Class vaccines and sera

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Class vaccines and sera

  1. 1. Dr. RAGHU PRASADA M S MBBS,MD ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY SSIMS & RC. 1
  2. 2.  Immunity  Antigen-capsules ,cell walls ,toxins viral capsids, flagella, pollen  Vaccines -  Serum  Antiserum –rabbit, horse ,goat  Serum sickness  Toxoids
  3. 3.  Vaccines are immunobiological substances designed to produce specific protection against a given disease. It stimulates production of protective antibody and other immune mechanism
  4. 4.  HISTORY-  SMALL POX-1798  RABIES-1885  TYPHOID -1896  CHOLERA- 1896  PLAGUE-1897  POLIO-1955  HEPATITIS-1981
  5. 5.  LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES  Bacterial –bcg, typhoid oral ,plague  Viral –polio yellow fever, measles  -rubella ,mumps ,influenza  KILLED VACCINES  Bacterial -Typhoid ,cholera ,Pertusis ,plague  Viral –rabies, salk(polio),  Influenza, hepatitis B,  Japanese encephalitis
  6. 6. LIVE ATTENUATED  Vaccine dose-low  Antibody persistence-long  Booster needed - infrequently  Revaccination –possible  Latency-possible  Oncogenicity- KILLEDVACCINES  High  Short  Frequently  None  None  none Vaccines
  7. 7.  Birth –BCG +OPV+ hepatitis B  At 6 wks-DPT+OPV+HEP-B  At 10, 14 wks-DPT+OPV  At 6 months-hepatitis B  At 9 months-measles  At 15 months-DPT+OPV+MMR  At 4-5 years-DT-DA+OPV  At 10 years-TT+TAB/Ty21a  At 16 years-TT
  8. 8.  Attenuated live vaccine  Bovine strain of M. Tuber  0.5-1mg -1-2.5*107 colony forming units injected intradermally  Partial immunity  C/I—compromised host defence
  9. 9.  -produces active immunity  Induces systemic and intestinal immunity  Simultaneous administration to all infants  -avoid in vomiting and diarrhea  INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE  -primary immunization in adults  persons with compromised immune system
  10. 10.  -prepared in yeast cells by recombinant DNA technique  three injections -0,1,6 months  -20µg in 1ml amp  HEPATITIS A VACCINE  -human diploid cell culture  0.5ml im  Booster after 6 months
  11. 11.  Mixed antigen – of Alum pptd toxoids of tetanus and diptheria available in 0.5 ml ampule and 5 ml vial  -diptheria toxoid is modified diptheria exotoxin adsorbed on to aluminium hydroxide  Tetanus toxoid is formalin treated exotoxin of tetanus baccilli  Diptheria toxoid 25 lf  Tetanus toxoid -5 lf  Pertusis-20000 million in 0.5 ml ampule
  12. 12.  Measles vaccine is grown on chick embryo ,- single dose 1000 TCID  Mumps virus is grown in chick embryo ,single dose -5000 tcid . Clinical disease may occur if vaccinated after infection  Live attenuated rubella virus wistar RA 27/3 strain 1000 tcid per 0.5 ml inj  Single dose sc over deltoid >12 mnth children  C/I- pregnancy
  13. 13. Antirabies vaccine carbolised (semple) Neural tissue vaccine(NTV), is 5% suspension of sheep brain tissue Need 14 daily painful large volume 2-5ml injectn- PCEV(purified chick embryo cell vaccine) Rabies virus grown on chick fibroblast and inactivated by B-propiolactone available as 2.5IU in 1ml amp Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) Lyophilised inactivated rabies virus – Grown on human diploid cell culture Purified vero cell vaccine (PVRV)
  14. 14.  Sterile suspension -1ml containing 1*109 S.typhi and 7.5*108 each of S.paratyphi A and B dose- 0.5ml sc TYPHOID TY21A ORAL VACCINE  Newer live oral typhoid vaccine prepared from Ty21a attenuated strain of S.typhi  Absence of enzyme uridine di phosphate galactose 4 epimerase invasion of gut is prevented  Provides both cellular and humoural immunity
  15. 15.  From horse-tetanus antitoxin(ATS) -gas gangrene antitoxin(AGB) -diphtheria antitoxin (ADS) Immunoglobins (humans ) Normal human gamma globin Anti-D immunoglobin Tetanus immunoglobin Rabies immunoglobin Hepatitis B immunoglobin
  16. 16.  Concentrated Ig from human plasma  Viral hepatitis A and B ,measles ,mumps  Agammaglobulinemia  Augument the response to antibodies  ANTI-D IMMUNOGLOBULIN  Tetanus immunoglobulin indicated for prophylaxis in non-immunised persons  Better than equine ATS  Treatment of clinical tetanus  Dose-3000-6000 IU
  17. 17.  Anti rabies serum(ARS)  Equine Rabies Immunoglobin (ERIG)  after suspected exposure  Dose- 40 IU /kg infiltration around the wound RABIES IMMUNOGLOBULIN HUMAN  -superior to ARS with longer t1/2  Passive protection is needed as active immunity takes 2 weeks
  18. 18.  Antibodies to hep-b surface antigen  Better than human gamma globulin  Used in individuals acutely exposed to Hbs Ag positive blood, and Hep B vaccine should be given concurrently  dose -1000-2000 IU 32-48 IU/kg
  19. 19.  Serum polyvalent  purified, concentrated equine globulins in lyophilised vials, each ml neutralises  0.6 mg of Std. cobra venom  0.6 mg of Std. Russel viper  0.45 mg of Std. saw scaled viper  0.45 mg of Std. Krait

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