr Ho$ Am{XH$mc H$s Bg loð> aMZm Ho$ aMZmH$ma Za n[V Zmëh h¡& ¶h EH$ ào‘ H$mì¶ h¡, {Og‘| g§¶moJ-{d¶moJ Ho$ JrV Jm¶o JE h¡& Bg H¥${V ‘| AO‘oa Ho$ Mm¡hmZ amOm {dJ«hamO (~rgcXod) VWm ^moO na‘ma H$s nwÌr amO‘Vr Ho$ {ddmh, {d¶moJ Ed§ nwZ{‘©cZ H$s H$Wm gac Ed§ gag e¡cr ‘| àñVwV H$s JB© h¡& amOm ~rgcXod AnZr Zd{ddm{hVm amZr
  35. 35. 25 amO‘Vr Ho$ 춧½¶ ~mUm| go ê$ï> hmoH$a C{‹S>gm amÁ¶ Mcm OmVm h¡ VWm ~mah df© VH$ cm¡Q>H$a Zht AmVm& n{V Ho$ {d¶moJ go A˶ÝV Xþ:{IV amZr EH$ n§{S>V Ûmam AnZo n{V ~rgcXod H$mo gÝXoe ^oOVr h¡& AÝV ‘| ~rgcXod Ho$ cm¡Q> AmZo na XmoZm| H$m nwZ{‘©cZ hmo OmVm h¡& gånyU© H$Wm 120 N>ÝXmo Am¡a Mma IÊS>m| ‘| {d^º$ h¡& ~rgcXod amgmo ‘| l¥ÝJma ag Ho$ g§¶moJ Am¡a {d¶moJ XmoZm| njm| H$m ~‹S>m hr gwÝXa Ed§ öX¶J«mhr dU©Z H${d Zo àñVwV {H$¶m h¡& ào{fVn{VH$m H$s {dah ì¶ÝOZm ~‹S>r ‘m{‘©H$ ~Z JB© h¡& ~mah‘mgm dU©Z Ho$ AÝVJ©V àH¥${V H$m {MÌU ~‹T>m hr gOrd ~Z J¶m h¡& {dah H$mì¶ hmoZo Ho$ H$maU ~rgcXod amgmo ‘| g§¶moJ Ho$ ‘§gcVm nyU© {MÎmm| H$m àm¶: A^md h¡& Bg H$mì¶ H$s Zm{¶H$m amO‘Vr H$s AmË‘m {dÐmo{hUr‘Z A{^‘mZr Am¡a O~mZ àIa h¡& CZH$m M[aÌ ~‹S>m hr gOrd VWm {dcjU ~Z n‹S>m h¡& ""‘ܶ¶wJ Ho$ g‘yMo {hÝXr gm{h˶ ‘| O~mZ H$s BVZr VoO Am¡a ‘Z H$s BVZr Iar Zm{¶H$m Zht XrI n‹S>Vr h¡& ""A{^ì¶p³V H$s VmOJr Am¡a ^mJm| H$s Vrd«Vm Ho$ H$maU ¶h aMZm cmoH$‘mZg ‘| AnZm Ajw^ ñWmZ ~ZmE± hþB© h¡& 2) ~gÝV {dcmg …S>m°. ‘mVmàgmX Jwá Zo {d{^Þ à‘mU XoH$a ""~gÝV {dcmg'' H$m aMZm-H$mc 13 dr 14dr eVr Ho$ ‘ܶ H$m ‘mZm h¡& Bg H¥${V Ho$ aM{¶Vm H$m nVm Zht Mc nm¶m h¡& ""¶h EH$ A˶{YH$ gag gm{hp˶H$ H¥${V h¡ Am¡a AmYw{ZH$ ^maVr¶ Am¶©-^mfm-gm{h˶ Ho$ Am{XH$mc Ho$ B{Vhmg ‘| ~oOmo‹S> h¡&'' Bg aMZm ‘| Mm¡amgr Xmoohm| ‘| ~gÝV F$Vw Am¡a {ó¶m| na CgHo$ {dcmgnyU© à^md H$m ‘Zmohmar dU©Z hþAm h¢& Bg H$mì¶ ‘| àH¥${V Am¡a Zmar XmoZm| H$m ‘XmoÝ‘Îm ê$n l¥§Jma ag H$s Vrd« Ymam àdm{hV H$aVm h¡& S>m°. am‘Jmonmc e‘m© "{XZoe' Ho$ eãXm| ‘|- "ór-nwê$f-àH¥${V-VrZm| ‘| AOó ~‹hVr ‘XmoÝ‘ÎmVm H$m Bg H$mì¶ ‘| O¡gm dU©Z {‘cVm h¡, d¡gm ar{VH$mcrZ {hÝXr H${d ^r Zht H$a gHo$& BgH$s ^mfm gag ~«O^mfm h¡ {OgH$m {dH$mg nadVu ^{º$H$mcrZ H¥$îUH$mì¶ ‘| Am¡a ar{VH$mì¶ ‘| {XImB© XoVm h¡&'' 3) amS>cdoc …dh JÚ-nÚ {‘{lV Måny-H$mì¶ H$s àmMrZV‘ {hÝXr H¥${V h¡& BgH$m aM{¶Vm amo‹T>m Zm‘H$ H${d ‘mZm OmVm h¡& {dÛmZm| Zo BgH$m aMZm-H$mc Xgdt eVmãXr ‘mZm h¡& BgH$s aMZm ""amCc'' Zm{¶H$m Ho$ ZI{eI dU©Z Ho$ àg§J ‘| hþB© h¡& Amaå^ ‘| H${d Zo amCc Ho$ gm¢X¶© H$m dU©Z nÚ ‘| {H$¶m h¡ Am¡a {’$a JÚ H$m à¶moJ {H$¶m J¶m h¡& Bg H¥${V go hr {hÝXr ‘| ZI{eI dU©Z naånam Amaå^ hmoVr h¡& BgH$s ^mfm ‘| {hÝXr H$s gmV ~mo{c¶m| Ho$ eãX {‘cVo h¡, {OZ‘| amOñWmZr àYmZ h¡& H${d Zo {df¶ dU©Z ~‹S>r VÝ‘¶Vm go {H$¶m h¡& Zm{¶H$m amCc H$m l¥ÝJma AmH$f©U go ^am hþAm h¡& dh ghO ê$n ‘| {OVZr gwÝXa h¡ CVZr hr ghO-gwÝXa CgH$s g‚mm ^r h¡& Bg gm¡ÝX¶© Ho$ AZwHy$c hr CgH$s ^md-Xem ^r h¡& 3) C{º$-ì¶{º$ àH$aU …Bg J«ÝW H$s aMZm Xm‘moXa e‘m© Zo H$s h¡& 12 dt eVmãXr H$m ¶h EH$ ‘hËdnyU© ""ì¶mH$aU J«ÝW'' ‘mZm OmVm h¡, Bg‘| ~Zmag Am¡a Amgnmg Ho$ àXoem| H$r VËH$mcrZ g§ñH¥${V Am¡a ^mfm Am{X na n¶m©á àH$me ‹S>mcm J¶m h¡& BgH$s ^mfm Ho$ Aܶ¶Z
  36. 36. 26 go VËH$mcrZ JÚ Am¡a nÚ XmoZmo| e¡{c¶m| H$s {hÝXr ^mfm ‘| VËg‘ nXmdcr Ho$ à¶moJ H$s ~‹T>Vr hþB© àd¥{Îm H$m nVm McVm h¡& AV: {hÝXr ^mfm Ho$ Eo{Vhm{gH$ Aܶ¶Z ‘| ¶h J«ÝW A˶ÝV ghm¶H$ {gÕ hþAm h¡& 4) dU©aËZmH$a …‘¡{Wcr {hÝXr ‘| a{MV JÚ H$m ¶h EH$ ‘hËdnyU© J«ÝW h¡& BgH$m coIH$ Á¶mo{VeoIa R>mHw$a Zm‘H$ ‘¡{Wc H${d Wm& S>m°. hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr Ho$ ‘VmZwgma BgH$s aMZm Mm¡Xhdr eVmãXr ‘| hþB© hmoJr& ¶h EH$ eãXH$moeZw‘m J«ÝW h¡, naÝVw gm¡ÝX¶© J«m{hUr à{V^m ^r Cg‘| {Z{hV h¡& CgH$s ^mfm ‘| H${dËd, Ac§H$m[aH$Vm, VWm eãXm| H$s VËg‘Vm H$s àd¥{Îm¶m± {‘cVr h¡& {hÝXr JÚ Ho$ {dH$mg ‘| "amS>cdoc' Ho$ níMmV ""dU©aËZmH$a'' H$m ¶moJXmZ ^r H$‘ Zht H$hm Om gH$Vm& 5) A‘ra Iwgamo H$s aMZmE± …Am{XH$mc ‘| {eï> hmñ¶ VWm {dZmoX ‘ycH$ aMmZmE± I‹S>r ~mocr ‘| àñVwV H$aZo H$m lo¶ A‘ra Iwgamo H$mo h¡& BZH$m dmñV{dH$ Zm‘ A~wc hgZ Wm& Am{XH$mc ‘| I‹S>r~mocr H$mo H$mì¶ H$s ^mfm ~ZmZo dmco A‘ra Iwgamo àW‘ H${d h¡& BÝhm|Zo {hÝXÿ-‘wpñc‘m| Ho$ ~rM EH$Vm ñWm{nV H$aZo H$m gd©àW‘ à¶mg {H$¶m Wm& Iwgam| AZoH$ ^mfmAm| Ho$ {dÛmZ Wo& VwH$s©, Aa~r, ’$magr ~«O Am¡a I‹S>r~mocr na BÝh| g‘mZ A{YH$ma àmá Wm& ‘Zmoa§OZ Ho$ ‘mܶ‘ go cmoH$-ì¶dhma H$s {ejm XoZm hr CZHo$ gm{h˶ H$m CÔoí¶ Wm& H${dVm Ho$ amOml¶ ‘| ncZo Ho$ H$maU gm‘mݶ OZVm go CgH$m gå~ÝY Qy>Q> MwH$m Wm& Iwgamo Ho$ à¶ËZ go dh {’$a go OZgm‘mݶ Ho$ g‘rn Am J¶r& BZHo$ {df¶ ‘| S>m°. am‘Hw$‘ma d‘m© H$m H$WZ gQ>rH$ OmZ n‹S>Vm h¡- ""MmaUH$mcrZ aº$a§{OV B{Vhmg ‘| O~ npíM‘ Ho$ MmaUm| H$s q‹S>Jc H$[dVm CÕV ñdam| ‘o§ Jy±O ahr Wr Am¡a à{VÜd{Z Am¡a ^r CJ« Wr& nyd© ‘| JmoaIZmW H$s Jå^ra Ym{‘©H$ àd¥{Îm AmË‘emgZ H$s {ejm Xo ahr Wr, Cg H$mc ‘| A‘ra Iwgamo H$s {dZmoXnyU© àd¥{Îm {hÝXr gm{h˶ Ho$ B{Vhmg H$s EH$ ‘hmZ {Z{Y h¡& ‘Zmoa§OZ Am¡a a{gH$Vm H$m AdVma ¶h H${d A‘ra Iwgamo AnZr ‘m¡{cH$Vm Ho$ H$maU ñ‘aUr¶ ahoJm&'' Iwgamo Ûmam a{MV gm¡ Ho$ cJ^J aMZmE± ‘mZr OmVr h¢, {H$ÝVw CncãY aMZmAm| H$s g§»¶m ~rg-~mB©g go A{YH$ Zht h¡& {OZ‘| ’y$Q>H$a nho{c¶m±, ‘wH$[a¶m±, Xmo gwIZo‹ ‹T>H$mogcm Am{X à{gÕ h¡& BZHo$ Hw$N> CXmhaU àñVwV h¢ nho{c¶m± - 1) ""EH$ Ymc ‘mo{c¶m| go ^am, g~Ho$ Cna Am¢Ym Yam& Mmam| Va’$ dh Wmc {’$a¡, EH$ ^r ‘moVr ZrMo Z {Jao &&'' (AmH$me) 2) ""EH$ H$hmZr ‘¢ ~hÿ±, gwZ co Vy ‘oao nwV& {~Zm nam| Ho$ dh C‹S> J¶m, ~m±Y Jco ‘| gyV&&'' (nV§J) ‘wI[a¶m± - 1) ""dh Amdo V~ emXr hmo¶, Cg {~Z XÿOm Am¡a Z H$mo¶& ‘rR>o cmJo ~mHo$ ~moc, ³¶m| g{I gmOZ Z g{I T>moc&&'' 2) ""O~ ‘oao ‘pÝXa ‘| Amdo, gmoVo ‘wPH$mo AmZ OJmdo& n‹T>V {’$aV dh {dah Ho$ AÀN>a g{I gmOZ Zm g{I ‘ÀN>a&&''
  37. 37. 27 Xmo gwIZo …- 1) nmZ g‹S>m ³¶m|? Kmo‹S>m A‹S>m ³¶mo|? (’o$am Z Wm) 2) ~«m÷U ߶mgm ³¶m|? JYm CXmgm ³¶m|? (cmoQ>m Z Wm) ‹T>H$mogcm …- ""Ira nH$mB© OVZ go, MIm© {X¶m Mcm¶& Am¶m Hw$Îmm Im J¶m Vw ~¡R>r ‹T>moc ~Om¶&&'' 6) {dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr …{~hma Ho$ Xa^§Jm {Oco ‘| {dgnr Jm±d ‘| OÝ‘o {dÚmn{V {hÝXr Ho$ Am{XJr{VH$ma ‘mZo OmVo h¢& ‘Ywa JrVm| Ho$ aM{¶Vm hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BÝh| A{^Zd O¶Xod Ho$ Zm‘ go ^r OmZm OmVm h¡& {dÚmn{V ‘hmZ npÊS>V Wo& CÝhm|Zo AnZr aMZmE± g§ñH¥$V, AdhÅ> Am¡a ‘¡{Wcr ^mfm ‘| {cIr& {hÝXr gm{h˶ ‘| {dÚmn{V H$s AewÊU H$s{V© H$m AmYma CZHo$ VrZ J«ÝW h¡H$s{V©cVm, H$s{V©nVmH$m Am¡a nXmdcr& {dÚmn{V nXmdcr ‘| CÝhm|Zo amYm-H¥$îU àU¶crcmAm| H$m A˶ÝV öX¶hmar dU©Z {H$¶m h¡& Bg gå~ÝY ‘| BZHo$ AmXe© H${d O¶Xod aho h¢& O¶Xod Ho$ JrV-Jmo{dÝX go à^m{dV hmoH$a CÝhm|Zo nXmdcr H$m àU¶Z {H$¶m h¡& nXmdcr ‘| BZH$m l¥§Jmar ê$n nyU©V: C^a Am¶m h¡& d¡go Vmo l¥§Jma Ho$ XmoZmo njm|-g§¶moJ Am¡a {d¶mooJ H$m dU©Z Bg J«ÝW ‘| CncãY hmoVm h¡ na Omo VÝ‘¶Vm g§¶moJ l¥§Jma Ho$ {MÌU ‘| {XImB© XoVr h¡, dh {d¶moJ nj ‘| Zht& dñVwV: {dÚmn{V g§¶moJ nj Ho$ g’$c Jm¶H$ h¡ Am¡a ào‘ Ho$ na‘ nmaIr h¡& {dÚmn{V AnZo amYm-H¥$îU gå~ÝYr ‘Ywa JrVm| Ho$ {cE {hÝXr gm{h˶ ‘| gX¡d A‘a ah|Jo& cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ H$s gm‘mݶ {deofVmE± …Am{XH$mcrZ gm{h˶ ‘| amgmo gm{h˶ VWm Ym{‘©H$ gm{h˶ Ho$ gmW-gmW gm{h˶ H$s EH$ Aݶ Ymam ^r àdm{hV hmoVr {XImB© XoVr h¡, {Ogo cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ Ho$ Zm‘ go OmZm OmVm h¡& amOml¶ Am¡a Y‘m©l¶ go gd©Wm {d‘wI ¶h gm{h˶ cmoH$ml¶ ‘| nwpî‘V Ed§ n„{dV hþAm h¡& Bg gm{h˶ H$s gm‘mݶ {deofVmE± {ZåZ{c{IV h¡ …1) ñdmÝV:gwIm¶ g¥OZ …Am{XH$mc H$m cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ Z Vmo amgmo gm{h˶ Ho$ g‘mZ amOmAm|, gm‘ÝVm| H$s draVm H$m dU©Z H$aZo Ho$ {cE {cIm J¶m h¡, Z Ym{‘©H$ gm{h˶ Ho$ g‘mZ {H$gr {d{eï> Y‘©-‘V Ho$ àMma Ho$ {cE {cIm J¶m h¡& ¶h H${d Ho$ ^mdm| H$m ghO A{dîH$ma h¡& Mmho dh amo‹S>m H${d H$m "amCcdoc' hmo ¶m {dÚmn{V O¡go amO{lV H${d H$m nXmdcr gm{h˶ hmo ¶m "‹T>mocm ‘mam am Xÿhm', "~gÝV [dcmg' O¡go Jw‘Zm‘ H$[d¶m| H$m gm{h˶ hmo BgH$s A{^ì¶p³V na H$moB© ~mø-à¶moOZ H$m ~mooP Zhr h¡& ¶h gm{h˶ BZ H${d¶m| H$m ImÝV:gwIm¶ g¥OZ h¡& 2) cmoH$‘mZg go Amßc{dV gm{h˶ …cmoH$VËd Ho$ g§ñne© go ImÝV: gwIm¶ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ A˶m{YH$ gag Am¡a à^mdH$mar ~Z J¶m h¡& amgmo gm{h˶ ‘| Ohm± amOmAm|-gm‘ÝVm| Ho$ ‘Z Ho$ hmg-C„mg H$m {MÌU h¡, dhm± Bg H$mì¶ ‘| cmoH$-‘mZg ‘| CR>Zo dmcr hmg-C„mg H$s Va§Jo h¡& ¶hm± H$s
  38. 38. 28 amO‘Vr ‹T>mocm, ¶m amYm ‘| gm‘mݶ Zmar AnZo ^mdm| H$mo à{V{~på~V nmVr h¡& Mmho dh ^md g§¶mooJ Ho$ hmo ¶m {d¶moJ Ho$& ê$R>o n{V Ho$ C[‹S>gm Mco OmZo Ho$ ~mX amO‘Vr O~ ¶h H$hZo cJVr h¡ {H$ - ""ho ‘hoe! ‘wPo ór H$m OÝ‘ Vw‘Zo ³¶m| {X¶m? XoZo Ho$ {cE Vmo Vwåhmao nmg Am¡a ^r AZoH$ OÝ‘ Wo&'' Vmo Cg‘| Ho$dc amO‘Vr H$s hm doXZm H$s A{^ì¶p³V Zhr hmooVr, ~pëH$ dmgZm{^^yV nwê$f Ho$ ñdmW© Am¡a H$m‘wH$Vm‘¶r a{gH$Vm H$s {eH$ma VËH$mcrZ ha Zmar H$s AmË‘m H$m H$ê$U H«$ÝXZ Ed§ {MËH$ma A{^춺$ hmoVm h¡& "‹T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm' H$s "‘mê$' H$s doXZm ^r VËH$mcrZ Zmar doXZm H$m hr EH$ Am¡a ñWa h¡& BZ H¥${V¶m| ‘| d{U©V ào‘ ‘hO EH$ earamH${f©V dmgZm Zhr h¡ Am¡a Aearar H$mën{ZH$ ^r Zht h¡, dh EH$ cm¡{H$H$ ^md h¡ {Og‘| ‘Z Am¡a eara A{^Þ h¡& amgmo Am¡a Ym{‘©H$ gm{h˶ VËH$mcrZ amOZ¡{VH$ Ym{‘©H$ n[adoe H$s CnO h¡ Am¡a cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ VËH$mcrZ OZ-g‘mO H$s gm§ñH¥${VH$ J[a‘m H$mo A{^춳V H$aVm h¡& 3) g§¶mooJ Am¡a {d¶moJ H$m gag {MÌU …Am{XH$mcrZ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ ‘| l¥ÝJma Ho$ XmoZmo njmo§ - g§¶moJ Am¡a {d¶moJ H$m gag {MÌU hþAm h¡& "dgÝV-{dcmg' Am¡a "{dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr' H$m g§¶moJ l¥ÝJma ‘mÌ Bg H$mc H$mo hr à^m{dV Zht H$aVm ~pëH$ nadVu H$mì¶ H$mo ^r n¶m©á ‘mÌm ‘| à^m{dV H$aVm h¡& "dg§V {dcmg' ‘| dg§V Am¡a {ó¶m| na CgHo$ {dcmgnyU© à^md H$m ‘Zmohar {MÌU hþAm h¡ dh AÝ¶Ì Xþc©j h¡& {dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr ‘| g§¶moJ l¥§Jma H$s g^r H«$sS>mAm| -^mdm| H$m AZwnZ {MÌU hþAm h¡& {dÚmn{V g§¶moJ l¥§Jma Ho$ H${d h¡& g§¶mooJ l¥§Jma H$m BVZm ~oOmo‹S> {MÌU ar{VH$mc ‘| ^r Xþc©^ h¡& cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ H$m g§¶moJ l¥§Jma {OVZm nwï> h¡, Cggo H$ht A{YH$ {d¶moJ l¥§Jma g‘¥Õ h¡& ~rgcXod amgmo, ‹T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm {dah-doXZm Ho$ ghO Am¡a ñdm^m{dH$ CÀN>dmg h¡& 4) ZI-{eI dU©Z - naånam H$m àU¶Z …"amS>cdoc' Am{XH$mcrZ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ H$s EH$ ‘hËdnyU© aMZm ‘mZr OmVr h¡ Omo JÚ-nÚ {‘{lV Måny H$mì¶ h¡& Bgr aMZm go {hÝXr ‘| ZI-{eI dU©Z H$s naånam H$m Amaå^ hmoVm h¡& ~rgcXod amgmo, dgÝV {dcmg, ‹T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm Am¡a {dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr ‘| Bg naånam H$m {dH$mg XoIm Om gH$Vm h¡& ¶hm± EH$ ~mV {deof ñ‘a{U¶ h¡ {H$ amCc, amO‘{V Am¡a ‘mê$ H$m ZI-{eI dU©Z H$ht ^r CÔm‘ ê$n ‘| Zht hþAm h¡& BZ Zm{¶H$mAm| Ho$ gm¡ÝX¶© dU©Z ‘| Hw$crZm J¥hUr H$s ‘¶m©Xm H$mo A~m{YV aIm J¶m h¡& 5) àH¥${V {MÌU …Am{XH$mcrZ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ ‘| àH¥${V H$m {MÌU Amcå~Z Am¡a CÔrnZ XmoZm| ê$nm| ‘| n¶m©á ‘mÌm ‘| nm¶m OmVm h¡& l¥§Jma Am¡a àH¥${V H$m [aíVm AQy>Q> h¡& "~rgcXod amgmo' ‘| ~mah ‘mgm| VWm F$VwAm| Ho$ àmH¥${VH$ {MÌ g§¶moJ Am¡a {d¶moJ ‘| CÔrnZ H$m H$m¶© H$aVo h¡& {dah H$s {d{^Þ XemAm| Ho$ dU©Z ‘| {~O{c¶m±, ~mXc {à¶{d{hV Zm{¶H$m H$s {d¶moJ Xem Ho$ dU©Z ‘| Mma Mm±X cJm XoVo h¡& "~gÝV {dcmg' ‘| àH¥${V Am¡a Zmar XmoZm| H$m ‘XmoÝ‘Îm
  39. 39. 29 ñdê$n l¥ÝJma ag H$s Vrd« Ymam àdm{hV H$aVm h¡& 6) Jo¶Vm Ed§ g§JrVmË‘H$Vm …^md-àdUVm ñd¶§ Jo¶ hmoVr h¡& Bgr{cE Bg Ymam H$s cJ^J g^r aMZmAm| ‘| Jo¶Vm Am¡a g§JrVmË‘H$Vm nm¶r OmVr h¡& Zmar Ho$ ghO l¥§Jma go coH$a CgHo$ ‘mZ{gH$ gm¡ÝX¶© VH$ nhþ±MZo H$s àd¥{Îm Am{XH$mcrZ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ ‘| àñ’w${Q>V hþB© h¡& ZI-{eI dU©Z, {dah Ho$ {d{^Þ ê$n, {da{hUr Zm{¶H$m Ûmam {à¶V‘ Ho$ nmg gÝXoe àofU ¶o cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ Ho$ {d{^Þ Am¶m‘ h¡& BgrH$maU Jo¶Vm Am¡a g§JrVmË‘H$Vm H$m g‘mdoe Bg gm{h˶ ‘| hþAm h¡& 7) ~mocr ^mfm H$m n[aîH$ma …Am{XH$mcrZ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ ‘| VËH$mcrZ H$mì¶-^mfm H$s Anojm OZ~mo{c¶m| H$m à¶moJ hþAm h¡& Bg Ymam H$s àmMrZV‘² H¥${V "amS>cdoc' go ‘mÌ cm¡{H$H$ gm{h˶ H$s naånam hr ewê$ Zhr hmoVr ~pëH$ ~mocMmc H$s ^mfm H$m gm{h˶ Ho$ {cE à¶moJ H$aZo H$s EH$ naånam ^r ewê$ hmo OmVr h¡& ~rgcXod amgmo, ‹T>mocm ‘mê$ am Xÿhm Am¡a {dÚmn{V H$s nXmdcr ‘| ^r VËH$mcrZ ñdrH¥$V H$mì¶-^mfm go hQ>H$a ~moc-Mmc H$s ^mfm H$m gag Am¡a geº$ à¶moJ hþAm h¡&
  40. 40. 30 amgmo H$mì` {hÝXr gm{hË` Ho$ Amapå^H$ H$mb _| àmßV J«ÝWm| Ho$ AÜ``Z go `h ~mV ñnï> hmo OmVr h¡ {H$ Bg `wJ Ho$ A{YH$m§e J«ÝWm| _| 'amgmo' eãX Zm_ Ho$ AÝV _| OwS>m hþAm h¡, Omo 'H$mì`' eãX H$m n`m©`dmMr h¡& 'amgmo' eãX H$s ì`wËn{Îm Ho$ gå~ÝY _| {dÛmZm| _| _V^oX h¡& àW_ «|$M B{VhmgH$ma Jmgm© X Vmgr Zo Bg eãX H$s ì`wËn{Îm 'amOgy`' `k go _mZr h¡& Am. am_MÝÐ ewŠb Bg eãX H$s ì`wËn{Îm 'agm`U' go _mZVo h¡& CZH$m H$hZm h¡ {H$- ''Hw$N> bmoJ Bg eãX H$m gå~ÝY 'ahñ`' go OmoS>Vo h¡& na '~rgbXod amgmo' _| H$mì` Ho$ AW© _| 'agm`U' eãX ~ma-~ma Am`m h¡& AV: h_mar g_P _| Bgr 'agm`U' eãX go hmoVo hmoVo 'amgmo' hmo J`m h¡& S>m°. _moVrbmb _oZ[a`m Zo Bg eãX H$m gå~ÝY 'ahñ`' go _mZm h¡& lr ZamoÎm_ ñdm_r Bg eãX H$s ì`wËn{Îm 'a{gH$' go _mZVo h¡& àmMrZ amOñWmZr _| 'a{gH$' H$m AW©-H$Wm-H$mì` _mZm OmVm Wm& `hr eãX H«$_e: 'amgC', Am¡a 'amgmo' hmo J`m& `h _V h_| gË` Ho$ H$m$s ZOXrH$ nhþ±Mm XoVm h¡& àYmZ én go H$Wm-J«ÝWm| Ho$ {bE hr 'amgm', 'amgH$', 'amgmo' eãX H$m à`moJ hmoVm Am`m h¡& Hw$N> {dÛmZ Bg eãX H$m gå~ÝY 'amg' `m 'amgH$' go OmoS>Vo hþE BgH$m AW©-Üd{Z, H«$sS>m, {dbmg, Z¥Ë`, JO©Z Am¡a l¥ÝIbm Am{X XoVo h¡& Am. hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr amgH$ H$mo EH$ eãX ^r _mZVo h¢ Am¡a H$mì`-^oX ^r& CZHo$ AZwgma Omo H$mì` amgH$ N>ÝX _| {bIo OmVo Wo, do hr {hÝXr _| 'amgmo' H$hbmZo bJo& Eogm àVrV hmoVm h¡ {H$ Cg H$mb H$s H${dVm Ho$ gå~ÝY _| AZoH$ àH$ma Ho$ N>ÝXm| H$m à`moJ hþAm H$aVm Wm& `o H$mì` M[aÌàYmZ h¡& BZ M[aÌm| H$mo H$mì` _| ~m±YZo Ho$ {bE hr Bg N>ÝX H$m à`moJ hmoVm ahm h¡& dñVwV: amgmo H$mì` _ybV: amgH$ N>ÝX H$m g_wÀM` h¡& An^«§e _| CZVrg _mÌm H$m EH$ amgm `m amg N>ÝX àMm{bV Wm& Eogo AZoH$ N>ÝXm| Ho$ JmZ H$s naånam H$Xm{MV bmoH$JrVm| _| ahr hmoJr& EH$agVm Z aho, Bg{bE ~rM ~rM _| Xygao N>ÝX OmoS>Zo Am¡a JmZo H$s àWm ^r Cg g_` go Mbr hmoJr& 'gÝXoeamgH$' BgH$m gwÝXa Z_yZm h¡& nhbo amgmo H$mì` N>ÝX _| {bIo J`o& H$mbmÝVa _| BZ_| ~Xbmd Am`m hmoJm {OZHo$ $bñdén Jo` _wŠVH$ N>ÝXm| H$m Cn^moJ {H$`m OmZo bJm& '~rgbXod amgmo' EH$ Eogm hr ào_ àYmZ H$mì` h¡ {Og_| amgHo$Va N>ÝX H$m à`moJ hþAm h¡& AmJo MbH$a H$mì` H$m `h én H$mo_b ^mdZmAm| Ho$ A{V[aŠV AÝ` ^mdm| H$s A{^ì`{ŠV H$m dmhH$ ~Zm& ào_ ^md Ho$ gmW BZ_| dram| H$s JmWmË_H$ MoVZmAm| H$mo ñWmZ {_bm& Bg Vah Bg H$mb Ho$ amgmo H$mì` _| EH$ gmW {damo{MV Am¡a l¥§Jmamo{MV ^mdZmAm| Ho$ dU©Z gwb^Vmnyd©H$ {_b OmVo h¡& amgmo gm{hË` _ybV: gm_§Vr-ì`dñWm, àH¥${V Am¡a g§ñH$ma go CnOm hþAm gm{hË` h¡, {Ogo 'Xoer^mfm H$mì`' Ho$ Zm_ go ^r OmZm OmVm h¡& Bg gm{hË` Ho$ aMZmH$ma {hÝXy amOnyV amOml` _| ahZodmbo MmaU `m ^mQ> Wo& g_mO _| CZH$m ñWmZ Am¡a gå_mZ Wm, Š`m|{H$ CZH$m OwS>md grYo amOm go hmoVm Wm& `o MmaU `m ^mQ> H$bmnmaIr Am¡a H$bmaMZm _| {ZnwU hmoVo Wo& `o Hw$ebVm go `wÜX H$aZm ^r OmZVo Wo Am¡a `wÜX ewé hmoZo na AnZr goZm H$s AJwdmB© {déXmdbr Jm- JmH$a {H$`m H$aVo Wo& `o amOmAm|, Aml`XmVmAm|, dra nwéfm| VWm g¡{ZH$m| Ho$ dramo{MV `wÜX KQ>ZmAm| H$mo Ho$db ~‹T>m> MT>mH$a hr Zht, CgH$s `WmW©naH$ pñW{V`m| Ed§ gÝX^m] H$mo ^r ~marH$s Ho$ gmW {M{ÌV H$aVo Wo& dramo{MV ^mdZmAm| Ho$ dU©Z Ho$
  41. 41. 31 {bE BÝhm|Zo 'amgH$ `m amgmo' N>ÝX H$m à`moJ {H$`m Wm, Š`m|{H$ `h N>ÝX Bg ^mdZm H$mo gåào{fV H$aZo Ho$ {bE AZwHy$b Wm& Bg{bE BZHo$ Ûmam a{MV H$mì` H$mo 'amgmo H$mì`' H$hm J`m& amgmo H$mì` naånam Ho$ à{V{Z{Y J«ÝW Bg àH$ma h¡1. Iw_mU amgmo :amgmo H$mì` naånam H$s àmapå^H$ aMZmAmo§ _| 'Iw_mUamgmo' H$m ñWmZ gdm}n[a h¡& BgH$m gd©àW_ CëboI {edqgh g|Ja H$s H¥${V '{edqgh gamoO' _| {_bVm h¡& BgHo$ aM{`Vm Xbn{V {dO` h¢& Am. am_MÝÐ ewŠb BgH$mo Zdt eVmãXr (gZ² 812 B©.) H$s aMZm _mZVo h¢& Bg_| amOñWmZ Ho$ {MVm¡S>-Zaoe Iw_U (Iwå_mU) {ÛVr` Ho$ `wÜXm| H$m gOrd dU©Z {H$`m J`m h¡& Bg J«ÝW ^r àm_m{UH$ hñV{b{IV à{V nyZm-g§J«hmb` _| gya{jV h¡& Iw_mU amgmo 'nm±M hOma N>ÝXmo§ H$m EH$ {demb J«ÝW h¢& Bg_| g_H$mbrZ amOmAmo§ Ho$ Amngr {ddmXm| Ho$ ~mX hþE EH$Vm Ho$ gmW Aã~m{g`m d§e Amb_m_y§ Ibr$m Am¡a Iw_mU Ho$ gmW hþE `wÜX H$m {MÌU {_bVm h¡& Bg H¥${V H$m à_wI à{VnmÚ amOm Iw_mU H$m M[aÌmÝH$Z H$aZm h¡ CZHo$ M[aÌ Ho$ Xmo àñWmZ {~ÝXw h¢-EH$ `wÜX Am¡a Xygam ào_& Iw_mU Ho$ ào_ H$mo Xem©Zo Ho$ {bE hr H¥${VH$ma Zo {ddmh, Zm{`H$m ^oX, fQ²>F$VwdU©Z H$m {dñV¥V dU©Z {H$`m h¡ Omo a_Ur` h¡& AÝ` amgmo J«ÝWm| Ho$ g_mZ Bg_| ^r l¥ÝJma Am¡a dra -XmoZm| ag àYmZ aho h¢& Bg_| Xmohm, gd¡`m, H${dÎm Am{X {d{dY N>ÝXm| H$m gwMmI à`moJ hþAm h¡& BgH$s ^mfm amOñWmZr {hÝXr ahr h¡ H$mì` gm¡ÝX¶© ^mfme¡br H$s Ñ{ï>g| ¶h EH$ gab Am¡a g’$b H$mì¶ _mZm OmVm h¡& BgH$s gag,gab ^mfm e¡br H$m CXmhaU Ñï>ì` h¡ '' {nC {MVm¡S> Z Am{dD$, gmdU nhbr VrO& Omod¡ dmQ> {dahrUr, {IU {IU AUd¡ IrO&& gÝXogmo {nC gm{h~m, nmN>mo {$[a` Z Xoh& n§N>r Kmë`m qnOa|, Ny>Q>U amo gÝXoh&&'' 2. na_mb amgmo :amgmo H$mì` naånam H$s à_wI H¥${V Ho$ én _| 'na_mb amgmo' H$m Zm_ ^r {b`m OmVm h¡& Bgo 'AmëhmIÊS>' ^r H$hVo h¡& Am. am_MÝÐ ewŠb Zo Bgo '~¡boS>' VWm S>m°. am_Hw$_ma d_m© Zo Bgo 'draJmWm' H$mì` H$hm h¡& Hw$N> {dÛmZ Bgo '{dH$gZerb bmoH$ _hmH$mì`' _mZVo h¡& BgH$s OZVm _| AË`{YH$ bmoH${à`Vm H$mo XoI S>m°. {J«`g©Z Zo Bgo dV©_mZ `wJ H$m gdm©{YH$ bmoH${à` _hmH$mì` _mZm Wm& A^r VH$ BgH$s àm_m{UH$ à{V CnbãY Zht hþB© h¡& BgHo$ aM{`Vm OJ{ZH$ h¡, Omo _hmo~m Ho$ Zaoe na_{X© Xod do Am{lV Wo& aMZmH$ma Zo Bg H$mì` _| _hmo~m Xoe Ho$ Xmo bmoH$-à{gÜX dram|- Amëhm Am¡a D$Xb Ho$ dra M[aÌ H$mo `WmW© T>§J go àñVwV {H$`m h¡& BZHo$ Ûmam {H$`o J`o {d{^ÝZ `wÜXm| H$m ~S>r CÎmoOH$ ^mfm _| dU©Z Bg J«ÝW H$s {deofVm h¡& Bg _| Amëhm N>ÝX (dra N>ÝX) H$m à`moJ hþAm h¡& BgH$s ^mfm ~¡gdmS>r h¡& `h H$mì` {e{jV g_mO H$s Anojm A{e{jV `m AÜX©-{e{jV g_mO _| hr A{YH$ bmoH${à` ahm h¡& `h gX¡d Jm`H$m| H$s naånam Ûmam hr {dH${gV hmoVm ahm h¡& `h EH$ Jo`-H$mì` h¡& BgH$s _yb àoaUm d¡`{ŠVH$ dra ^mdZm, ñdm{^_mZ, XX© Am¡a
  42. 42. 32 gmhgnyU© ^mdm| H$m dU©Z H$aZo H$s ahr h¡''~mah ~[ag h¡ Hy$Hw$a {OE±, Am¡ Voah b¡ {OE± {g`ma& ~[ag AR>mah N>Ìr {OE±, AmJo OrdZ H$mo {YŠH$ma&&'' gXm Va¡`m Z ~Z y$b¡, _mamo gXm Z gmdZ hmo`& ñdJ© _S>¡`m g~ H$mSy>± H$mo, `mamo gXm Z Ord¡ H$mo`&&'' 3. hå_ra amgmo :'hå_ra amgmo' A^r VH$ EH$ ñdV§Ì H¥${V Ho$ én _| CnbãY Zht hmo gH$m h¡& An^«§e Ho$ 'àmH¥$V n¢Jb_²' Zm_H$ EH$ g§J«h-J«ÝW _| g§J«hrV hå_ra {df`H$ 8 N>ÝXm| H$mo XoI Am. ewŠbOr Zo Bgo EH$ ñdV§Ì J«ÝW _mZ {b`m Wm& àM{bV YmaUm Ho$ AZwgma Bg H¥${V Ho$ aM{`Vm emS>©J:Ya _mZo OmVo h¡& naÝVw Hw$N> nXm| _| 'OÁOb ^Uh' dmŠ`m§e XoI n§. amhþb ñmm§H¥$Ë`m`Z Zo Bg_| OÁOb Zm_H$ {H$gr H${d H$s aMZm _mZm h¡& Am. hOmaràgmX {ÛdoXr H$m H$hZm h¡ {H$ 'àmH¥$V n¢Jb_²' H$s Q>rH$m _| ^r BÝh| OÁOb H$s hr C{ŠV _mZm J`m h¡; AV: BgHo$ aM{`Vm emS>©J:Ya Z hmoH$a OÁOb h¡& Bg H${d _| hå_ra Xod Am¡a AëbmCÔrZ Ho$ `wÜX H$m dU©Z {H$`m J`m h¡& BgH$m aMZmH$mb 13 dt eVr _mZm OmVm h¡, Š`m|{H$ hå_ra Xod gZ² 1300 B©. _o§ AëbmCÔrZ H$s MT>mB© _| _mao J`o Wo& Bg H¥${V H$m CÔoí` hå_ra Xod H$s draVm H$m dU©Z H$aZm h¡& 4. {dO`nmb amgmo :{_l~ÝYwAm| Zo AnZo J«ÝW '{_l~ÝYw {dZmoX' _| Bg naånam H$s EH$ aMZm '{dO`nmb amgmo' H$m CëboI {H$`m h¡& BgHo$ aM{`Vm Zëhqgh ^mQ> _mZo OmVo h¡& BgH$m aMZmH$mb gZ² 1298 B©. _mZm OmVm h¡& S>m°. amOZmW e_m© Ho$ AZwgma Bg H¥${V _| {dO`nmb qgh Am¡a ~§J amOm Ho$ `wÜX H$m dU©Z {H$`m J`m h¡& S>m°. amO~br nmÊS>o` Ho$ AZwgma Bg aMZm _| aMZmH$ma Zo amOm {dO`nmb qgh Am¡a ~§J amOm Ho$ ~rM hþE `wÜXm| H$mo gOrd én _| {M{ÌV {H$`m h¡& Bg H¥${V _| Ho$db 42 N>ÝX hr CnbãY h¡& 5. ~rgbXod amgmo :'~rgbXod amgmo' Bg H$mì`-naånam H$s nm±Mdr H¥${V h¡& BgH$s aMZm''~mah go ~amoÎmam _§Pm[a& OoR> ~Xr Zd_r ~w{Ydmar'' Ho$ AZwgma Ooð> dXr Zd_r, {XZ ~wYdma gZ² 1155 B©. (g§db 1212) _| hþB© Wr& BgHo$ aM{`Vm Zan{V Zmëh _mZo OmVo h¢, Omo AO_oa Ho$ Mm¡hmU amOm ~rgbXod ({dJ«hamO MVwW©) Ho$ g_H$mbrZ Wo& Bg_| AO_oa Zaoe {dJ«hamO, CnZm_ ~rgbXod Am¡a CZH$s nËZr, amOm ^moO H$s nwÌr amO_Vr Ho$ {ddmh, H$bh, {dah Am¡a {_bZ Ho$ _m{_©H$ {MÌ A§{H$V {H$`o J`o h¡& Bg J«ÝW H$s g~go {Zambr {deofVm `h h¡ {H$ `h {hÝXr Ho$ AÝ` amgm| J«ÝWm| Ho$ g_mZ draVm H$m àepñVJm`Z Z hmoH$a H$mo_b ào_ Ho$ _Ywa, _m{_©H$ Am¡a g§doXZerb én H$m A_a {MÌ h¡& {dàbå^-l¥ÝJma BgH$m àYmZ dÊ`© {df` h¡& Mma IÊS>m| _| {d^m{OV gdm gm¡ N>ÝXm| H$m `h N>moQ>m gm H$mì` àU` gådoXZm H$m ÐdUerb, öX`J«mhr én àñVwV H$aVm h¡& BgHo$ àW_ IÊS> _| ~rgbXod Am¡a

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