Composition og Blood


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Composition og Blood

  1. 1. Composition and function ofBLOOD
  2. 2. . Introduction A. The internal environment is regulated by thefluids which bathe the cells: 1. Interstitial fluid (IF) is found outside cellsand in between the cells 2. Lymph inside lymph vessels 3. Blood within blood vessels B. Hematology is the science which studies bloodand blood disorders
  3. 3. Blood Fluid connective tissue Functions include  Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes  Regulating pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids  Restricting fluid loss at injury sites  Defending the body against toxins and pathogens  Regulating body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat
  4. 4. The Composition of Whole Blood Figure 19.1a
  5. 5. Composition of Blood Total Blood Volume : 5-6 liters (8% of body weight or 80ml/kg body weight) Specific Gravity : 1050-1060 Viscosity : 4-5 times that of water Ph : 7.4 (.05); it is alkaline in nature In acidosis Ph of blood falls below 7.38 and in alkalosis Ph is more than 7.42
  6. 6. Figure 10.1
  7. 7. Composition of Blood Blood contains plasma & formed elements(cells) Cells represent 45% of blood volume Hematocrit represents the percentage of red blood cells in blood (called Packed Cell Volume (PCV) 1. A lower than normal hematocrit is representative of a condition known as anemia 2. An abnormally high hematocrit is representative of polycythemia Hematocrit “ for males: 40%-54% (47%); Females: 38%-46% (42%)
  8. 8. Blood Components: Figure 16-1: Composition of blood
  9. 9. Blood Components: Cells Erythrocytes  Red Blood Cells (RBC)  O2 & CO2 transport White Blood Cells (WBC)  Immune defense  Phagocytosis Platelets: clotting
  10. 10. Blood Cells
  11. 11. Plasma is a clear ,straw colored fluidportion of blood & represents 55% ofthe total blood volume. It contains 91% water and 9% solids( 1% inorganic molecules ,8% organicmolecules)
  12. 12.  The major inorganic  Of 8% organic molecules molecules are Na+  7% are Plasma ,Ca++, Hco3-, K+ , Mg++, Cu++, Po4-3 Proteins  (6.4-8.3 gm%)  1% are Non Protein Nitrogenous substances(urea,Uric acid,Creatinine,Xanth in)
  13. 13. . plasma composition 1. 92% water 2. 9% solutes a. Proteins -albumins; globulins (alpha, beta, gamma); fibrinogen b. Nutrients c. Enzymes d. Hormones e. Respiratory gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) f. Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) g. Waste products (urea, uric acid, creatinine, H+, etc)
  14. 14. Figure 10.1
  15. 15. Plasma Water Plasma proteins  Albumin (60%)  Osmotic Gradient  Globulins (Ab)  Fibrinogen Other solutes  Electrolytes Serum = Plasma – Clotting factors  Nutrients  Trace Elements  Dissolved gases
  16. 16. Serum = Plasma – Clotting factors
  17. 17. • Plasma Proteins• Albumin• Globulin- α₁, α₂, β₁, β₂, γ• FibrinogenOrigin:Liver- Albumin & FibrinogenPlasma cells, lymphocytes, tissue macrophages- Globulin
  18. 18. Plasma proteins concentration 65 –80 g  l (6.4-8.3gm%) simple or conjugated (glycoproteins, lipoproteins) separation:  a) salting-out methods  albumin, globulins, fibrinogen  b) electrophoresis  albumin, globulin 1, 2, ,  fractions: -   2 1 albumin +
  19. 19. Plasma proteins more than 90% are synthesized in the liver Albumins  55% of plasma proteins  Responsible for viscosity and osmotic pressure of blood  3-5 gm% (average 4.8gm%)
  20. 20. Plasma Proteins Globulin is 38%of plasma Proteins 2-3 gm%(average 2.3gm%) 13% α globulin: 0.79-0.84 gm% 14% β globulin : 0.78-0.81 gm% 11% γ globulin: 0.66-0.70 gm% A/G ratio :1.7-1 7% Fibrinogen: 0.3 gm% Prothrombin: 40 mg %
  21. 21.  Globulins  ~38% of plasma proteins  Include immunoglobins which attack foreign proteins and pathogens  Include transport globulins which bind ions, hormones and other compounds Fibrinogen  Converted to fibrin during clotting  Removal of fibrinogen leaves serum
  22. 22. Functions of Plasma Proteins Exert Osmotic Pressure : Contribution to Blood Viscosity Role in Coagulation of Blood Role in Defense Mechanism of Body Role in maintaining acid –base balance of body Transport Function
  23. 23. Exert osmotic pressure Plasma proteins can’t cross capillary membrane so exert colloidal osmotic pressure of about 25mmHg on capillary membrane. 80% of COP is contributed by Albumin COP plays an important role in exchange of water between blood & tissue fluid At arterial end of capillaries, due to high Hydrostatic Pressure than COP there occurs filtration of fluid out in tissues At venous end of capillaries due to lower HP than COP there occur absorption of fluid from tissues in to vessels
  24. 24. Contribution to Blood Viscosity Shape of Plasma Proteins Greatly contribute to Viscosity of Blood. Fibrinogen & globulins are main contributors due to their asymetrical shape The Blood Viscosity plays an important role in the maintenance of Blood Pressure by providing resistance to flow of blood .
  25. 25. Role in Coagulation of Blood The Fibrinogen ,Prothrombin & other coagulation proteins present in plasma play important role in the coagulation of Blood. Whenever ,there is injury to blood vessels, the fibrinogen is converted in to fibrin which form blood clot
  26. 26. Role in Defense The Gamma globulins are anti bodies which plays an important role in the immune system meant for defense of the body against the micro-organisms
  27. 27. Acid-Base Balance Plasma Proteins acts as Buffers Contribute for 15% buffering capacity of Blood PP are amphhoteric in nature means can combine with acids and bases. In Acidic Ph the NH2 group of the proteins acts as base & accept proton & is converted to NH4 In Alkaline Ph the COOH group of the protein act as acid & can donate a proton & thus become COO-
  28. 28. Transport Function PP can combine easily with many substances & play an essential role in their transport CO2 is transported by PP in the form of carb- amino compounds Thyroxine- is transported by an alpha – globuline called TBP Cortisol is transported by transcortin(mucoprotein)
  29. 29. Transport Function Vitamins A,D & E are transported by the high and low density lipoproteins. Bilirubin is transported with Albumin & also with fractions of alpha globulin. Drugs are transported with Albumin Ca++ of plasma is 50% bound to proteins for transport. Cu is bound to ceruloplasmin(alpha globulin) for transport Free HB in the vessels is bound to haptoglobin & is carried to reticulo-endothelial system
  30. 30. Causes of Albumin Deficiency Liver diseases (cirrhosis) – decrease in the ratio of albumin to globulins Protein malnutrition Excessive excretion by kidneys (renal disease) Mutation causing analbuminemia (affects splicing)